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Spreadsheet::WriteExceUseroContributed PerlSpreadsheet::WriteExcel::Formula(3)

NAME
       Formula - A class for generating	Excel formulas

SYNOPSIS
       See the documentation for Spreadsheet::WriteExcel

DESCRIPTION
       This module is used by Spreadsheet::WriteExcel. You do not need to use
       it directly.

NOTES
       The following notes are to help developers and maintainers understand
       the sequence of operation. They are also	intended as a pro-memoria for
       the author. ;-)

       Spreadsheet::WriteExcel::Formula	converts a textual representation of a
       formula into the	pre-parsed binary format that Excel uses to store
       formulas. For example "1+2*3" is	stored as follows: "1E 01 00 1E	02 00
       1E 03 00	05 03".

       This string is comprised	of operators and operands arranged in a
       reverse-Polish format. The meaning of the tokens	in the above example
       is shown	in the following table:

	   Token   Name	       Value
	   1E	   ptgInt      0001   (stored as 01 00)
	   1E	   ptgInt      0002   (stored as 02 00)
	   1E	   ptgInt      0003   (stored as 03 00)
	   05	   ptgMul
	   03	   ptgAdd

       The tokens and token names are defined in the "Excel Developer's	Kit"
       from Microsoft Press. "ptg" stands for Parse ThinG (as in "That lexer
       can't grok it, it's a parse thang.")

       In general the tokens fall into two categories: operators such as
       "ptgMul"	and operands such as "ptgInt". When the	formula	is evaluated
       by Excel	the operand tokens push	values onto a stack. The operator
       tokens then pop the required number of operands off of the stack,
       perform an operation and	push the resulting value back onto the stack.
       This methodology	is similar to the basic	operation of a reverse-Polish
       (RPN) calculator.

       Spreadsheet::WriteExcel::Formula	parses a formula using a
       "Parse::RecDescent" parser (at a	later stage it may use a "Parse::Yapp"
       parser or "Parse::FastDescent").

       The parser converts the textual representation of a formula into	a
       parse tree. Thus, "1+2*3" is converted into something like the
       following, "e" stands for expression:

		    e
		  / | \
		1   +	e
		      /	| \
		    2	*   3

       The function "_reverse_tree()" recurses down through this structure
       swapping	the order of operators followed	by operands to produce a
       reverse-Polish tree. In other words the formula is converted from in-
       fix notation to post-fix. Following the above example the resulting
       tree would look like this:

		    e
		  / | \
		1   e	+
		  / | \
		2   3	*

       The result of the recursion is a	single array of	tokens.	In our example
       the simplified form would look like the following:

	   (1, 2, 3, *,	+)

       The actual return value contains	some additional	information to help in
       the secondary parsing stage:

	   (_num, 1, _num, 2, _num, 3, ptgMul, ptgAdd, _arg, 1)

       The additional tokens are:

	   Token       Meaning
	   _num	       The next	token is a number
	   _str	       The next	token is a string
	   _ref2d      The next	token is a 2d cell reference
	   _ref3d      The next	token is a 3d cell reference
	   _range2d    The next	token is a 2d range
	   _range3d    The next	token is a 3d range
	   _funcV	The next token is a function
	   _arg	       The next	token is the number of args for	a function
	   _class      The next	token is a function name
	   _vol	       The formula contains a voltile function

       The "_arg" token	is generated for all lists but is only used for
       functions that take a variable number of	arguments.

       The "_class" token indicates the	start of the arguments to a function.
       This allows the post-processor to decide	the "class" of the ref and
       range arguments that the	function takes.	The class can be reference,
       value or	array. Since function calls can	be nested, the class variable
       is stored on a stack in the @class array. The class of the ref or range
       is then read as the top element of the stack $class[-1].	When a
       "_funcV"	is read	it pops	the class value.

       Certain Excel functions such as RAND() and NOW()	are designated as
       volatile	and must be recalculated by Excel every	time that a cell is
       updated.	Any formulas that contain one of these functions has a
       specially formatted "ptgAttr" tag prepended to it to indicate that it
       is volatile.

       A secondary parsing stage is carried out	by "parse_tokens()" which
       converts	these tokens into a binary string. For the "1+2*3" example
       this would give:

	   1E 01 00 1E 02 00 1E	03 00 05 03

       This two-pass method could probably have	been reduced to	a single pass
       through the "Parse::RecDescent" parser. However,	it was easier to
       develop and debug this way.

       The token values	and formula values are stored in the %ptg and
       %functions hashes. These	hashes and the parser object $parser are
       exposed as global data. This breaks the OO encapsulation, but means
       that they can be	shared by several instances of Spreadsheet::WriteExcel
       called from the same program.

       Non-English function names can be added to the %functions hash using
       the "function_locale.pl"	program	in the "examples" directory of the
       distro. The supported languages are: German, French, Spanish,
       Portuguese, Dutch, Finnish, Italian and Swedish.	These languages	are
       not added by default because there are conflicts	between	functions
       names in	different languages.

       The parser is initialised by "_init_parser()". The initialisation is
       delayed until the first formula is parsed. This eliminates the overhead
       of generating the parser	in programs that are not processing formulas.
       (The parser should really be pre-compiled, this is to-do	when the
       grammar stabilises).

AUTHOR
       John McNamara jmcnamara@cpan.org

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright MM-MMX, John McNamara.

       All Rights Reserved. This module	is free	software. It may be used,
       redistributed and/or modified under the same terms as Perl itself.

perl v5.32.0			  2013-11-0Spreadsheet::WriteExcel::Formula(3)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | NOTES | AUTHOR | COPYRIGHT

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