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IP(3)		      User Contributed Perl Documentation		 IP(3)

NAME
       NetAddr::IP - Manages IPv4 and IPv6 addresses and subnets

SYNOPSIS
	 use NetAddr::IP qw(
	       Compact
	       Coalesce
	       Zeros
	       Ones
	       V4mask
	       V4net
	       netlimit
	       :aton	       DEPRECATED
	       :lower
	       :upper
	       :old_storable
	       :old_nth
	       :rfc3021
	       :nofqdn
	 );

	 NOTE: NetAddr::IP::Util has a full complement of network address
	       utilities to convert back and forth between binary and text.

	       inet_aton, inet_ntoa, ipv6_aton,	ipv6_ntoa
	       ipv6_n2x, ipv6_n2d inet_any2d, inet_n2dx,
	       inet_n2ad, inetanyto6, ipv6to4

       See NetAddr::IP::Util

	 my $ip	= new NetAddr::IP '127.0.0.1';
		or if you prefer
	 my $ip	= NetAddr::IP->new('127.0.0.1);
	       or from a packed	IPv4 address
	 my $ip	= new_from_aton	NetAddr::IP (inet_aton('127.0.0.1'));
	       or from an octal	filtered IPv4 address
	 my $ip	= new_no NetAddr::IP '127.012.0.0';

	 print "The address is ", $ip->addr, " with mask ", $ip->mask, "\n" ;

	 if ($ip->within(new NetAddr::IP "127.0.0.0", "255.0.0.0")) {
	     print "Is a loopback address\n";
	 }

				       # This prints 127.0.0.1/32
	 print "You can	also say $ip...\n";

       * The following four functions return ipV6 representations of:

	 ::					  = Zeros();
	 FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF  = Ones();
	 FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF::	  = V4mask();
	 ::FFFF:FFFF				  = V4net();

	 Will also return an ipV4 or ipV6 representation of a
	 resolvable Fully Qualified Domanin Name (FQDN).

       ###### DEPRECATED, will be remove in version 5 ############

	 * To accept addresses in the format as	returned by
	 inet_aton, invoke the module as:

	 use NetAddr::IP qw(:aton);

       ###### USE new_from_aton	instead	##########################

       * To enable usage of legacy data	files containing NetAddr::IP objects
       stored using the	Storable module.

	 use NetAddr::IP qw(:old_storable);

       * To compact many smaller subnets (see:
       "$me->compact($addr1,$addr2,...)"

	 @compacted_object_list	= Compact(@object_list)

       * Return	a reference to list of "NetAddr::IP" subnets of	$masklen mask
       length, when $number or more addresses from @list_of_subnets are	found
       to be contained in said subnet.

	 $arrayref = Coalesce($masklen,	$number, @list_of_subnets)

       * By default NetAddr::IP	functions and methods return string IPv6
       addresses in uppercase.	To change that to lowercase:

       NOTE: the AUGUST	2010 RFC5952 states:

	   4.3.	Lowercase

	     The characters "a", "b", "c", "d",	"e", and "f" in	an IPv6
	     address MUST be represented in lowercase.

       It is recommended that all NEW applications using NetAddr::IP be
       invoked as shown	on the next line.

	 use NetAddr::IP qw(:lower);

       * To ensure the current IPv6 string case	behavior even if the default
       changes:

	 use NetAddr::IP qw(:upper);

       * To set	a limit	on the size of nets processed or returned by
       NetAddr::IP.

       Set the maximum number of nets beyond which NetAddr::IP will return an
       error as	a power	of 2 (default 16 or 65536 nets). Each 2**16 consumes
       approximately 4 megs of memory. A 2**20 consumes	64 megs	of memory, A
       2**24 consumes 1	gigabyte of memory.

	 use NetAddr::IP qw(netlimit);
	 netlimit 20;

       The maximum netlimit allowed is 2**24. Attempts to set limits below the
       default of 16 or	above the maximum of 24	are ignored.

       Returns true on success,	otherwise "undef".

INSTALLATION
       Un-tar the distribution in an appropriate directory and type:

	       perl Makefile.PL
	       make
	       make test
	       make install

       NetAddr::IP depends on NetAddr::IP::Util	which installs by default with
       its primary functions compiled using Perl's XS extensions to build a C
       library.	If you do not have a C complier	available or would like	the
       slower Pure Perl	version	for some other reason, then type:

	       perl Makefile.PL	-noxs
	       make
	       make test
	       make install

DESCRIPTION
       This module provides an object-oriented abstraction on top of IP
       addresses or IP subnets that allows for easy manipulations.  Version
       4.xx of NetAddr::IP will	work with older	versions of Perl and is
       compatible with Math::BigInt.

       The internal representation of all IP objects is	in 128 bit IPv6
       notation.  IPv4 and IPv6	objects	may be freely mixed.

   Overloaded Operators
       Many operators have been	overloaded, as described below:

       Assignment ("=")
	   Has been optimized to copy one NetAddr::IP object to	another	very
	   quickly.

       "->copy()"
	   The assignment ("=")	operation is only put in to operation when the
	   copied object is further mutated by another overloaded operation.
	   See overload	SPECIAL	SYMBOLS	FOR "use overload" for details.

	   "->copy()" actually creates a new object when called.

       Stringification
	   An object can be used just as a string. For instance, the following
	   code

		   my $ip = new	NetAddr::IP '192.168.1.123';
		   print "$ip\n";

	   Will	print the string 192.168.1.123/32.

       Equality
	   You can test	for equality with either "eq" or "==". "eq" allows
	   comparison with arbitrary strings as	well as	NetAddr::IP objects.
	   The following example:

	       if (NetAddr::IP->new('127.0.0.1','255.0.0.0') eq	'127.0.0.1/8')
		  { print "Yes\n"; }

	   will	print out "Yes".

	   Comparison with "=="	requires both operands to be NetAddr::IP
	   objects.

	   In both cases, a true value is returned if the CIDR representation
	   of the operands is equal.

       Comparison via >, <, >=,	<=, <=>	and "cmp"
	   Internally, all network objects are represented in 128 bit format.
	   The numeric representation of the network is	compared through the
	   corresponding operation. Comparisons	are tried first	on the address
	   portion of the object and if	that is	equal then the NUMERIC cidr
	   portion of the masks	are compared. This leads to the
	   counterintuitive result that

		   /24 > /16

	   Comparison should not be done on netaddr objects with different
	   CIDR	as this	may produce indeterminate - unexpected results,	rather
	   the determination of	which netblock is larger or smaller should be
	   done	by comparing

		   $ip1->masklen <=> $ip2->masklen

       Addition	of a constant ("+")
	   Add a 32 bit	signed constant	to the address part of a NetAddr
	   object.  This operation changes the address part to point so	many
	   hosts above the current objects start address. For instance,	this
	   code:

	       print NetAddr::IP->new('127.0.0.1/8') + 5;

	   will	output 127.0.0.6/8. The	address	will wrap around at the
	   broadcast back to the network address. This code:

	       print NetAddr::IP->new('10.0.0.1/24') + 255;

	       outputs 10.0.0.0/24.

	   Returns the the unchanged object when the constant is missing or
	   out of range.

	       2147483647 <= constant >= -2147483648

       Subtraction of a	constant ("-")
	   The complement of the addition of a constant.

       Difference ("-")
	   Returns the difference between the address parts of two NetAddr::IP
	   objects address parts as a 32 bit signed number.

	   Returns undef if the	difference is out of range.

	   (See	range restrictions on Addition above)

       Auto-increment
	   Auto-incrementing a NetAddr::IP object causes the address part to
	   be adjusted to the next host	address	within the subnet. It will
	   wrap	at the broadcast address and start again from the network
	   address.

       Auto-decrement
	   Auto-decrementing a NetAddr::IP object performs exactly the
	   opposite of auto-incrementing it, as	you would expect.

   Serializing and Deserializing
       This module defines hooks to collaborate	with Storable for serializing
       "NetAddr::IP" objects, through compact and human	readable strings. You
       can revert to the old format by invoking	this module as

	 use NetAddr::IP ':old_storable';

       You must	do this	if you have legacy data	files containing NetAddr::IP
       objects stored using the	Storable module.

   Methods
       "->new([$addr, [	$mask|IPv6 ]])"
       "->new6([$addr, [ $mask]])"
       "->new_no([$addr, [ $mask]])"
       "->new_from_aton($netaddr)"
       new_cis and new_cis6 are	DEPRECATED
       "->new_cis("$addr $mask)"
       "->new_cis6("$addr $mask)"
	   The first two methods create	a new address with the supplied
	   address in $addr and	an optional netmask $mask, which can be
	   omitted to get a /32	or /128	netmask	for IPv4 / IPv6	addresses
	   respectively.

	   The third method "new_no" is	exclusively for	IPv4 addresses and
	   filters improperly formatted	dot quad strings for leading 0's that
	   would normally be interpreted as octal format by NetAddr per	the
	   specifications for inet_aton.

	   new_from_aton takes a packed	IPv4 address and assumes a /32 mask.
	   This	function replaces the DEPRECATED :aton functionality which is
	   fundamentally broken.

	   The last two	methods	new_cis	and new_cis6 differ from new and new6
	   only	in that	they except the	common Cisco address notation for
	   address/mask	pairs with a space as a	separator instead of a slash
	   (/)

	   These methods are DEPRECATED	because	the functionality is now
	   included in the other "new" methods

	     i.e.  ->new_cis('1.2.3.0 24')
		   or
		   ->new_cis6('::1.2.3.0 120')

	   "->new6" and	"->new_cis6" mark the address as being in ipV6 address
	   space even if the format would suggest otherwise.

	     i.e.  ->new6('1.2.3.4') will result in ::102:304

	     addresses submitted to ->new in ipV6 notation will
	     remain in that notation permanently. i.e.
		   ->new('::1.2.3.4') will result in ::102:304
	     whereas new('1.2.3.4') would print	out as 1.2.3.4

	     See "STRINGIFICATION" below.

	   $addr can be	almost anything	that can be resolved to	an IP address
	   in all the notations	I have seen over time. It can optionally
	   contain the mask in CIDR notation.

	   prefix notation is understood, with the limitation that the range
	   specified by	the prefix must	match with a valid subnet.

	   Addresses in	the same format	returned by "inet_aton"	or
	   "gethostbyname" can also be understood, although no mask can	be
	   specified for them. The default is to not attempt to	recognize this
	   format, as it seems to be seldom used.

	   To accept addresses in that format, invoke the module as in

	     use NetAddr::IP ':aton'

	   If called with no arguments,	'default' is assumed.

	   If called with an empty string as the argument, returns 'undef'

	   $addr can be	any of the following and possibly more...

	     n.n
	     n.n/mm
	     n.n.n
	     n.n.n/mm
	     n.n.n.n
	     n.n.n.n/mm		   32 bit cidr notation
	     n.n.n.n/m.m.m.m
	     loopback, localhost, broadcast, any, default
	     x.x.x.x/host
	     0xABCDEF, 0b111111000101011110, (a	bcd number)
	     a netaddr as returned by 'inet_aton'

	   Any RFC1884 notation

	     ::n.n.n.n
	     ::n.n.n.n/mmm	   128 bit cidr	notation
	     ::n.n.n.n/::m.m.m.m
	     ::x:x
	     ::x:x/mmm
	     x:x:x:x:x:x:x:x
	     x:x:x:x:x:x:x:x/mmm
	     x:x:x:x:x:x:x:x/m:m:m:m:m:m:m:m any RFC1884 notation
	     loopback, localhost, unspecified, any, default
	     ::x:x/host
	     0xABCDEF, 0b111111000101011110 within the limits
	     of	perl's number resolution
	     123456789012  a 'big' bcd number (bigger than perl	likes)
	     and Math::BigInt

	   A Fully Qualified Domain Name which returns an ipV4 address or an
	   ipV6	address, embodied in that order. This previously undocumented
	   feature may be disabled with:

		   use NetAddr::IP::Lite ':nofqdn';

	   If called with no arguments,	'default' is assumed.

	   If called with an empty string as the argument, returns 'undef'

       "->broadcast()"
	   Returns a new object	referring to the broadcast address of a	given
	   subnet. The broadcast address has all ones in all the bit positions
	   where the netmask has zero bits. This is normally used to address
	   all the hosts in a given subnet.

       "->network()"
	   Returns a new object	referring to the network address of a given
	   subnet. A network address has all zero bits where the bits of the
	   netmask are zero. Normally this is used to refer to a subnet.

       "->addr()"
	   Returns a scalar with the address part of the object	as an IPv4 or
	   IPv6	text string as appropriate. This is useful for printing	or for
	   passing the address part of the NetAddr::IP object to other
	   components that expect an IP	address. If the	object is an ipV6
	   address or was created using	->new6($ip) it will be reported	in
	   ipV6	hex format otherwise it	will be	reported in dot	quad format
	   only	if it resides in ipV4 address space.

       "->mask()"
	   Returns a scalar with the mask as an	IPv4 or	IPv6 text string as
	   described above.

       "->masklen()"
	   Returns a scalar the	number of one bits in the mask.

       "->bits()"
	   Returns the width of	the address in bits. Normally 32 for v4	and
	   128 for v6.

       "->version()"
	   Returns the version of the address or subnet. Currently this	can be
	   either 4 or 6.

       "->cidr()"
	   Returns a scalar with the address and mask in CIDR notation.	A
	   NetAddr::IP object stringifies to the result	of this	function.
	   (see	comments about ->new6()	and ->addr() for output	formats)

       "->aton()"
	   Returns the address part of the NetAddr::IP object in the same
	   format as the "inet_aton()" or "ipv6_aton" function respectively.
	   If the object was created using ->new6($ip),	the address returned
	   will	always be in ipV6 format, even for addresses in	ipV4 address
	   space.

       "->range()"
	   Returns a scalar with the base address and the broadcast address
	   separated by	a dash and spaces. This	is called range	notation.

       "->prefix()"
	   Returns a scalar with the address and mask in ipV4 prefix
	   representation. This	is useful for some programs, which expect its
	   input to be in this format. This method will	include	the broadcast
	   address in the encoding.

       "->nprefix()"
	   Just	as "->prefix()", but does not include the broadcast address.

       "->numeric()"
	   When	called in a scalar context, will return	a numeric
	   representation of the address part of the IP	address. When called
	   in an array contest,	it returns a list of two elements. The first
	   element is as described, the	second element is the numeric
	   representation of the netmask.

	   This	method is essential for	serializing the	representation of a
	   subnet.

       "->bigint()"
	   When	called in scalar context, will return a	Math::BigInt
	   representation of the address part of the IP	address. When called
	   in an array context,	it returns a list of two elements, The first
	   element is as described, the	second element is the Math::BigInt
	   representation of the netmask.

       "->wildcard()"
	   When	called in a scalar context, returns the	wildcard bits
	   corresponding to the	mask, in dotted-quad or	ipV6 format as
	   applicable.

	   When	called in an array context, returns a two-element array. The
	   first element, is the address part. The second element, is the
	   wildcard translation	of the mask.

       "->short()"
	   Returns the address part in a short or compact notation.

	     (ie, 127.0.0.1 becomes 127.1).

	   Works with both, V4 and V6.

       "->canon()"
	   Returns the address part in canonical notation as a string.	For
	   ipV4, this is dotted	quad, and is the same as the return value from
	   "->addr()".	For ipV6 it is as per RFC5952, and is the same as the
	   LOWER CASE value returned by	"->short()".

       "->full()"
	   Returns the address part in FULL notation for ipV4 and ipV6
	   respectively.

	     i.e. for ipV4
	       0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:127.0.0.1

		  for ipV6
	       0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000

	   To force ipV4 addresses into	full ipV6 format use:

       "->full6()"
	   Returns the address part in FULL ipV6 notation

       "->full6m()"
	   Returns the mask part in FULL ipV6 notation

       "$me->contains($other)"
	   Returns true	when $me completely contains $other. False is returned
	   otherwise and "undef" is returned if	$me and	$other are not both
	   "NetAddr::IP" objects.

       "$me->within($other)"
	   The complement of "->contains()". Returns true when $me is
	   completely contained	within $other.

	   Note	that $me and $other must be "NetAddr::IP" objects.

       C->is_rfc1918()>
	   Returns true	when $me is an RFC 1918	address.

	     10.0.0.0	   -   10.255.255.255  (10/8 prefix)
	     172.16.0.0	   -   172.31.255.255  (172.16/12 prefix)
	     192.168.0.0   -   192.168.255.255 (192.168/16 prefix)

       "->is_local()"
	   Returns true	when $me is a local network address.

		   i.e.	   ipV4	   127.0.0.0 - 127.255.255.255
	     or		   ipV6	   === ::1

       "->splitref($bits,[optional $bits1,$bits2,...])"
	   Returns a reference to a list of objects, representing subnets of
	   "bits" mask produced	by splitting the original object, which	is
	   left	unchanged. Note	that $bits must	be longer than the original
	   mask	in order for it	to be splittable.

	   ERROR conditions:

	     ->splitref	will DIE with the message 'netlimit exceeded'
	       if the number of	return objects exceeds 'netlimit'.
	       See function 'netlimit' above (default 2**16 or 65536 nets).

	     ->splitref	returns	undef when C<bits> or the (bits	list)
	       will not	fit within the original	object.

	     ->splitref	returns	undef if a supplied ipV4, ipV6,	or NetAddr
	       mask in inappropriately formatted,

	   bits	may be a CIDR mask, a dot quad or ipV6 string or a NetAddr::IP
	   object.  If "bits" is missing, the object is	split for into all
	   available addresses within the ipV4 or ipV6 object (	auto-mask of
	   CIDR	32, 128	respectively ).

	   With	optional additional "bits" list, the original object is	split
	   into	parts sized based on the list. NOTE: a short list will
	   replicate the last item. If the last	item is	too large to for what
	   remains of the object after splitting off the first parts of	the
	   list, a "best fits" list of remaining objects will be returned
	   based on an increasing sort of the CIDR values of the "bits"	list.

	     i.e.  my $ip = new	NetAddr::IP('192.168.0.0/24');
		   my $objptr =	$ip->split(28, 29, 28, 29, 26);

	      has split	plan 28	29 28 29 26 26 26 28
	      and returns this list of objects

		   192.168.0.0/28
		   192.168.0.16/29
		   192.168.0.24/28
		   192.168.0.40/29
		   192.168.0.48/26
		   192.168.0.112/26
		   192.168.0.176/26
		   192.168.0.240/28

	   NOTE: that /26 replicates twice beyond the original request and /28
	   fills the remaining return object requirement.

       "->rsplitref($bits,[optional $bits1,$bits2,...])"
	   "->rsplitref" is the	same as	"->splitref" above except that the
	   split plan is applied to the	original object	in reverse order.

	     i.e.  my $ip = new	NetAddr::IP('192.168.0.0/24');
		   my @objects = $ip->split(28,	29, 28,	29, 26);

	      has split	plan 28	26 26 26 29 28 29 28
	      and returns this list of objects

		   192.168.0.0/28
		   192.168.0.16/26
		   192.168.0.80/26
		   192.168.0.144/26
		   192.168.0.208/29
		   192.168.0.216/28
		   192.168.0.232/29
		   192.168.0.240/28

       "->split($bits,[optional	$bits1,$bits2,...])"
	   Similar to "->splitref" above but returns the list rather than a
	   list	reference. You may not want to use this	if a large number of
	   objects is expected.

       "->rsplit($bits,[optional $bits1,$bits2,...])"
	   Similar to "->rsplitref" above but returns the list rather than a
	   list	reference. You may not want to use this	if a large number of
	   objects is expected.

       "->hostenum()"
	   Returns the list of hosts within a subnet.

	   ERROR conditions:

	     ->hostenum	will DIE with the message 'netlimit exceeded'
	       if the number of	return objects exceeds 'netlimit'.
	       See function 'netlimit' above (default 2**16 or 65536 nets).

       "->hostenumref()"
	   Faster version of "->hostenum()", returning a reference to a	list.

	   NOTE: hostenum and hostenumref report zero (0) useable hosts	in a
	   /31 network.	This is	the behavior expected prior to RFC 3021. To
	   report 2 useable hosts for use in point-to-point networks, use
	   :rfc3021 tag.

		   use NetAddr::IP qw(:rfc3021);

	   This	will cause hostenum and	hostenumref to return two (2) useable
	   hosts in a /31 network.

       "$me->compact($addr1, $addr2, ...)"
       "@compacted_object_list = Compact(@object_list)"
	   Given a list	of objects (including $me), this method	will compact
	   all the addresses and subnets into the largest (ie, least specific)
	   subnets possible that contain exactly all of	the given objects.

	   Note	that in	versions prior to 3.02,	if fed with the	same IP
	   subnets multiple times, these subnets would be returned. From 3.02
	   on, a more "correct"	approach has been adopted and only one address
	   would be returned.

	   Note	that $me and all $addr's must be "NetAddr::IP" objects.

       "$me->compactref(\@list)"
       "$compacted_object_list = Compact(\@list)"
	   As usual, a faster version of "->compact()" that returns a
	   reference to	a list.	Note that this method takes a reference	to a
	   list	instead.

	   Note	that $me must be a "NetAddr::IP" object.

       "$me->coalesce($masklen,	$number, @list_of_subnets)"
       "$arrayref = Coalesce($masklen,$number,@list_of_subnets)"
	   Will	return a reference to list of "NetAddr::IP" subnets of
	   $masklen mask length, when $number or more addresses	from
	   @list_of_subnets are	found to be contained in said subnet.

	   Subnets from	@list_of_subnets with a	mask shorter than $masklen are
	   passed "as is" to the return	list.

	   Subnets from	@list_of_subnets with a	mask longer than $masklen will
	   be counted (actually, the number of IP addresses is counted)
	   towards $number.

	   Called as a method, the array will include $me.

	   WARNING: the	list of	subnet must be the same	type. i.e ipV4 or ipV6

       "->first()"
	   Returns a new object	representing the first usable IP address
	   within the subnet (ie, the first host address).

       "->last()"
	   Returns a new object	representing the last usable IP	address	within
	   the subnet (ie, one less than the broadcast address).

       "->nth($index)"
	   Returns a new object	representing the n-th usable IP	address	within
	   the subnet (ie, the n-th host address).  If no address is available
	   (for	example, when the network is too small for $index hosts),
	   "undef" is returned.

	   Version 4.00	of NetAddr::IP and version 1.00	of NetAddr::IP::Lite
	   implements "->nth($index)" and "->num()" exactly as the
	   documentation states.  Previous versions behaved slightly
	   differently and not in a consistent manner. See the README file for
	   details.

	   To use the old behavior for "->nth($index)" and "->num()":

	     use NetAddr::IP::Lite qw(:old_nth);

	     old behavior:
	     NetAddr::IP->new('10/32')->nth(0) == undef
	     NetAddr::IP->new('10/32')->nth(1) == undef
	     NetAddr::IP->new('10/31')->nth(0) == undef
	     NetAddr::IP->new('10/31')->nth(1) == 10.0.0.1/31
	     NetAddr::IP->new('10/30')->nth(0) == undef
	     NetAddr::IP->new('10/30')->nth(1) == 10.0.0.1/30
	     NetAddr::IP->new('10/30')->nth(2) == 10.0.0.2/30
	     NetAddr::IP->new('10/30')->nth(3) == 10.0.0.3/30

	   Note	that in	each case, the broadcast address is represented	in the
	   output set and that the 'zero'th index is alway undef except	for a
	   point-to-point /31 or /127 network where there are exactly two
	   addresses in	the network.

	     new behavior:
	     NetAddr::IP->new('10/32')->nth(0)	== 10.0.0.0/32
	     NetAddr::IP->new('10.1/32'->nth(0)	== 10.0.0.1/32
	     NetAddr::IP->new('10/31')->nth(0)	== 10.0.0.0/31
	     NetAddr::IP->new('10/31')->nth(1)	== 10.0.0.1/31
	     NetAddr::IP->new('10/30')->nth(0) == 10.0.0.1/30
	     NetAddr::IP->new('10/30')->nth(1) == 10.0.0.2/30
	     NetAddr::IP->new('10/30')->nth(2) == undef

	   Note	that a /32 net always has 1 usable address while a /31 has
	   exactly two usable addresses	for point-to-point addressing. The
	   first index (0) returns the address immediately following the
	   network address except for a	/31 or /127 when it return the network
	   address.

       "->num()"
	   As of version 4.42 of NetAddr::IP and version 1.27 of
	   NetAddr::IP::Lite a /31 and /127 with return	a net num value	of 2
	   instead of 0	(zero) for point-to-point networks.

	   Version 4.00	of NetAddr::IP and version 1.00	of NetAddr::IP::Lite
	   return the number of	usable IP addresses within the subnet, not
	   counting the	broadcast or network address.

	   Previous versions worked only for ipV4 addresses, returned a
	   maximum span	of 2**32 and returned the number of IP addresses not
	   counting the	broadcast address.
		   (one	greater	than the new behavior)

	   To use the old behavior for "->nth($index)" and "->num()":

	     use NetAddr::IP::Lite qw(:old_nth);

	   WARNING:

	   NetAddr::IP will calculate and return a numeric string for network
	   ranges as large as 2**128. These values are TEXT strings and	perl
	   can treat them as integers for numeric calculations.

	   Perl	on 32 bit platforms only handles integer numbers up to 2**32
	   and on 64 bit platforms to 2**64.

	   If you wish to manipulate numeric strings returned by NetAddr::IP
	   that	are larger than	2**32 or 2**64,	respectively,  you must	load
	   additional modules such as Math::BigInt, bignum or some similar
	   package to do the integer math.

       "->re()"
	   Returns a Perl regular expression that will match an	IP address
	   within the given subnet. Defaults to	ipV4 notation. Will return an
	   ipV6	regex if the address in	not in ipV4 space.

       "->re6()"
	   Returns a Perl regular expression that will match an	IP address
	   within the given subnet. Always returns an ipV6 regex.

EXPORT_OK
	       Compact
	       Coalesce
	       Zeros
	       Ones
	       V4mask
	       V4net
	       netlimit

NOTES /	BUGS ... FEATURES
       NetAddr::IP only	runs in	Pure Perl mode on Windows boxes	because	I
       don't have the resources	or know	how to get the "configure" stuff
       working in the Windows environment. Volunteers WELCOME to port the "C"
       portion of this module to Windows.

HISTORY
	   See the Changes file

AUTHORS
       Luis E. MuA+-oz <luismunoz@cpan.org>, Michael Robinton
       <michael@bizsystems.com>

WARRANTY
       This software comes with	the same warranty as Perl itself (ie, none),
       so by using it you accept any and all the liability.

COPYRIGHT
       This software is	(c) Luis E. MuA+-oz, 1999 - 2007, and (c) Michael
       Robinton, 2006 -	2014.

       All rights reserved.

       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the terms of either:

	 a) the	GNU General Public License as published	by the Free
	 Software Foundation; either version 2,	or (at your option) any
	 later version,	or

	 b) the	"Artistic License" which comes with this distribution.

       This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
       WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
       MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A	PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See either	the
       GNU General Public License or the Artistic License for more details.

       You should have received	a copy of the Artistic License with this
       distribution, in	the file named "Artistic".  If not, I'll be glad to
       provide one.

       You should also have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
       along with this program in the file named "Copying". If not, write to
       the

	       Free Software Foundation, Inc.
	       51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor
	       Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.

       or visit	their web page on the internet at:

	       http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.html.

SEE ALSO
	 perl(1) L<NetAddr::IP::Lite>, L<NetAddr::IP::Util>,
       L<NetAddr::IP::InetBase>

perl v5.24.1			  2015-08-17				 IP(3)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | INSTALLATION | DESCRIPTION | EXPORT_OK | NOTES / BUGS ... FEATURES | HISTORY | AUTHORS | WARRANTY | COPYRIGHT | SEE ALSO

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