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Util(3)		      User Contributed Perl Documentation	       Util(3)

NAME
       NetAddr::IP::Util -- IPv4/6 and 128 bit number utilities

SYNOPSIS
	 use NetAddr::IP::Util qw(
	       inet_aton
	       inet_ntoa
	       ipv6_aton
	       ipv6_n2x
	       ipv6_n2d
	       inet_any2n
	       hasbits
	       isIPv4
	       inet_n2dx
	       inet_n2ad
	       ipv4to6
	       mask4to6
	       ipanyto6
	       maskanyto6
	       ipv6to4
	       shiftleft
	       addconst
	       add128
	       sub128
	       notcontiguous
	       bin2bcd
	       bcd2bin
	       mode
	 );

	 use NetAddr::IP::Util qw(:all :inet :ipv4 :ipv6 :math)

	 :inet	 =>    inet_aton, inet_ntoa, ipv6_aton,
		       ipv6_n2x, ipv6_n2d, inet_any2n,
		       inet_n2dx, inet_n2ad, ipv4to6,
		       mask4to6, ipanyto6, maskanyto6,
		       ipv6to4

	 :ipv4	 =>    inet_aton, inet_ntoa

	 :ipv6	 =>    ipv6_aton, ipv6_n2x, ipv6_n2d,
		       inet_any2n, inet_n2dx, inet_n2ad
		       ipv4to6,	mask4to6, ipanyto6,
		       maskanyto6, ipv6to4

	 :math	 =>    hasbits,	isIPv4,	addconst,
		       add128, sub128, notcontiguous,
		       bin2bcd,	bcd2bin, shiftleft

	 $dotquad = inet_ntoa($netaddr);
	 $netaddr = inet_aton($dotquad);
	 $ipv6naddr = ipv6_aton($ipv6_text);
	 $hex_text = ipv6_n2x($ipv6naddr);
	 $dec_text = ipv6_n2d($ipv6naddr);
	 $ipv6naddr = inet_any2n($dotquad or $ipv6_text);
	 $rv = hasbits($bits128);
	 $rv = isIPv4($bits128);
	 $dotquad or $hex_text = inet_n2dx($ipv6naddr);
	 $dotquad or $dec_text = inet_n2ad($ipv6naddr);
	 $ipv6naddr = ipv4to6($netaddr);
	 $ipv6naddr = mask4to6($netaddr);
	 $ipv6naddr = ipanyto6($netaddr);
	 $ipv6naddr = maskanyto6($netaddr);
	 $netaddr = ipv6to4($pv6naddr);
	 $bitsX2 = shiftleft($bits128,$n);
	 $carry	= addconst($ipv6naddr,$signed_32con);
	 ($carry,$ipv6naddr)=addconst($ipv6naddr,$signed_32con);
	 $carry	= add128($ipv6naddr1,$ipv6naddr2);
	 ($carry,$ipv6naddr)=add128($ipv6naddr1,$ipv6naddr2);
	 $carry	= sub128($ipv6naddr1,$ipv6naddr2);
	 ($carry,$ipv6naddr)=sub128($ipv6naddr1,$ipv6naddr2);
	 ($spurious,$cidr) = notcontiguous($mask128);
	 $bcdtext = bin2bcd($bits128);
	 $bits128 = bcd2bin($bcdtxt);
	 $modetext = mode;

INSTALLATION
       Un-tar the distribution in an appropriate directory and type:

	       perl Makefile.PL
	       make
	       make test
	       make install

       NetAddr::IP::Util installs by default with its primary functions
       compiled	using Perl's XS	extensions to build a 'C' library. If you do
       not have	a 'C' complier available or would like the slower Pure Perl
       version for some	other reason, then type:

	       perl Makefile.PL	-noxs
	       make
	       make test
	       make install

DESCRIPTION
       NetAddr::IP::Util provides a suite of tools for manipulating and
       converting IPv4 and IPv6	addresses into 128 bit string context and back
       to text.	The strings can	be manipulated with Perl's logical operators:

	       and     &
	       or      |
	       xor     ^

       in the same manner as 'vec' strings.

       The IPv6	functions support all rfc1884 formats.

	 i.e.  x:x:x:x:x:x:x:x:x
	       x:x:x:x:x:x:x:d.d.d.d
	       ::x:x:x
	       ::x:d.d.d.d
	 and so	on...

       o   $dotquad = inet_ntoa($netaddr);

	   Convert a packed IPv4 network address to a dot-quad IP address.

	     input:	   packed network address
	     returns:	   IP address i.e. 10.4.12.123

       o   $netaddr = inet_aton($dotquad);

	   Convert a dot-quad IP address into an IPv4 packed network address.

	     input:	   IP address i.e. 192.5.16.32
	     returns:	   packed network address

       o   $ipv6addr = ipv6_aton($ipv6_text);

	   Takes an IPv6 address of the	form described in rfc1884 and returns
	   a 128 bit binary RDATA string.

	     input:	   ipv6	text
	     returns:	   128 bit RDATA string

       o   $hex_text = ipv6_n2x($ipv6addr);

	   Takes an IPv6 RDATA string and returns an 8 segment IPv6 hex
	   address

	     input:	   128 bit RDATA string
	     returns:	   x:x:x:x:x:x:x:x

       o   $dec_text = ipv6_n2d($ipv6addr);

	   Takes an IPv6 RDATA string and returns a mixed hex -	decimal	IPv6
	   address with	the 6 uppermost	chunks in hex and the lower 32 bits in
	   dot-quad representation.

	     input:	   128 bit RDATA string
	     returns:	   x:x:x:x:x:x:d.d.d.d

       o   $ipv6naddr =	inet_any2n($dotquad or $ipv6_text);

	   This	function converts a text IPv4 or IPv6 address in text format
	   in any standard notation into a 128 bit IPv6	string address.	It
	   prefixes any	dot-quad address (if found) with '::' and passes it to
	   ipv6_aton.

	     input:	   dot-quad or rfc1844 address
	     returns:	   128 bit IPv6	string

       o   $rv = hasbits($bits128);

	   This	function returns true if there are one's present in the	128
	   bit string and false	if all the bits	are zero.

	     i.e.  if (hasbits($bits128)) {
		     &do_something;
		   }

	     or	   if (hasbits($bits128	& $mask128) {
		     &do_something;
		   }

	   This	allows the implementation of logical functions of the form of:

		   if ($bits128	& $mask128) {
		       ...

	     input:	   128 bit IPv6	string
	     returns:	   true	if any bits are	present

       o   $rv = isIPv4($bits128);

	   This	function returns true if there are no on bits present in the
	   IPv6	portion	of the 128 bit string and false	otherwise.

       o   $dotquad or $hex_text = inet_n2dx($ipv6naddr);

	   This	function does the right	thing and returns the text for either
	   a dot-quad IPv4 or a	hex notation IPv6 address.

	     input:	   128 bit IPv6	string
	     returns:	   ddd.ddd.ddd.ddd
		       or  x:x:x:x:x:x:x:x

       o   $dotquad or $dec_text = inet_n2ad($ipv6naddr);

	   This	function does the right	thing and returns the text for either
	   a dot-quad IPv4 or a	hex::decimal notation IPv6 address.

	     input:	   128 bit IPv6	string
	     returns:	   ddd.ddd.ddd.ddd
		       or  x:x:x:x:x:x:ddd.ddd.ddd.dd

       o   $ipv6naddr =	ipv4to6($netaddr);

	   Convert an ipv4 network address into	an ipv6	network	address.

	     input:	   32 bit network address
	     returns:	   128 bit network address

       o   $ipv6naddr =	mask4to6($netaddr);

	   Convert an ipv4 netowrk address into	an ipv6	network	mask.

	     input:	   32 bit network/mask address
	     returns:	   128 bit network/mask	address

	   NOTE: returns the high 96 bits as one's

       o   $ipv6naddr =	ipanyto6($netaddr);

	   Similar to ipv4to6 except that this function	takes either an	IPv4
	   or IPv6 input and always returns a 128 bit IPv6 network address.

	     input:	   32 or 128 bit network address
	     returns:	   128 bit network address

       o   $ipv6naddr =	maskanyto6($netaddr);

	   Similar to mask4to6 except that this	function takes either an IPv4
	   or IPv6 netmask and always returns a	128 bit	IPv6 netmask.

	     input:	   32 or 128 bit network mask
	     returns:	   128 bit network mask

       o   $netaddr = ipv6to4($pv6naddr);

	   Truncate the	upper 96 bits of a 128 bit address and return the
	   lower 32 bits. Returns an IPv4 address as returned by inet_aton.

	     input:	   128 bit network address
	     returns:	   32 bit inet_aton network address

       o   $bitsXn = shiftleft($bits128,$n);

	     input:	   128 bit string variable,
			   number of shifts [optional]
	     returns:	   bits	X n shifts

	     NOTE: a single shift is performed
		   if $n is not	specified

       o   addconst($ipv6naddr,$signed_32con);

	   Add a signed	constant to a 128 bit string variable.

	     input:	   128 bit IPv6	string,
			   signed 32 bit integer
	     returns:  scalar	   carry
		       array	   (carry, result)

       o   add128($ipv6naddr1,$ipv6naddr2);

	   Add two 128 bit string variables.

	     input:	   128 bit string var1,
			   128 bit string var2
	     returns:  scalar	   carry
		       array	   (carry, result)

       o   sub128($ipv6naddr1,$ipv6naddr2);

	   Subtract two	128 bit	string variables.

	     input:	   128 bit string var1,
			   128 bit string var2
	     returns:  scalar	   carry
		       array	   (carry, result)

	   Note: The carry from	this operation is the result of	adding the
	   one's complement of ARG2 +1 to the ARG1. It is logically NOT
	   borrow.

		   i.e.	   if ARG1 >= ARG2 then	carry =	1
		   or	   if ARG1  < ARG2 then	carry =	0

       o   ($spurious,$cidr) = notcontiguous($mask128);

	   This	function counts	the bit	positions remaining in the mask	when
	   the rightmost '0's are removed.

		   input:  128 bit netmask
		   returns true	if there are spurious
			       zero bits remaining in the
			       mask, false if the mask is
			       contiguous one's,
			   128 bit cidr	number

       o   $bcdtext = bin2bcd($bits128);

	   Convert a 128 bit binary string into	binary coded decimal text
	   digits.

	     input:	   128 bit string variable
	     returns:	   string of bcd text digits

       o   $bits128 = bcd2bin($bcdtxt);

	   Convert a bcd text string to	128 bit	string variable

	     input:	   string of bcd text digits
	     returns:	   128 bit string variable

       o   $modetext = mode;

	   Returns the operating mode of this module.

		   input:	   none
		   returns:	   "Pure Perl"
			      or   "CC XS"

EXAMPLES
	 # convert any textual IP address into a 128 bit vector
	 #
	 sub text2vec {
	   my($anyIP,$anyMask) = @_;

	 # not IPv4 bit	mask
	   my $notiv4 =	ipv6_aton('FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF::');

	   my $vecip   = inet_any2n($anyIP);
	   my $mask    = inet_any2n($anyMask);

	 # extend mask bits for	IPv4
	   my $bits = 128;     # default
	   unless (hasbits($mask & $notiv4)) {
	     $mask |= $notiv4;
	     $bits = 32;
	   }
	   return ($vecip, $mask, $bits);
	 }

	 ... alternate implementation, a little	faster

	 sub text2vec {
	   my($anyIP,$anyMask) = @_;

	 # not IPv4 bit	mask
	   my $notiv4 =	ipv6_aton('FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF::');

	   my $vecip   = inet_any2n($anyIP);
	   my $mask    = inet_any2n($anyMask);

	 # extend mask bits for	IPv4
	   my $bits = 128;     # default
	   if (isIPv4($mask)) {
	     $mask |= $notiv4;
	     $bits = 32;
	   }
	   return ($vecip, $mask, $bits);
	 }

	 ... elsewhere
	   $nip	= {
	       addr    => $vecip,
	       mask    => $mask,
	       bits    => $bits,
	   };

	 # return network and broadcast	addresses from IP and Mask
	 #
	 sub netbroad {
	   my($nip) = shift;
	   my $notmask = ~ $nip->{mask};
	   my $bcast   = $nip->{addr} |	$notmask;
	   my $network = $nip->{addr} &	$nip->{mask};
	   return ($network, $broadcast);
	 }

	 # check if address is within a	network
	 #
	 sub within {
	   my($nip,$net) = @_;
	   my $addr = $nip->{addr}
	   my($nw,$bc) = netbroad($net);
	 # arg1	>= arg2, sub128	returns	true
	   return (sub128($addr,$nw) &&	sub128($bc,$addr))
	       ? 1 : 0;
	 }

	 # add a constant, wrapping at netblock	boundries
	 # to subtract the constant, negate it before calling
	 # 'addwrap' since 'addconst' will extend the sign bits
	 #
	 sub addwrap {
	   my($nip,$const) = @_;
	   my $mask    = $nip->{addr};
	   my $bits    = $nip->{bits};
	   my $notmask = ~ $mask;
	   my $hibits  = $addr & $mask;
	   my $addr = addconst($addr,$const);
	   my $wraponly	= $addr	& $notmask;
	   my $newip = {
	       addr    => $hibits | $wraponly,
	       mask    => $mask,
	       bits    => $bits,
	   };
	   # bless $newip as appropriate
	   return $newip;
	 }

EXPORT_OK
	       inet_aton
	       inet_ntoa
	       ipv6_aton
	       ipv6_n2x
	       ipv6_n2d
	       inet_any2n
	       hasbits
	       isIPv4
	       inet_n2dx
	       inet_n2ad
	       ipv4to6
	       mask4to6
	       ipanyto6
	       maskanyto6
	       ipv6to4
	       shiftleft
	       addconst
	       add128
	       sub128
	       notcontiguous
	       bin2bcd
	       bcd2bin
	       mode

AUTHOR
       Michael Robinton	<michael@bizsystems.com>

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
       The following functions are used	in whole or in part as include files
       to Util.xs. The copyright is include in the file.

	 file:		    function:

	 miniSocket.inc	 inet_aton, inet_ntoa

       inet_aton, inet_ntoa are	from the perl-5.8.0 release by Larry Wall,
       copyright 1989-2002. inet_aton, inet_ntoa code is current through
       perl-5.9.3 release.  Thank you Larry for	making PERL possible for all
       of us.

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright 2003 -	2006, Michael Robinton <michael@bizsystems.com>

       LICENSE AND WARRANTY

       This software is	(c) Michael Robinton.  It can be used under the	terms
       of the perl artistic license provided  that proper credit for the work
       of the  author is  preserved in	the form  of this  copyright  notice
       and license for this module.

       No warranty of any kind is  expressed or	implied, by using it you
       accept any and all the liability.

AUTHOR
       Michael Robinton	<michael@bizsystems.com>

perl v5.24.1			  2006-07-06			       Util(3)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | INSTALLATION | DESCRIPTION | EXAMPLES | EXPORT_OK | AUTHOR | ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS | COPYRIGHT | AUTHOR

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