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Net::Server(3)	      User Contributed Perl Documentation	Net::Server(3)

       Net::Server - Extensible, general Perl server engine

	   #!/usr/bin/perl -w -T
	   package MyPackage;

	   use base qw(Net::Server);

	   sub process_request {
	       my $self	= shift;
	       while (<STDIN>) {
		   print "You said '$_'\015\012"; # basic echo
		   last	if /quit/i;

	   MyPackage->run(port => 160, ipv => '*');

	   # one liner to get going quickly
	   perl	-e 'use	base qw(Net::Server); main->run(port =>	20208)'

	   NOTE: beginning in Net::Server 2.005, the default value for
		 ipv is	IPv* meaning that if no	host is	passed,	or
		 a hostname is past, any available IPv4	and IPv6 sockets will be
		 bound.	 You can force IPv4 only by adding an ipv => 4
		 configuration in any of the half dozen	ways we	let you
		 specify it.

	   * Full IPv6 support
	   * Working SSL sockets and https (both with and without IO::Socket::SSL)
	   * Single Server Mode
	   * Inetd Server Mode
	   * Preforking	Simple Mode (PreForkSimple)
	   * Preforking	Managed	Mode (PreFork)
	   * Forking Mode
	   * Multiplexing Mode using a single process
	   * Multi port	accepts	on Single, Preforking, and Forking modes
	   * Basic HTTP	Daemon (supports IPv6, SSL, full apache	style logs)
	   * Basic PSGI	Daemon
	   * Simultaneous accept/recv on tcp/udp/unix, ssl/tcp,	and IPv4/IPv6 sockets
	   * Safe signal handling in Fork/PreFork avoids perl signal trouble
	   * User customizable hooks
	   * Chroot ability after bind
	   * Change of user and	group after bind
	   * Basic allow/deny access control
	   * Pluggable logging (Sys::Syslog, Log::Log4perl, log_file, STDERR, or your own)
	   * HUP able server (clean restarts via sig HUP)
	   * Graceful shutdowns	(via sig QUIT)
	   * Hot deploy	in Fork	and PreFork modes (via sig TTIN	and TTOU)
	   * Dequeue ability in	all Fork and PreFork modes.
	   * Taint clean
	   * Written in	Perl
	   * Protection	against	buffer overflow
	   * Clean process flow
	   * Extensibility

       "Net::Server" is	an extensible, generic Perl server engine.

       "Net::Server" attempts to be a generic server as	in "Net::Daemon" and
       "NetServer::Generic".  It includes with it the ability to run as	an
       inetd process ("Net::Server::INET"), a single connection	server
       ("Net::Server" or "Net::Server::Single"), a forking server
       ("Net::Server::Fork"), a	preforking server which	maintains a constant
       number of preforked children ("Net::Server::PreForkSimple"), or as a
       managed preforking server which maintains the number of children	based
       on server load ("Net::Server::PreFork").	 In all	but the	inetd type,
       the server provides the ability to connect to one or to multiple	server

       The additional server types are made possible via "personalities" or
       sub classes of the "Net::Server".  By moving the	multiple types of
       servers out of the main "Net::Server" class, the	"Net::Server" concept
       is easily extended to other types (in the near future, we would like to
       add a "Thread" personality).

       "Net::Server" borrows several concepts from the Apache Webserver.
       "Net::Server" uses "hooks" to allow custom servers such as SMTP,	HTTP,
       POP3, etc. to be	layered	over the base "Net::Server" class.  In
       addition	the "Net::Server::PreFork" class borrows concepts of
       min_start_servers, max_servers, and min_waiting servers.
       "Net::Server::PreFork" also uses	the concept of an flock	serialized
       accept when accepting on	multiple ports (PreFork	can choose between
       flock, IPC::Semaphore, and pipe to control serialization).

       "Net::Server" is	built around a common class (Net::Server) and is
       extended	using sub classes, or "personalities".	Each personality
       inherits, overrides, or enhances	the base methods of the	base class.

       Included	with the Net::Server package are several basic personalities,
       each of which has their own use.

	   Found in the	module Net/Server/ (see Net::Server::Fork).
	   This	server binds to	one or more ports and then waits for a
	   connection.	When a client request is received, the parent forks a
	   child, which	then handles the client	and exits.  This is good for
	   moderately hit services.

	   Found in the	module Net/Server/ (see Net::Server::INET).
	   This	server is designed to be used with inetd.  The "pre_bind",
	   "bind", "accept", and "post_accept" are all overridden as these
	   services are	taken care of by the INET daemon.

	   Found in the	module Net/Server/ (see
	   Net::Server::MultiType).  This server has no	server functionality
	   of its own.	It is designed for servers which need a	simple way to
	   easily switch between different personalities.  Multiple
	   "server_type" parameters may	be given and Net::Server::MultiType
	   will	cycle through until it finds a class that it can use.

	   Found in the	module Net/Server/ (see
	   Net::Server::Multiplex).  This server binds to one or more ports.
	   It uses IO::Multiplex to multiplex between waiting for new
	   connections and waiting for input on	currently established
	   connections.	 This personality is designed to run as	one process
	   without forking.  The "process_request" method is never used	but
	   the "mux_input" callback is used instead (see also IO::Multiplex).
	   See examples/ for an example using most	of the
	   features of Net::Server::Multiplex.

	   Found in the	module Net/Server/ (see
	   Net::Server::PreFork).  This	server binds to	one or more ports and
	   then	forks "max_servers" child process.  The	server will make sure
	   that	at any given time there	are always "max_servers" available to
	   receive a client request.  Each of these children will process up
	   to "max_requests" client connections.  This type is good for	a
	   heavily hit site that can dedicate max_server processes no matter
	   what	the load.  It should scale well	for most applications.	Multi
	   port	accept is accomplished using either flock, IPC::Semaphore, or
	   pipe	to serialize the children.  Serialization may also be switched
	   on for single port in order to get around an	OS that	does not allow
	   multiple children to	accept at the same time.  For a	further
	   discussion of serialization see Net::Server::PreFork.

	   Found in the	module Net/Server/ (see
	   Net::Server::PreFork).  This	server binds to	one or more ports and
	   then	forks "min_servers" child process.  The	server will make sure
	   that	at any given time there	are at least "min_spare_servers" but
	   not more than "max_spare_servers" available to receive a client
	   request, up to "max_servers".  Each of these	children will process
	   up to "max_requests"	client connections.  This type is good for a
	   heavily hit site, and should	scale well for most applications.
	   Multi port accept is	accomplished using either flock,
	   IPC::Semaphore, or pipe to serialize	the children.  Serialization
	   may also be switched	on for single port in order to get around an
	   OS that does	not allow multiple children to accept at the same
	   time.  For a	further	discussion of serialization see

	   All methods fall back to Net::Server.  This personality is provided
	   only	as parallelism for Net::Server::MultiType.

	   Not a distinct personality.	Provides a basic HTTP daemon.  This
	   can be combined with	the SSL	or SSLEAY proto	to provide an HTTPS
	   Daemon.  See	Net::Server::HTTP.

       "Net::Server" was partially written to make it easy to add new
       personalities.  Using separate modules built upon an open architecture
       allows for easy addition	of new features, a separate development
       process,	and reduced code bloat in the core module.

       Once started, the Net::Server will take care of binding to port and
       waiting for connections.	 Once a	connection is received,	the
       Net::Server will	accept on the socket and will store the	result (the
       client connection) in $self->{server}->{client}.	 This property is a
       Socket blessed into the the IO::Socket classes.	UDP servers are
       slightly	different in that they will perform a recv instead of an

       To make programming easier, during the post_accept phase, STDIN and
       STDOUT are opened to the	client connection.  This allows	for programs
       to be written using <STDIN> and print "out\n" to	print to the client
       connection.  UDP	will require using a ->send call.

       The following is	a very simple server.  The main	functionality occurs
       in the process_request method call as shown below.  Notice the use of
       timeouts	to prevent Denial of Service while reading.  (Other examples
       of using	"Net::Server" can, or will, be included	with this

	   #!/usr/bin/perl -w -T

	   package MyPackage;

	   use strict;
	   use base qw(Net::Server::PreFork); #	any personality	will do


	   # over-ride the default echo	handler

	   sub process_request {
	       my $self	= shift;
	       eval {

		   local $SIG{'ALRM'} =	sub { die "Timed Out!\n" };
		   my $timeout = 30; # give the	user 30	seconds	to type	some lines

		   my $previous_alarm =	alarm($timeout);
		   while (<STDIN>) {
		       print "You said '$_'\r\n";


	       if ($@ =~ /timed	out/i) {
		   print STDOUT	"Timed Out.\r\n";



       Playing this file from the command line will invoke a Net::Server using
       the PreFork personality.	 When building a server	layer over the
       Net::Server, it is important to use features such as timeouts to
       prevent Denial Of Service attacks.

       Net::Server comes with a	built in echo server by	default.  You can test
       it out by simply	running	the following from the commandline:


       If you wanted to	try another flavor you could try

	   net-server PreFork

       If you wanted to	try out	a basic	HTTP server you	could use

	   net-server HTTP

       Or if you wanted	to test	out a CGI you are writing you could use

	   net-server HTTP --app ../../mycgi.cgi

       There are at least five possible	ways to	pass arguments to Net::Server.
       They are	passing	to the new method, passing on command line, passing
       parameters to run, using	a conf file, returning values in the
       default_values method, or configuring the values	in

       The "options" method is used to determine which arguments the server
       will search for and can be used to extend the parsed parameters.	 Any
       arguments found from the	command	line, parameters passed	to run,	and
       arguments found in the conf_file	will be	matched	against	the keys of
       the options template.  Any commandline parameters that do not match
       will be left in place and can be	further	processed by the server	in the
       various hooks (by looking at @ARGV).  Arguments passed to new will
       automatically win over any other	options	(this can be used if you would
       like to disallow	a user passing in other	arguments).

       Arguments consist of key	value pairs.  On the commandline these pairs
       follow the POSIX	fashion	of "--key value" or "--key=value", and also
       "key=value".  In	the conf file the parameter passing can	best be	shown
       by the following	regular	expression:
       ($key,$val)=~/^(\w+)\s+(\S+?)\s+$/.  Passing arguments to the run
       method is done as follows: "<Net::Server->run(key1 =" 'val1')>>.
       Passing arguments via a prebuilt	object can best	be shown in the
       following code:

	   #!/usr/bin/perl -w -T

	   package MyPackage;
	   use strict;
	   use base qw(Net::Server);

	   my $server =	MyPackage->new({
	       key1 => 'val1',


       All five	methods	for passing arguments may be used at the same time.
       Once an argument	has been set, it is not	over written if	another	method
       passes the same argument.  "Net::Server"	will look for arguments	in the
       following order:

	   1) Arguments	passed to the C<new> method.
	   2) Arguments	passed on command line.
	   3) Arguments	passed to the C<run> method.
	   4) Arguments	passed via a conf file.
	   5) Arguments	set in the C<default_values> method.

       Additionally the	following hooks	are available:

	   1) Arguments	set in the configure_hook (occurs after	new
	      but before any of	the other areas	are checked).
	   2) Arguments	set and	validated in the post_configure_hook
	      (occurs after all	of the other areas are checked).

       Each of these levels will override parameters of	the same name
       specified in subsequent levels.	For example, specifying	--setsid=0 on
       the command line	will override a	value of "setsid 1" in the conf	file.

       Note that the configure_hook method doesn't return values to set, but
       is there	to allow for setting up	configured values before the configure
       method is called.

       Key/value pairs used by the server are removed by the configuration
       process so that server layers on	top of "Net::Server" can pass and read
       their own parameters.

       It is possible to add in	your own custom	parameters to those parsed by
       Net::Server.  The following code	shows how this is done:

	   sub options {
	       my $self	    = shift;
	       my $prop	    = $self->{'server'};
	       my $template = shift;

	       # setup options in the parent classes

	       # add a single value option
	       $prop->{'my_option'} ||=	undef;
	       $template->{'my_option'}	= \ $prop->{'my_option'};

	       # add a multi value option
	       $prop->{'an_arrayref_item'} ||= [];
	       $template->{'an_arrayref_item'} = $prop->{'an_arrayref_item'};

       Overriding the "options"	method allows for adding your own custom
       fields.	A template hashref is passed in, that should then be modified
       to contain an of	your custom fields.  Fields which are intended to
       receive a single	scalar value should have a reference to	the
       destination scalar given.  Fields which are intended to receive
       multiple	values should reference	the corresponding destination

       You are responsible for validating your custom options once they	have
       been parsed.  The post_configure_hook is	a good place to	do your

       Some emails have	asked why we use this "template" method.  The idea is
       that you	are creating the the data structure to store the values	in,
       and you are also	creating a way to get the values into the data
       structure.  The template	is the way to get the values to	the servers
       data structure.	One of the possibilities (that probably	isn't used
       that much) is that by letting you specify the mapping, you could	build
       a nested	data structure - even though the passed	in arguments are flat.
       It also allows you to setup aliases to your names.

       For example, a basic structure might look like this:

	  $prop	= $self->{'server'}

	  $prop->{'my_custom_option'} ||= undef;
	  $prop->{'my_custom_array'}  ||= [];

	  $template = {
	      my_custom_option => \ $prop->{'my_custom_option'},
	      mco	       => \ $prop->{'my_custom_option'}, # alias
	      my_custom_array  => $prop->{'my_custom_array'},
	      mca	       => $prop->{'my_custom_array'}, #	an alias

	  $template->{'mco2'} =	$template->{'mco'}; # another way to alias

       But you could also have more complex data:

	  $prop	= $self->{'server'};

	  $prop->{'one_layer'} = {
	      two_layer	=> [

	  $template = {
	      param1 =>	\ $prop->{'one_layer'}->{'two_layer'}->[0],
	      param2 =>	\ $prop->{'one_layer'}->{'two_layer'}->[1],

       This is of course a contrived example - but it does show	that you can
       get the data from the flat passed in arguments to whatever type of
       structure you need - with only a	little bit of effort.

       The following arguments are available in	the default "Net::Server" or
       "Net::Server::Single" modules.  (Other personalities may	use additional
       parameters and may optionally not use parameters	from the base class.)

	   Key		     Value		      Default
	   conf_file	     "filename"		      undef

	   log_level	     0-4		      2
	   log_file	     (filename|Sys::Syslog
			      |Log::Log4perl)	      undef

	   port		     \d+		      20203
	   host		     "host"		      "*"
	   ipv		     (4|6|*)		      *
	   proto	     (tcp|udp|unix)	      "tcp"
	   listen	     \d+		      SOMAXCONN

	   ## syslog parameters	(if log_file eq	Sys::Syslog)
	   syslog_logsock    (native|unix|inet|udp
			      |tcp|stream|console)    unix (on Sys::Syslog < 0.15)
	   syslog_ident	     "identity"		      "net_server"
	   syslog_logopt     (cons|ndelay|nowait|pid) pid
	   syslog_facility   \w+		      daemon

	   reverse_lookups   1			      undef
	   allow	     /regex/		      none
	   deny		     /regex/		      none
	   cidr_allow	     CIDR		      none
	   cidr_deny	     CIDR		      none

	   ## daemonization parameters
	   pid_file	     "filename"		      undef
	   chroot	     "directory"	      undef
	   user		     (uid|username)	      "nobody"
	   group	     (gid|group)	      "nobody"
	   background	     1			      undef
	   setsid	     1			      undef

	   no_close_by_child (1|undef)		      undef

	   ## See Net::Server::Proto::(TCP|UDP|UNIX|SSL|SSLeay|etc)
	   ## for more sample parameters.

	   Filename from which to read additional key value pair arguments for
	   starting the	server.	 Default is undef.

	   There are two ways that you can specify a default location for a
	   conf_file.  The first is to pass the	default	value to the run
	   method as in:

		  conf_file => '/etc/my_server.conf',

	   If the end user passes in --conf_file=/etc/their_server.conf	then
	   the value will be overridden.

	   The second way to do	this was added in the 0.96 version.  It	uses
	   the default_values method as	in:

	       sub default_values {
		   return {
		       conf_file => '/etc/my_server.conf',

	   This	method has the advantage of also being able to be overridden
	   in the run method.

	   If you do not want the user to be able to specify a conf_file at
	   all,	you can	pass conf_file to the new method when creating your

		  conf_file => '/etc/my_server.conf',

	   If passed this way, the value passed	to new will "win" over any of
	   the other passed in values.

	   Ranges from 0 to 4 in level.	 Specifies what	level of error will be
	   logged.  "O"	means logging is off.  "4" means very verbose.	These
	   levels should be able to correlate to syslog	levels.	 Default is 2.
	   These levels	correlate to syslog levels as defined by the following
	   key/value pairs: 0=>'err', 1=>'warning', 2=>'notice', 3=>'info',

	   Name	of log file or log subsystem to	be written to.	If no name is
	   given and the write_to_log_hook is not overridden, log goes to
	   STDERR.  Default is undef.

	   The log_file	may also be the	name of	a Net::Server pluggable
	   logging class.  Net::Server is packaged with	Sys::Syslog and
	   Log::Log4perl.  If the log_file looks like a	module name, it	will
	   have	"Net::Server::Log::" added to the front	and it will then be
	   required.  The package should provide an "initialize" class method
	   that	returns	a single function which	will be	used for logging.
	   This	returned function will be passed log_level, and	message.

	   If the magic	name "Sys::Syslog" is used, all	logging	will take
	   place via the Net::Server::Log::Sys::Syslog module.	If syslog is
	   used	the parameters "syslog_logsock", "syslog_ident", and
	   "syslog_logopt",and "syslog_facility" may also be defined.  See

	   If the magic	name "Log::Log4perl" is	used, all logging will be
	   directed to the Log4perl system.  If	used, the "log4perl_conf",
	   "log4perl_poll", "log4perl_logger" may also be defined. See

	   If a	"log_file" is given or if "setsid" is set, STDIN and STDOUT
	   will	automatically be opened	to /dev/null and STDERR	will be	opened
	   to STDOUT.  This will prevent any output from ending	up at the

	   Filename to store pid of parent process.  Generally applies only to
	   forking servers.  Default is	none (undef).

	   See Net::Server::Proto for further examples of configuration.

	   Local port/socket on	which to bind.	If it is a low port, the
	   process must	start as root.	If multiple ports are given, all will
	   be bound at server startup.	May be of the form "host:port/proto",
	   "host:port/proto/ipv", "host:port", "port/proto", or	"port",	where
	   host	represents a hostname residing on the local box, where port
	   represents either the number	of the port (eg. "80") or the service
	   designation (eg. "http"), where ipv represents the IP protocol
	   version (IPv4 or IPv6 or IPv*) and where proto represents the
	   protocol to be used.	See Net::Server::Proto.	 The following are
	   some	valid port strings:

	       20203				# port only
	       localhost:20203			# host and port
	       localhost:http			# localhost bound to port 80
	       localhost:20203/tcp		# host,	port, protocol
	       localhost:20203/tcp/IPv*		# host,	port, protocol and family
	       localhost, 20203, tcp, IPv*	# same
	       localhost | 20203 | tcp | IPv*	# same
	       localhost:20203/IPv*		# bind any configured interfaces for IPv4 or 6 (default)
	       localhost:20203/IPv4/IPv6	# bind localhost on IPv4 and 6 (fails if it cannot do both)

	       *:20203				# bind all local interfaces

	   Additionally, when passed in	the code (non-commandline, and non-
	   config), the	port may be passed as a	hashref	or array hashrefs of

	       port => {
		   host	 => 'localhost',
		   port	 => '20203',
		   ipv	 => 6,	   # IPv6 only
		   proto => 'udp', # UDP protocol

	       port => [{
		   host	 => '*',
		   port	 => '20203',
		   ipv	 => 4,	   # IPv4 only
		   proto => 'tcp', # (default)
	       }, {
		   host	 => 'localhost',
		   port	 => '20204',
		   ipv	 => '*',      #	default	- all IPv4 and IPv6 interfaces tied to localhost
		   proto => 'ssleay', #	or ssl - Using SSL

	   An explicit host given in a port specification overrides a default
	   binding address (a "host" setting, see below).  The host part may
	   be enclosed in square brackets, but when it is a numerical IPv6
	   address it should be	enclosed in square brackets to avoid ambiguity
	   in parsing a	port number, e.g.: "[::1]:80".	However	you could also
	   use pipes, white space, or commas to	separate these.	 Note that
	   host	and port number	must come first.

	   If the protocol is not specified, proto will	default	to the "proto"
	   specified in	the arguments.	If "proto" is not specified there it
	   will	default	to "tcp".  If host is not specified, host will default
	   to "host" specified in the arguments.  If "host" is not specified
	   there it will default to "*".  Default port is 20203.
	   Configuration passed	to new or run may be either a scalar
	   containing a	single port number or an arrayref of ports.  If	"ipv"
	   is not specified it will default to "*" (Any	resolved addresses
	   under IPv4 or IPv6).

	   If you are working with unix	sockets, you may also specify
	   "socket_file|unix" or "socket_file|type|unix" where type is

	   On systems that support it, a port value of 0 may be	used to	ask
	   the OS to auto-assign a port.  The value of the auto-assigned port
	   will	be stored in the NS_port property of the
	   Net::Server::Proto::TCP object and is also available	in the
	   sockport method.  When the server is	processing a request, the
	   $self->{server}->{sockport} property	contains the port that was
	   connected through.

	   Local host or addr upon which to bind port.	If a value of '*' is
	   given, the server will bind that port on all	available addresses on
	   the box.  The "host"	argument provides a default local host address
	   if the "port" argument omits	a host specification.  See
	   Net::Server::Proto. See IO::Socket.	Configuration passed to	new or
	   run may be either a scalar containing a single host or an arrayref
	   of hosts - if the hosts array is shorter than the ports array, the
	   last	host entry will	be used	to augment the hosts arrary to the
	   size	of the ports array.

	   If an IPv4 address is passed, an IPv4 socket	will be	created.  If
	   an IPv6 address is passed, an IPv6 socket will be created.  If a
	   hostname is given, Net::Server will look at the value of ipv
	   (default IPv4) to determine which type of socket to create.
	   Optionally the ipv specification can	be passed as part of the

	       host => "",  # an IPv4 address

	       host => "::1",	     # an IPv6 address

	       host => 'localhost',  # addresses matched by localhost (default any IPv4	and/or IPv6)

	       host => 'localhost/IPv*',  # same

	       ipv  => 6,
	       host => 'localhost',  # addresses matched by localhost (IPv6)

	       ipv  => 4,
	       host => 'localhost',  # addresses matched by localhost (IPv4)

	       ipv  => 'IPv4 IPv6',
	       host => 'localhost',  # addresses matched by localhost (requires	IPv6 and IPv4)

	       host => '*',	     # any local interfaces (any IPv6 or IPv4)

	       host => '*/IPv*',     # same (any IPv6 or IPv4)

	       ipv  => 4,
	       host => '*',	     # any local IPv4 interfaces interfaces

	   See Net::Server::Proto.  Protocol to	use when binding ports.	 See
	   IO::Socket.	As of release 2.0, Net::Server supports	tcp, udp, and
	   unix, unixdgram, ssl, and ssleay.  Other types will need to be
	   added later (or custom modules extending the	Net::Server::Proto
	   class may be	used).	Configuration passed to	new or run may be
	   either a scalar containing a	single proto or	an arrayref of protos
	   - if	the protos array is shorter than the ports array, the last
	   proto entry will be used to augment the protos arrary to the	size
	   of the ports	array.

	   Additionally	the proto may also contain the ipv specification.

       ipv (IPv4 and IPv6)
	   See Net::Server::Proto.

	   IPv6	is now available under Net::Server.  It	will be	used
	   automatically if an IPv6 address is passed, or if the ipv is	set
	   explicitly to IPv6, or if ipv is left as the	default	value of IPv*.
	   This	is a significant change	from version 2.004 and earlier where
	   the default value was IPv4.	However, the previous behavior led to
	   confusion on	IPv6 only hosts, and on	hosts that only	had IPv6
	   entries for a local hostname.  Trying to pass an IPv4 address when
	   ipv is set to 6 (only 6 - not * or 4) will result in	an error.

	       localhost:20203 # will use IPv6 if there	is a corresponding entry for localhost
			       # it will also use IPv4 if there	is a corresponding v4 entry for	localhost

	       localhost:20203:IPv*  # same (default)

	       localhost:20203:IPv6  # will use	IPv6

	       [::1]:20203	     # will use	IPv6 (IPv6 style address)

	       localhost:20203:IPv4  # will use	IPv4	     # will use	IPv4 (IPv4 style address

	       localhost:20203:IPv4:IPv6 # will	bind to	both v4	and v6 - fails otherwise

	       # or as a hashref as
	       port => {
		   host	=> "localhost",
		   ipv	=> 6, #	only binds IPv6

	       port => {
		   host	=> "localhost",
		   ipv	=> 4, #	only binds IPv4

	       port => {
		   host	=> "::1",
		   ipv	=> "IPv6", # same as passing "6"

	       port => {
		   host	=> "localhost/IPv*",	   # any IPv4 or IPv6

	       port => {
		   host	=> "localhost IPv4 IPv6",  # must create both

	   In many proposed Net::Server	solutions, IPv*	was enabled by
	   default.  For versions 2.000	through	2.004, the previous default of
	   IPv4	was used.  We have attempted to	make it	easy to	set IPv4,
	   IPv6, or IPv*.  If you do not want or need IPv6, simply set ipv to
	   4, pass IPv4	along in the port specification, set $ENV{'IPV'}=4;
	   before running the server, or uninstall IO::Socket::INET6.

	   On my local box the following command results in the	following

	       perl -e 'use base qw(Net::Server); main->run(host => "localhost")'

	       Resolved	[localhost]:20203 to [::1]:20203, IPv6
	       Resolved	[localhost]:20203 to []:20203,	IPv4
	       Binding to TCP port 20203 on host ::1 with IPv6
	       Binding to TCP port 20203 on host with	IPv4

	   My local box	has IPv6 enabled and there are entries for localhost
	   on both IPv6	::1 and	IPv4	 I could also choose to
	   explicitly bind ports rather	than depending upon ipv	=> "*" to
	   resolve them	for me as in the following:

	       perl -e 'use base qw(Net::Server); main->run(port => [20203,20203], host	=> "localhost",	ipv => [4,6])'

	       Binding to TCP port 20203 on host localhost with	IPv4
	       Binding to TCP port 20203 on host localhost with	IPv6

	   There is a special case of using host => "*"	as well	as ipv => "*".
	   The Net::Server::Proto::_bindv6only method is used to check the
	   system setting for "sysctl -n net.ipv6.bindv6only" (or
	   net.inet6.ip6.v6only).  If this setting is false, then an IPv6
	   socket will listen for the corresponding IPv4 address.  For example
	   the address [::] (IPv6 equivalent of	INADDR_ANY) will also listen
	   for	 The address ::FFFF: (IPv6) would also	listen
	   to	(IPv4).	 In this case, only one	socket will be created
	   because it will handle both cases (an error is returned if an
	   attempt is made to listen to	both addresses when bindv6only is

	   However, if net.ipv6.bindv6only (or equivalent) is true, then a
	   hostname (such as *)	resolving to both a IPv4 entry as well as an
	   IPv6	will result in both an IPv4 socket as well as an IPv6 socket.

	   On my linux box which defaults to net.ipv6.bindv6only=0, the
	   following is	output.

	       perl -e 'use base qw(Net::Server); main->run(host => "*")'

	       Resolved	[*]:8080 to [::]:8080, IPv6
	       Not including resolved host [] IPv4 because it will be handled by	[::] IPv6
	       Binding to TCP port 8080	on host	:: with	IPv6

	   If I	issue a	"sudo /sbin/sysctl -w net.ipv6.bindv6only=1", the
	   following is	output.

	       perl -e 'use base qw(Net::Server); main->run(host => "*")'

	       Resolved	[*]:8080 to []:8080, IPv4
	       Resolved	[*]:8080 to [::]:8080, IPv6
	       Binding to TCP port 8080	on host	with IPv4
	       Binding to TCP port 8080	on host	:: with	IPv6

	   BSD differs from linux and generally	defaults to
	   net.inet6.ip6.v6only=0.  If it cannot be determined on your OS, it
	   will	default	to false and the log message will change from "it will
	   be handled" to "it should be	handled" (if you have a	non-resource
	   intensive way to check on your platform, feel free to email me).
	   Be sure to check the	logs as	you test your server to	make sure you
	   have	bound the ports	you desire.  You can always pass in individual
	   explicit IPv4 and IPv6 port specifications if you need.  For
	   example, if your system has both IPv4 and IPv6 interfaces but you'd
	   only	like to	bind to	IPv6 entries, then you should use a hostname
	   of [::] instead of [*].

	   If bindv6only (or equivalent) is false, and you receive an IPv4
	   connection on a bound IPv6 port, the	textual	representation of the
	   peer's IPv4 address will typically be in a form of an IPv4-mapped
	   IPv6	addresses, e.g.	"::FFFF:" .

	   The ipv parameter was chosen	because	it does	not conflict with any
	   other existing usage, it is very similar to ipv4 or ipv6, it	allows
	   for user code to not	need to	know about Socket::AF_INET or
	   Socket6::AF_INET6 or	Socket::AF_UNSPEC, and it is short.

	   See IO::Socket.  Not	used with udp protocol (or UNIX	SOCK_DGRAM).

	   Specify whether to lookup the hostname of the connected IP.
	   Information is cached in server object under	"peerhost" property.
	   Default is to not use reverse_lookups (undef).

	   May be specified multiple times.  Contains regex to compare to
	   incoming peeraddr or	peerhost (if reverse_lookups has been
	   enabled).  If allow or deny options are given, the incoming client
	   must	match an allow and not match a deny or the client connection
	   will	be closed.  Defaults to	empty array refs.

	   May be specified multiple times.  Contains a	CIDR block to compare
	   to incoming peeraddr.  If cidr_allow	or cidr_deny options are
	   given, the incoming client must match a cidr_allow and not match a
	   cidr_deny or	the client connection will be closed.  Defaults	to
	   empty array refs.

	   Directory to	chroot to after	bind process has taken place and the
	   server is still running as root.  Defaults to undef.

	   Userid or username to become	after the bind process has occured.
	   Defaults to "nobody."  If you would like the	server to run as root,
	   you will have to specify "user" equal to "root".

	   Groupid or groupname	to become after	the bind process has occured.
	   Defaults to "nobody."  If you would like the	server to run as root,
	   you will have to specify "group" equal to "root".

	   Specifies whether or	not the	server should fork after the bind
	   method to release itself from the command line.  Defaults to	undef.
	   Process will	also background	if "setsid" is set.

	   Specifies whether or	not the	server should fork after the bind
	   method to release itself from the command line and then run the
	   "POSIX::setsid()" command to	truly daemonize.  Defaults to undef.
	   If a	"log_file" is given or if "setsid" is set, STDIN and STDOUT
	   will	automatically be opened	to /dev/null and STDERR	will be	opened
	   to STDOUT.  This will prevent any output from ending	up at the

	   Boolean.  Specifies whether or not a	forked child process has
	   permission or not to	shutdown the entire server process.  If	set to
	   1, the child	may NOT	signal the parent to shutdown all children.
	   Default is undef (not set).

	   Boolean.  Default undef (not	set).  Specifies that STDIN and	STDOUT
	   should not be opened	on the client handle once a connection has
	   been	accepted.  By default the Net::Server will open	STDIN and
	   STDOUT on the client	socket making it easier	for many types of
	   scripts to read directly from and write directly to the socket
	   using normal	print and read methods.	 Disabling this	is useful on
	   clients that	may be opening their own connections to	STDIN and

	   This	option has no affect on	STDIN and STDOUT which has a magic
	   client property that	is tied	to the already open STDIN and STDOUT.

	   Boolean.  Default undef (not	set).  If set, the parent will not
	   attempt to close child processes if the parent receives a SIG HUP.
	   The parent will rebind the the open port and	begin tracking a fresh
	   set of children.

	   Children of a Fork server will exit after their current request.
	   Children of a Prefork type server will finish the current request
	   and then exit.

	   Note	- the newly restarted parent will start	up a fresh set of
	   servers on fork servers.  The new parent will attempt to keep track
	   of the children from	the former parent but custom communication
	   channels (open pipes	from the child to the old parent) will no
	   longer be available to the old child	processes.  New	child
	   processes will still	connect	properly to the	new parent.

	   Default none.  Allow	for passing requested signals through to
	   children.  Takes a single signal name, a comma separated list of
	   names, or an	arrayref of signal names.  It first sends the signals
	   to the children before calling any currently	registered signal by
	   that	name.

	   Default undef.  If set will use Net::Server::TiedHandle tied
	   interface for STDIN and STDOUT.  This interface allows SSL and
	   SSLEAY to work.  It also allows for intercepting read and write via
	   the tied_stdin_callback and tied_stdout_callback.

	   Default undef.  Called during a read	of STDIN data if
	   tie_client_stdout has been set, or if the client handle's
	   tie_stdout method returns true.  It is passed the client
	   connection, the name	of the method that would be called, and	the
	   arguments that are being passed.  The callback is then responsible
	   for calling that method on the handle or for	performing some	other
	   input operation.

	   Default undef.  Called during a write of data to STDOUT if
	   tie_client_stdout has been set, or if the client handle's
	   tie_stdout method returns true.  It is passed the client
	   connection, the name	of the method that would be called, and	the
	   arguments that are being passed.  The callback is then responsible
	   for calling that method on the handle or for	performing some	other
	   output operation.

       All of the "ARGUMENTS" listed above become properties of	the server
       object under the	same name.  These properties, as well as other
       internal	properties, are	available during hooks and other method	calls.

       The structure of	a Net::Server object is	shown below:

	   $self = bless({
	       server => {
		   key1	=> 'val1',
		   # more key/vals
	   }, 'Net::Server');

       This structure was chosen so that all server related properties are
       grouped under a single key of the object	hashref.  This is so that
       other objects could layer on top	of the Net::Server object class	and
       still have a fairly clean namespace in the hashref.

       You may get and set properties in two ways.  The	suggested way is to
       access properties directly via

	   my $val = $self->{server}->{key1};

       Accessing the properties	directly will speed the	server process -
       though some would deem this as bad style.  A second way has been
       provided	for object oriented types who believe in methods.  The second
       way consists of the following methods:

	   my $val = $self->get_property( 'key1' );
	   my $self->set_property( key1	=> 'val1' );

       Properties are allowed to be changed at any time	with caution (please
       do not undef the	sock property or you will close	the client

       "Net::Server" allows for	the use	of a configuration file	to read	in
       server parameters.  The format of this conf file	is simple key value
       pairs.  Comments	and blank lines	are ignored.

	   #-------------- file	test.conf --------------

	   ### user and	group to become
	   user	       somebody
	   group       everybody

	   # logging ?
	   log_file    /var/log/server.log
	   log_level   3
	   pid_file    /tmp/

	   # optional syslog directive
	   # used in place of log_file above
	   #log_file	   Sys::Syslog
	   #syslog_logsock unix
	   #syslog_ident   myserver
	   #syslog_logopt  pid|cons

	   # access control
	   allow       .+\.(net|com)
	   allow       domain\.com
	   deny	       a.+

	   # background	the process?
	   background  1

	   # ports to bind (this should	bind
	   # on	IPv6 and
	   # localhost:20204 on	IPv4)
	   # See Net::Server::Proto
	   ipv	       IPv6
	   port	       localhost:20204/IPv4
	   port	       20205

	   # reverse lookups ?
	   # reverse_lookups on

	 #-------------- file test.conf	--------------

       The process flow	is written in an open, easy to override, easy to hook,
       fashion.	 The basic flow	is shown below.	 This is the flow of the
       "$self->run" method.











	   ### routines	inside a standard $self->loop
	   # $self->accept;
	   # $self->run_client_connection;
	   # $self->done;



       The server then exits.

       During the client processing phase ("$self->run_client_connection"),
       the following represents	the program flow:




	   if ($self->allow_deny
	       && $self->allow_deny_hook) {


	   } else {






       The process then	loops and waits	for the	next connection.  For a	more
       in depth	discussion, please read	the code.

       During the server shutdown phase	("$self->server_close"), the following
       represents the program flow:

	   $self->close_children;  # if	any


	   if (Restarting server) {



	   This	method incorporates the	main process flow.  This flow is
	   listed above.

	   The method run may be called	in any of the following	ways.

		MyPackage->run(port => 20201);

		MyPackage->new({port =>	20201})->run;

		my $obj	= bless	{server=>{port => 20201}}, 'MyPackage';

	   The ->run method should typically be	the last method	called in a
	   server start	script (the server will	exit at	the end	of the ->run

	   This	method attempts	to read	configurations from the	commandline,
	   from	the run	method call, or	from a specified conf_file (the
	   conf_file may be specified by passed	in parameters, or in the
	   default_values).  All of the	configured parameters are then stored
	   in the {"server"} property of the Server object.

	   The post_configure hook begins the startup of the server.  During
	   this	method running server instances	are checked for, pid_files are
	   created, log_files are created, Sys::Syslog is initialized (as
	   needed), process backgrounding occurs and the server	closes STDIN
	   and STDOUT (as needed).

	   This	method is used to initialize all of the	socket objects used by
	   the server.

	   This	method actually	binds to the inialized sockets (or rebinds if
	   the server has been HUPed).

	   During this method priveleges are dropped.  The INT,	TERM, and QUIT
	   signals are set to run server_close.	 Sig PIPE is set to IGNORE.
	   Sig CHLD is set to sig_chld.	 And sig HUP is	set to call sig_hup.

	   Under the Fork, PreFork, and	PreFork	simple personalities, these
	   signals are registered using	Net::Server::SIG to allow for safe
	   signal handling.

	   During this phase, the server accepts incoming connections.	The
	   behavior of how the accepting occurs	and if a child process handles
	   the connection is controlled	by what	type of	Net::Server
	   personality the server is using.

	   Net::Server and Net::Server single accept only one connection at a

	   Net::Server::INET runs one connection and then exits	(for use by
	   inetd or xinetd daemons).

	   Net::Server::MultiPlex allows for one process to simultaneously
	   handle multiple connections (but requires rewriting the
	   process_request code	to operate in a	more "packet-like" manner).

	   Net::Server::Fork forks off a new child process for each incoming

	   Net::Server::PreForkSimple starts up	a fixed	number of processes
	   that	all accept on incoming connections.

	   Net::Server::PreFork	starts up a base number	of child processes
	   which all accept on incoming	connections.  The server throttles the
	   number of processes running depending upon the number of requests
	   coming in (similar to concept to how	Apache controls	its child
	   processes in	a PreFork server).

	   Read	the documentation for each of the types	for more information.

	   This	method is called once the server has been signaled to end, or
	   signaled for	the server to restart (via HUP), or the	loop method
	   has been exited.

	   This	method takes care of cleaning up any remaining child
	   processes, setting appropriate flags	on sockets (for	HUPing),
	   closing up logging, and then	closing	open sockets.

	   Can optionally be passed an exit value that will be passed to the
	   server_exit call.

	   This	method is called at the	end of server_close.  It calls exit,
	   but may be overridden to do other items.  At	this point all
	   services should be shut down.

	   Can optionally be passed an exit value that will be passed to the
	   exit	call.

	   This	method is run after the	server has accepted and	received a
	   client connection.  The full	process	flow is	listed above under
	   PROCESS FLOWS.  This	method takes care of handling each client

	   This	method opens STDIN and STDOUT to the client socket.  This
	   allows any of the methods during the	run_client_connection phase to
	   print directly to and read directly from the	client socket.

	   This	method looks up	information about the client connection	such
	   as ip address, socket type, and hostname (as	needed).

	   This	method uses the	rules defined in the allow and deny
	   configuration parameters to determine if the	ip address should be

	   This	method is intended to handle all of the	client communication.
	   At this point STDIN and STDOUT are opened to	the client, the	ip
	   address has been verified.  The server can then interact with the
	   client connection according to whatever API or protocol the server
	   is implementing.  Note that the stub	implementation uses STDIN and
	   STDOUT and will not work if the no_client_stdout flag is set.

	   This	is the main method to override.

	   The default method implements a simple echo server that will	repeat
	   whatever is sent.  It will quit the child if	"quit" is sent,	and
	   will	exit the server	if "exit" is sent.

	   As of version 2.000,	the client handle is passed as an argument.

	   This	method is used to clean	up the client connection and to	handle
	   any parent/child accounting for the forking servers.

       "Net::Server" provides a	number of "hooks" allowing for servers layered
       on top of "Net::Server" to respond at different levels of execution
       without having to "SUPER" class the main	built-in methods.  The
       placement of the	hooks can be seen in the PROCESS FLOW section.

       Almost all of the default hook methods do nothing.  To use a hook you
       simply need to override the method in your subclass.  For example to
       add your	own post_configure_hook	you could do something like the

	   package MyServer;

	   sub post_configure_hook {
	       my $self	= shift;
	       my $prop	= $self->{'server'};

	       # do some validation here

       The following describes the hooks available in the plain	Net::Server
       class (other flavors such as Fork or PreFork have additional hooks).

	   This	hook takes place immediately after the "->run()" method	is
	   called.  This hook allows for setting up the	object before any
	   built in configuration takes	place.	This allows for	custom

	   This	hook occurs just after the reading of configuration parameters
	   and initiation of logging and pid_file creation.  It	also occurs
	   before the "->pre_bind()" and "->bind()" methods are	called.	 This
	   hook	allows for verifying configuration parameters.

	   This	hook occurs just after the bind	process	and just before	any
	   chrooting, change of	user, or change	of group occurs.  At this
	   point the process will still	be running as the user who started the

	   This	hook occurs after chroot, change of user, and change of	group
	   has occured.	 It allows for preparation before looping begins.

	   This	hook occurs after a socket becomes readible on an
	   accept_multi_port request (accept_multi_port	is used	if there are
	   multiple bound ports	to accept on, or if the	"multi_port"
	   configuration parameter is set to true).  This hook is intended to
	   allow for processing	of arbitrary handles added to the IO::Select
	   used	for the	accept_multi_port.  These handles could	be added
	   during the post_bind_hook.  No internal support is added for
	   processing these handles or adding them to the IO::Socket.  Care
	   must	be used	in how much occurs during the can_read_hook as a long
	   response time will result in	the server being susceptible to	DOS
	   attacks.  A return value of true indicates that the Server should
	   not pass the	readible handle	on to the post_accept and
	   process_request phases.

	   It is generally suggested that other	avenues	be pursued for sending
	   messages via	sockets	not created by the Net::Server.

	   This	hook occurs after a client has connected to the	server.	 At
	   this	point STDIN and	STDOUT are mapped to the client	socket.	 This
	   hook	occurs before the processing of	the request.

	   This	hook allows for	the checking of	ip and host information	beyond
	   the "$self->allow_deny()" routine.  If this hook returns 1, the
	   client request will be processed, otherwise,	the request will be
	   denied processing.

	   As of version 2.000,	the client connection is passed	as an

	   This	hook occurs if either the "$self->allow_deny()"	or
	   "$self->allow_deny_hook()" have taken place.

	   This	hook occurs after the processing of the	request, but before
	   the client connection has been closed.

	   This	is one final hook that occurs at the very end of the
	   run_client_connection method.  At this point	all other methods and
	   hooks that will run during the run_client_connection	have finished
	   and the client connection has already been closed.

	   item	"$self->other_child_died_hook($pid)"

	   Net::Server takes control of	signal handling	and child process
	   cleanup; this makes it difficult to tell when a child process
	   terminates if that child process was	not started by Net::Server
	   itself.  If Net::Server notices another child process dying that it
	   did not start, it will fire this hook with the PID of the
	   terminated process.

	   This	hook occurs before the server begins shutting down.

	   This	hook handles writing to	log files.  The	default	hook is	to
	   write to STDERR, or to the filename contained in the	parameter
	   "log_file".	The arguments passed are a log level of	0 to 4 (4
	   being very verbose),	and a log line.	 If log_file is	equal to
	   "Sys::Syslog", then logging will go to Sys::Syslog and will bypass
	   the write_to_log_hook.

	   This	hook occurs when the server has	encountered an unrecoverable
	   error.  Arguments passed are	the error message, the package,	file,
	   and line number.  The hook may close	the server, but	it is
	   suggested that it simply return and use the built in	shut down

	   This	hook occurs in the parent server process after all children
	   have	been shut down and just	before the server either restarts or
	   exits.  It is intended for additional cleanup of information.  At
	   this	point pid_files	and lockfiles still exist.

	   This	hook occurs if a server	has been HUPed (restarted via the HUP
	   signal.  It occurs just before reopening to the filenos of the
	   sockets that	were already opened.

	   This	hook occurs if a server	has been HUPed (restarted via the HUP
	   signal.  It occurs just before restarting the server	via exec.

	   This	hook is	called during the forking servers.  It is also called
	   during run_dequeue.	It runs	just after the fork and	after signals
	   have	been cleaned up.  If it	is a dequeue process, the string
	   'dequeue' will be passed as an argument.

	   If your child processes will	be needing random numbers, this	hook
	   is a	good location to initialize srand (forked processes maintain
	   the same random seed	unless changed).

	       sub child_init_hook {
		   # from perldoc -f srand
		   srand(time ^	$$ ^ unpack "%L*", `ps axww | gzip -f`);

	   Similar to the child_init_hook, but occurs just before the fork.

	   Similar to the child_init_hook, but ran when	the forked process is
	   about to finish up.

	   Allow for returning configuration values that will be used if no
	   other value could be	found.

	   Should return a hashref.

	       sub default_values {
		   return {
		       port => 20201,

	   Called when log_file	is set to 'Sys::Syslog'	and an error occurs
	   while writing to the	syslog.	 It is passed two arguments, the value
	   of $@, and an arrayref containing the arguments that	were passed to
	   the log method when the error occured.

	   Parameters are a log_level and a message.

	   If log_level	is set to 'Sys::Syslog', the parameters	may
	   alternately be a log_level, a format	string,	and format string
	   parameters.	(The second parameter is assumed to be a format	string
	   if additional arguments are passed along).  Passing arbitrary
	   format strings to Sys::Syslog will allow the	server to be
	   vulnerable to exploit.  The server maintainer should	make sure that
	   any string treated as a format string is controlled.

	       # assuming log_file = 'Sys::Syslog'

	       $self->log(1, "My Message with %s in it");
	       # sends "%s", "My Message with %s in it"	to syslog

	       $self->log(1, "My Message with %s in it", "Foo");
	       # sends "My Message with	%s in it", "Foo" to syslog

	   If log_file is set to a file	(other than Sys::Syslog), the message
	   will	be appended to the log file by calling the write_to_log_hook.

	   If the log_file is Sys::Syslog and an error occurs during write,
	   the handle_syslog_error method will be called and passed the	error
	   exception.  The default option of handle_syslog_error is to die -
	   but could easily be told to do nothing by using the following code
	   in your subclassed server:

	       sub handle_syslog_error {}

	   It the log had been closed, you could attempt to reopen it in the
	   error handler with the following code:

	       sub handle_syslog_error {
		   my $self = shift;

	   As of Net::Server 0.91 there	is finally a "new" method.  This
	   method takes	a class	name and an argument hashref as	parameters.
	   The argument	hashref	becomes	the "server" property of the object.

	       package MyPackage;
	       use base	qw(Net::Server);

	       my $obj = MyPackage->new({port => 20201});

	       # same as

	       my $obj = bless {server => {port	=> 20201}}, 'MyPackage';

	   Called during post_configure	when the log_file option is set	to
	   'Sys::Syslog'.  By default it use the parsed	configuration options
	   listed in this document.  If	more custom behavior is	desired, the
	   method could	be overridden and Sys::Syslog::openlog should be
	   called with the custom parameters.

	   This	method will close any remaining	open sockets.  This is called
	   at the end of the server_close method.

       Each of the server personalities	(except	for INET), support restarting
       via a HUP signal	(see "kill -l").  When a HUP is	received, the server
       will close children (if any), make sure that sockets are	left open, and
       re-exec using the same commandline parameters that initially started
       the server.  (Note: for this reason it is important that	@ARGV is not
       modified	until "->run" is called).

       The Net::Server will attempt to find out	the commandline	used for
       starting	the program.  The attempt is made before any configuration
       files or	other arguments	are processed.	The outcome of this attempt is
       stored using the	method "->commandline".	 The stored commandline	may
       also be retrieved using the same	method name.  The stored contents will
       undoubtedly contain Tainted items that will cause the server to die
       during a	restart	when using the -T flag (Taint mode).  As it is
       impossible to arbitrarily decide	what is	taint safe and what is not,
       the individual program must clean up the	tainted	items before doing a

	   sub configure_hook{
	       my $self	= shift;

	       ### see the contents
	       my $ref	= $self->commandline;
	       use Data::Dumper;
	       print Dumper $ref;

	       ### arbitrary untainting	- VERY dangerous
	       my @untainted = map {/(.+)/;$1} @$ref;


       Each of the Fork	and PreFork personalities support graceful shutdowns
       via the QUIT signal.  When a QUIT is received, the parent will signal
       the children and	then wait for them to exit.

       All server personalities	support	the normal TERM	and INT	signal

       Since version 2.000, the	Fork and PreFork personalities have accepted
       the TTIN	and TTOU signals.  When	a TTIN is received, the	max_servers is
       increased by 1.	If a TTOU signal is received the max_servers is
       decreased by 1.	This allows for	adjusting the number of	handling
       processes without having	to restart the server.

       If the log_level	is set to at 3,	then the new value is displayed	in the

       The following files are installed as part of this distribution.


       Download	and extract tarball before running these commands in its base

	   perl	Makefile.PL
	   make	test
	   make	install

       Paul Seamons <paul at>

       As we move to a github flow, please be sure to add yourself to the
       credits as patches are passed along (if you'd like to be	mentioned).

       Thanks to Rob Brown (bbb	at for help with miscellaneous
       concepts	such as	tracking down the serialized select via	flock ala
       Apache and the reference	to IO::Select making multiport servers
       possible.  And for researching into allowing sockets to remain open
       upon exec (making HUP possible).

       Thanks to Jonathan J. Miner <miner at> for	patching a
       blatant problem in the reverse lookups.

       Thanks to Bennett Todd <bet at> for pointing out a problem in
       Solaris 2.5.1 which does	not allow multiple children to accept on the
       same port at the	same time.  Also for showing some sample code from
       Viktor Duchovni which now represents the	semaphore option of the
       serialize argument in the PreFork server.

       Thanks to traveler and merlyn from for pointing me
       in the right direction for determining the protocol used	on a socket

       Thanks to Jeremy	Howard <j+daemonize at> for numerous
       suggestions and for work	on Net::Server::Daemonize.

       Thanks to Vadim <vadim at> for patches to implement
       parent/child communication on

       Thanks to Carl Lewis for	suggesting "-" in user names.

       Thanks to Slaven	Rezic for suggesing Reuse => 1 in Proto::UDP.

       Thanks to Tim Watt for adding udp_broadcast to Proto::UDP.

       Thanks to Christopher A Bongaarts for pointing out problems with	the
       Proto::SSL implementation that currently	locks around the socket	accept
       and the SSL negotiation.	See Net::Server::Proto::SSL.

       Thanks to Alessandro Zummo for pointing out various bugs	including some
       in configuration, commandline args, and cidr_allow.

       Thanks to various other people for bug fixes over the years.  These and
       future thank-you's are available	in the Changes file as well as CVS

       Thanks to Ben Cohen and tye (on Permonks) for finding and diagnosing
       more correct behavior for dealing with re-opening STDIN and STDOUT on
       the client handles.

       Thanks to Mark Martinec for trouble shooting other problems with	STDIN
       and STDOUT (he proposed having a	flag that is now the no_client_stdout

       Thanks to David (DSCHWEI) on cpan for asking for	the nofatal option
       with syslog.

       Thanks to Andreas Kippnick and Peter Beckman for	suggesting leaving
       open child connections open during a HUP	(this is now available via the
       leave_children_open_on_hup flag).

       Thanks to LUPE on cpan for helping patch	HUP with taint on.

       Thanks to Michael Virnstein for fixing a	bug in the check_for_dead
       section of PreFork server.

       Thanks to Rob Mueller for patching PreForkSimple	to only	open lock_file
       once during parent call.	 This patch should be portable on systems
       supporting flock.  Rob also suggested not closing STDIN/STDOUT but
       instead reopening them to /dev/null to prevent spurious warnings.  Also
       suggested short circuit in post_accept if in UDP.  Also for cleaning up
       some of the child managment code	of PreFork.

       Thanks to Mark Martinec for suggesting additional log messages for
       failure during accept.

       Thanks to Bill Nesbitt and Carlos Velasco for pointing out double
       decrement bug in (rt #21271)

       Thanks to John W. Krahn for pointing out	glaring	precended with non-
       parened open and	||.

       Thanks to Ricardo Signes	for pointing out setuid	bug for	perl 5.6.1 (rt

       Thanks to Carlos	Velasco	for updating the Syslog	options	(rt #21265).
       And for additional fixes	later.

       Thanks to Steven	Lembark	for pointing out that no_client_stdout wasn't
       working with the	Multiplex server.

       Thanks to Peter Beckman for suggesting allowing Sys::SysLog keyworks be
       passed through the ->log	method and for suggesting we allow more	types
       of characters through in	syslog_ident.  Also to Peter Beckman for
       pointing	out that a poorly setup	localhost will cause tests to hang.

       Thanks to Curtis	Wilbar for pointing out	that the Fork server called
       post_accept_hook	twice.	Changed	to only	let the	child process call
       this, but added the pre_fork_hook method.

       And just	a general Thanks You to	everybody who is using Net::Server or
       who has contributed fixes over the years.

       Thanks to Paul Miller for some ->autoflush, FileHandle fixes.

       Thanks to Patrik	Wallstrom for suggesting handling syslog errors

       Thanks again to Rob Mueller for more logic cleanup for child accounting
       in PreFork server.

       Thanks to David Schweikert for suggesting handling setlogsock a little
       better on newer versions	of Sys::Syslog (>= 0.15).

       Thanks to Mihail	Nasedkin for suggesting	adding a hook that is now
       called post_client_connection_hook.

       Thanks to Graham	Barr for adding	the ability to set the check_for_spawn
       and min_child_ttl settings of the PreFork server.

       Thanks to Daniel	Kahn Gillmor for adding	the other_child_died_hook.

       Thanks to Dominic Humphries for helping not kill	pid files on HUP.

       Thanks to Kristoffer MA,llerhA,j	for fixing UDP on Multiplex.

       Thanks to mishikal for patches for helping identify un-cleaned up

       Thanks to rpkelly and tim@retout	for pointing out error in header regex
       of HTTP.

       Thanks to dmcbride for some basic HTTP parsing fixes, as	well as	for
       some broken tied	handle fixes.

       Thanks to Gareth	for pointing out glaring bug issues with broken	pipe
       and semaphore serialization.

       Thanks to CATONE	for sending the	idea for arbitrary signal passing to
       children.  (See the sig_passthrough option)

       Thanks to intrigeri@boum	for pointing out and giving code ideas for
       NS_port not functioning after a HUP.

       Thanks to Sergey	Zasenko	for adding sysread/syswrite support to SSLEAY
       as well as the base test.

       Thanks to mbarbon@users.	for adding tally dequeue to prefork server.

       Thanks to stefanos@cpan for fixes to PreFork under Win32

       Thanks to Mark Martinec for much	of the initial work towards getting
       IPv6 going.

       Thanks to the munin developers and Nicolai Langfeldt for	hosting	the
       development verion of Net::Server for so	long and for fixes to the
       allow_deny checking for IPv6 addresses.

       Thanks to Tatsuhiko Miyagawa for	feedback, and for suggesting adding
       graceful	shutdowns and hot deploy (max_servers adjustment).

       Thanks to TONVOON@cpan for submitting a patch adding Log4perl

       Thanks to Miko O'Sullivan for fixes to HTTP to correct tainting issues
       and passing initial log fixes, and for patches to fix CLOSE on tied
       stdout and various other	HTTP issues.

       Please see also Net::Server::Fork, Net::Server::INET,
       Net::Server::PreForkSimple, Net::Server::PreFork,
       Net::Server::MultiType, Net::Server::Single Net::Server::HTTP

       Improve test suite to fully cover code (using Devel::Cover).  Anybody
       that wanted to send me patches to the t/*.t tests that improved
       coverage	would earn a big thank you.


	   Paul	Seamons	<paul at>

	   Rob Brown <bbb at>

       This package may	be distributed under the terms of either the

	 GNU General Public License
	   or the
	 Perl Artistic License

       All rights reserved.

       Hey! The	above document had some	coding errors, which are explained

       Around line 1754:
	   Non-ASCII character seen before =encoding in	'MA,llerhA,j'.
	   Assuming UTF-8

perl v5.32.1			  2017-08-10			Net::Server(3)


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