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Net::LDAP::FAQ(3)     User Contributed Perl Documentation    Net::LDAP::FAQ(3)

       Net::LDAP::FAQ -	Frequently Asked Questions about Net::LDAP

	perldoc	Net::LDAP::FAQ

       This document serves to answer the most frequently asked	questions on
       both the	perl-ldap Mailing List and those sent to Graham	Barr.

       The latest version of this FAQ can be found at

   What	is perl-ldap?
       perl-ldap is the	distribution name. The perl-ldap distribution contains
       the Net::LDAP modules.

   Why another Perl LDAP implementation?
       perl-ldap's goal	is to be as portable as	possible. It does this by
       being implemented completely in Perl. So	basically anywhere that	Perl
       runs perl-ldap will run.	This is	not true for other implementations
       which require a C compiler.

   Where can I get it?
       Perl-ldap is available from CPAN.  You can find the released versions

   Is there a web page for perl-ldap?
       Yes there is at

   Is there a mailing list?
       Yes there is at

       You can subscribe to this list by mailing

   Is the mailing list archived?
       Yes, at

       Archives	with messages before we	switched to using can be
       found at

       There is	also an	archive	of the perl-ldap mailing list at

       which also has messages from before the move.

   Is there any	online documentation?
       Yes. perl-ldap has online documentation at

       which will have the latest documentation	available.

   Is there a public repository?
       Yes, there is a public Git repository at

   Can I get perl-ldap from the	public Git repository?
       Yes, anyone can pull perl-ldap from the public Git repository on

       There are several ways this can be done - see below.

	   You can download it from CPAN by following the "Download" link on:


       Git - fork on GitHub
	   If you have an account on GitHub (there's a free variant), you can
	   easily fork the perl-ldap repository	on GitHub.  When logged	on to
	   GitHub, navigate to the perl-ldap repository

	   and simply click on the "Fork" button near the top-right corner.

       Git - clone repository
	   You can download latest development version of perl-ldap from
	   GitHub by cloning the repository using the command:

	    git	clone

	   This	command	will create a directory	named 'perl-ldap' in your
	   current directory containing	a local	clone of the repository.

	   Keeping your	local repository in sync with perl-ldap's GitHub
	   repository is easy:

	     cd	perl-ldap
	     git pull

       Web page
	   Most	of the time there is a URL link	on the perl-ldap home page on that points to	the latest released version of perl-
	   ldap.  Due to the fact that humans must update the web page to
	   point to a new release it sometimes does not	get updated as quickly
	   as it should.

   What	is Git?
       Git (see is a distributed version control system
       designed	to keep	track of source	changes	made by	groups of developers
       working on the same files, allowing them	to stay	in sync	with each
       other as	each individual	chooses.

       In order	to help	the user understand the	perl-ldap module better	some
       key LDAP	terminology is defined here.

   What	is a directory?
       A directory is a	special	purpose	hierarchical database that usually
       contains	typed information such as text strings,	binary data, or	X.509

   What	is LDAP?
       LDAP stands for Lightweight Directory Access Protocol.  The word
       Protocol	is the key word	in the definition given	in the preceding
       sentence, LDAP is NOT hardware or software.  It is a protocol that
       defines how a client and	server will communicate	with one another.

       The Lightweight Directory Access	Protocol is defined in a series	of
       Requests	For Comments, better known as RFCs. The	RFCs can be found on
       the Internet at (the master	repository) and	many
       other places. There's a link to all the LDAP-related RFCs at perl-
       ldap's web site, Some of the more
       important RFC numbers are RFC 4510 - 4519 for LDAP (previously called
       LDAPv3) and the historic	RFC 1777 for LDAPv2.

   What	is a LDAP Directory?
       In the strictest	terms of the definition	there is no such thing as a
       LDAP directory.	To be practical	about this situation every day
       directory professionals refer to	their directory	as " a LDAP directory"
       because it is easy to say and it	does convey the	type of	protocol used
       to communicate with their directory.  Using this	definition a LDAP
       directory is a directory	whose server software conforms to the
       Lightweight Directory Access Protocol when communicating	with a client.

   What	is an Entry?
       The traditional directory definition of a directory object is called an
       Entry. Entries are composed of attributes that contain the information
       to be recorded about the	object.

       (An entry in LDAP is somewhat analogous to a record in a	table in an
       SQL database, but don't get too hung up about this analogy!)

       Entries are held	in an upside-down tree structure. Entries can
       therefore contain subordinate entries, and entries must have one	direct
       superior	entry.

       Entries with subordinate	entries	are called 'non-leaf' entries.

       Entries without subordinate entries are called 'leaf' entries.

       An entry's direct superior entry	is called the entry's 'parent'.

       'Non-leaf' entries are also said	to have	'child'	entries.

   What	is an attribute?
       The entry(s) in a directory are composed	of attributes that contain
       information about the object.  Each attribute has a type	and can
       contain one or more values.

       For example:

	 cn=Road Runner

       is an attribute with a type named "cn", and one value.

       Each attribute is described by a	'syntax' which defines what kind of
       information can be stored in the	attributes values.  Trying to store a
       value that doesn't conform to the attribute's syntax will result	in an

       For example:


       is not permitted	by the directory, because jpegPhotos may only contain
       JPEG-formatted images.

       Most syntaxes used in LDAP however describe text	strings	rather than
       binary objects (like JPEGs or certificates.)

       In LDAPv3 most of these syntaxes	support	Unicode	encoded	using UTF-8.
       Because the Net::LDAP modules do	not change the strings that you	pass
       in as attribute values (they get	sent to	the LDAP server	as-is) to use
       accented	characters you simply need to encode your strings in UTF-8.
       There are modules on CPAN that will help	you here.

       Note that LDAPv2	servers	used something called T.61 instead of Unicode
       and UTF-8. Most servers do not implement	T.61 correctly,	and it is
       recommended that	you use	LDAPv3 instead.

       Attributes may also be searched.	 The algorithms	used to	perform
       different kinds of searches are described by the	attribute's 'matching
       rules'.	Some matching rules are	case-sensitive and some	are case-
       insensitive, for	example.  Sometimes matching rules aren't defined for
       a particular attribute: there's no way to search	for jpegPhotos that
       contain a substring!

       You can examine all of a	server's attribute definitions by reading the
       schema from the server.

   What	is an object class?
       An object class is the name associated with a group of attributes that
       must be present in an entry, and	the group of attributes	that may also
       be present in an	entry.

       Object classes may be derived (subclassed) from other object classes.
       For example the widely used 'inetOrgPerson' object class	is derived
       from 'organizationalPerson', which is itself derived from 'person'
       which is	itself derived from 'top'.

       Every entry has an attribute called 'objectClass' that lists all	the
       names of	object classes (and their superclasses)	being used with	the

       You can examine all of a	server's objectclass definitions by reading
       the schema from the server.

   What	is a Distinguished Name	(DN)?
       Every entry in a	directory has a	Distinguished Name, or DN.  It is a
       unique Entry identifier throughout the complete directory.  No two
       Entries can have	the same DN within the same directory.

       Examples	of DNs:

	cn=Road	Runner,	ou=bird, dc=cartoon, dc=com
	ou=bird, dc=cartoon, dc=com
	dc=cartoon, dc=com

   What	is a Relative Distinguished Name?
       Every DN	is made	up of a	sequence of Relative Distinguished Names, or
       RDNs.  The sequences of RDNs are	separated by commas (,). In LDAPv2
       semi-colons (;) were also allowed.  There can be	more than one
       identical RDN in	a directory, but they must have	different parent

       Technically, an RDN contains attribute-value assertions,	or AVAs. When
       an AVA is written down, the attribute name is separated from the
       attribute value with an equals (=) sign.

       Example of a DN:

	cn=Road	Runner,ou=bird,dc=cartoon,dc=com

	RDNs of	the proceeding DN:
	RDN => cn=Road Runner
	RDN => ou=bird
	RDN => dc=cartoon
	RDN => dc=com

       RDNs can	contain	multiple attributes, though this is somewhat unusual.
       They are	called multi-AVA RDNs, and each	AVA is separated in the	RDN
       from the	others with a plus sign	(+).

       Example of a DN with a multi-AVA	RDN:

	cn=Road	Runner+l=Arizona,ou=bird,dc=cartoon,dc=com

   Where is an entry's name held?
       Entries do not contain their DN.	When you retrieve an entry from	a
       search, the server will tell you	the DN of each entry.

       On the other hand, entries do contain their RDN.	Recall that the	RDN is
       formed from one or more attribute-value assertions (AVAs); each entry
       must contain all	the attributes and values in the RDN.

       For example the entry:

	cn=Road	Runner+l=Arizona,ou=bird,dc=cartoon,dc=com

       must contain a 'cn' attribute containing	at least the value "Road
       Runner",	and an 'l' attribute containing	at least the value "Arizona".

       The attributes used in the RDN may contain additional values, but the
       entry still only	has one	DN.

   What	is a search base?
       A search	base is	a Distinguished	Name that is the starting point	of
       search queries.

       Example of a DN:

	cn=Road	Runner,ou=bird,dc=cartoon,dc=com

       Possible	search base(s) for the proceeding DN:

	Base =>	cn=Road	Runner,ou=bird,dc=cartoon,dc=com
	Base =>	ou=bird,dc=cartoon,dc=com
	Base =>	dc=cartoon,dc=com
	Base =>	dc=com

       Setting the search base to the lowest possible branch of	the directory
       will speed up searches considerably.

   What	is the difference between a LDAP server	and a relational database?
       The most	basic difference is that a directory server is a specialized
       database	designed to provide fast searches. While a relational database
       is optimized for	transactions (where a series of	operations is counted
       as 1, thus if one of the	steps fails, the RDBMS can roll-back to	the
       state it	was in before you started).

       Directories also	typically are hierarchical in nature (RDBMS is
       typically flat, but you can implement a hierarchy using tables and
       queries), networkable, distributed and replicated.

       LDAP provides an	open-standard to a directory service.

       Typically we use	LDAP for email directories (all	popular	email clients
       provide an LDAP client now) and authorization services (authentication
       and access control).

       You could use a RDBMS for these types of	queries	but there's no set
       standard, in particular over TCP/IP to connect to databases over	the
       network.	There's	language specific protocols (like Perl's DBI and
       Java's JDBC) that hide this problem behind an API abstraction, but
       that's not a replacement	for a standard access protocol.

       LDAP is starting	to be used on roles traditionally played by RDBMS in
       terms of	general	data management	because	it's easier to setup a LDAP
       server (once you	understand the basic nomenclature) and you don't need
       a DBA to	write your queries and more importantly	all LDAP servers speak
       the same	essential protocol, thus you don't have	to fuss	with a
       database	driver trying to connect it to the Internet. Once you have an
       LDAP server up and running, it's	automatically available	over the 'net.
       It's possible to	connect	to a LDAP server from a	variety	of mechanisms,
       including just about every possible programming language.

       More information	on this	topic can be found on the following URLs;

   What	is the difference between a ldap reference and a ldap referral?
       A referral is returned when the entire operation	must be	resent to
       another server.

       A continuation reference	is returned when part of the operation must be
       resent to another server.

       See RFC 4511 section 4.5.3 for more details.

   How do I install perl-ldap?
       To install the modules that are in the perl-ldap	distribution follow
       the same	steps that you would for most other distributions found	on
       CPAN, that is

	  # replace 0.62 with the version you have

	  gunzip perl-ldap-0.62.tar.gz
	  tar xvf perl-ldap-0.62.tar
	  cd perl-ldap-0.62

	  perl Makefile.PL
	  make test
	  make install

   But I do not	have make, how can I install perl-ldap?
       Well as luck would have it the modules in perl-ldap do not do anything
       complex,	so a simple copy is enough to install. First run

	 perl -V

       This will output	information about the version of Perl you have
       installed. Near the bottom you will find	something like


       This is a list of directories that Perl searches	when it	is looking for
       a module. The directory you need	is the site_perl directory, but
       without the system architecture name, in	this case it is
       "/usr/local/lib/site_perl". The files required can then be installed

	  # replace 0.62 with the version you have

	  gunzip perl-ldap-0.62.tar.gz
	  tar xvf perl-ldap-0.62.tar
	  cd perl-ldap-0.62/lib

	  cp -r	* /usr/local/lib/site_perl

   How can I load perl-ldap into an ActiveState	Perl installation?
       There are several ways that perl-ldap can be installed into an
       ActiveState Perl	tree.

       1.  The ActiveState ppm command can be used to install perl-ldap.  When
	   a new version of perl-ldap is released, it takes ActiveState	a
	   period of time to get the new release into the ActiveState ppm

       2.  If the user has nmake installed, the	user can do a normal Perl
	   module install using	nmake instead of make.

       3.  If the user does not	have nmake or make, the	user can install perl-
	   ldap	using the install-nomake script	by issuing the following

	    perl install-nomake

	   The install-nomake script can be used on any	system that does not
	   have	make installed.

   What	other modules will I need?
       perl-ldap uses other Perl modules. Some are required, but some are
       optional	(i.e. required to use certain features only).

       If you are using	a Linux	system,	many of	the distributions have
       packages	that you can install using the distribution's package
       management tools	(e.g. apt, rpm,	...).

       Alternatively, you may use your favorite	web search engine to find the
       package that you	need.

	   This	module converts	between	Perl data structures and ASN.1,	and is
	   required for	perl-ldap to work.

	   You can obtain the latest release from

       OpenSSL and IO::Socket::SSL
	   If you want to use encrypted	connections, either via	start_tls or
	   LDAPS connections, you will need this module	and the	OpenSSL
	   software package.

	   You can obtain the latest release of	IO::Socket::SSL	from

	   You can obtain the latest release of	OpenSSL	from

	   For connecting to LDAP servers via IPv6, IO::Socket::INET6 is
	   required.  Its presence is detected at runtime, so that perl-ldap
	   can be installed without it,	and automatically gains	IPv6 support
	   as soon as IO::Socket::INET6	gets installed.

	   You can obtain the latest releases from

	   This	is an alternative to using IO::Socket::INET6. Like that
	   module, it gets detected automatically at runtime. If version 0.20
	   or higher is	installed, is is preferred over	IO::Socket::INET6 and
	   IO::Socket::INET for	all IP connections.

	   You can obtain the latest releases from

	   This	module is optional.  You only need to install Authen::SASL if
	   you want to use the SASL authentication methods.

	   You can obtain the latest release from

	   This	module is optional. It also requires a C compiler when
	   installing.	You only need to install Digest::MD5 if	you want to
	   use the SASL	DIGEST-MD5 authentication mechanism.

	   You can obtain the latest release from

	   As Digest::MD5 is part of the Perl core modules since Perl 5.7.3,
	   you only need a C compiler if you want to install a version that is
	   newer than the version distributed with your	Perl installation.

	   This	optional module	is required only if you	want to	use the	SASL
	   CRAM-MD5 authentication mechanism.

	   You can obtain the latest release from

	   This	optional module	is required only if you	want to	use the	SASL
	   GSSAPI authentication mechanism (e.g. for Kerberos authentication).

	   You can obtain the latest release from

       URI::ldap, URI::ldaps, and URI::ldapi
	   These modules are optional. You only	need to	install	them if	you
	   want	to parse ldap://, ldaps:// or ldapi:// URIs using
	   ldap_parse_uri in Net::LDAP::Util.  or use LWP::Protocol::ldap,
	   LWP::Protocol::ldaps, or LWP::Protocol::ldapi.

	   You can obtain the latest releases from

       LWP::Protocol, LWP::MediaTypes, HTTP::Negotiate,	and HTTP::Response
	   These optional modules are needed if	you want to use	perl-ldap's
	   LWP::Protocol::ldap,	LWP::Protocol::ldaps, or LWP::Protocol::ldapi

	   You can obtain the latest releases from

	   This	optional module	is required for	JSON-formatted output of perl-
	   ldap's LWP::Protocol::ldap, LWP::Protocol::ldaps, or
	   LWP::Protocol::ldapi	modules.

	   If you need it, you can obtain the latest releases from

	   This	module is optional, and	only required if you want to convert
	   between UNIX	time and generalizedTime using the functions provided
	   in Net::LDAP::Util.

       XML::SAX	and XML::SAX::Writer
	   If you want to parse	or write DSMLv1	documents with Net::LDAP::DSML
	   to you will need these optional modules.

	   You can obtain the latest releases from

	   If you want to use failover the ResourcePool::Factory::Net::LDAP
	   Perl	module provides	methods	to do this.

	   You can obtain the latest release from

   How do I connect to my server?
       The connection to the server is created when you	create a new Net::LDAP
       object, e.g.

	 $ldap = Net::LDAP->new($server);

   Net::LDAP->new sometimes returns undef, why?
       The constructor will return undef if there was a	problem	connecting to
       the specified server. Any error message will be available in $@

   What	is the proper format of	the bind DN?
       The DN used to bind to a	directory is a FULLY QUALIFIED DN.  The	exact
       structure of the	DN will	depend on what data has	been stored in the

       The following are valid examples.


	 cn=directory manager,ou=admins,dc=umich,dc=edu

       In some servers the following would be a	valid fully qualified DN of
       the directory manager.

	 cn=directory manager

   How can I tell when the server returns an error, bind() always returns
       Most methods in Net::LDAP return	a Net::LDAP::Message object, or	a sub-
       class of	that. This object will hold the	results	from the server,
       including the result code.

       So, for example,	to determine the result	of the bind operation.

	 $mesg = $ldap->bind( $dn, password => $passwd );

	 if ( $mesg->code ) {
	   # Handle error codes	here

   How can I set the LDAP version of a connection to my	LDAP server?
       This is done by adding the version option when connecting or binding to
       the LDAP	server.

       For example;

	 $ldap = Net::LDAP->new( $server, version => 3 );


	 $mesg = $ldap->bind( $dn, password => $passwd,	version	=> 3 );

       Valid version numbers are 2 and 3.  As of perl-ldap 0.27	the default
       LDAP version is 3.

   I did a search on my	directory using	the 'search' method. Where did the
       results go?
       Your search results are stored in a 'search object'.  Consider the

	use Net::LDAP;

	$ldap =	Net::LDAP->new('')	or die "$@";
	$mesg =	$ldap->search(
			      base   =>	"",
			      filter =>	"uid=jsmith",

       $mesg is	a search object. It is a reference blessed into	the
       Net::LDAP::Search package. By calling methods on	this object you	can
       obtain information about	the result and also the	individual entries.

       The first thing to check	is if the search was successful. This is done
       with the	method $mesg->code. This method	will return the	status code
       that the	server returned. A success will	yield a	zero value, but	there
       are other values, some of which could also be considered	a success.
       See Net::LDAP::Constant

	 use Net::LDAP::Util qw(ldap_error_text);

	 die ldap_error_text($mesg->code)
	   if $mesg->code;

       There are two ways in which you can access the entries. You can access
       then with an index or you can treat the container like a	stack and
       shift each entry	in turn. For example

	 # as an array

	 # How many entries were returned from the search
	 my $max = $mesg->count;

	 for (my $index	= 0 ; $index < $max ; $index++)	{
	   my $entry = $mesg->entry($index);
	   # ...

	 # or as a stack

	 while (my $entry = $mesg->shift_entry)	{
	   # ...

       In each case $entry is an entry object. It is a reference blessed into
       the Net::LDAP::Entry package. By	calling	methods	on this	object you can
       obtain information about	the entry.

       For example, to obtain the DN for the entry

	 $dn = $entry->dn;

       To obtain the attributes	that a given entry has

	 @attrs	= $entry->attributes;

       And to get the list of values for a given attribute

	 @values = $entry->get(	'sn' );

       And to get the first of the values for a	given attribute

	 $values = $entry->get(	'cn' );

       One thing to remember is	that attribute names are case insensitive, so
       'sn', 'Sn', 'sN'	and 'SN' are all the same.

       So, if you want to print	all the	values for the attribute 'ou' then
       this is as simple as

	 foreach ($entry->get_value( 'ou' )) {
	     print $_,"\n";

       Now if you just want to print all the values for	all the	attributes you
       can do

	 foreach my $attr ($entry->attributes) {
	   foreach my $value ($entry->get_value($attr))	{
	     print $attr, ": ",	$value,	"\n";

   How do I limit the scope of a directory search?
       You limit the scope of a	directory search by setting the	scope
       parameter of search request.  Consider the following:

	use Net::LDAP;

	$ldap =	Net::LDAP->new('')	or die "$@";
	$mesg =	$ldap->search(
			      base   =>	"",
			      scope  =>	'sub',
			      filter =>	"uid=jsmith",

       Values for the scope parameter are as follows.

	   Search only the base	object.

       one Search the entries immediately below	the base object.

	   Search the whole tree below (and including) the base	object.	 This
	   is the default.

	   Search the whole subtree below the base object, excluding the base
	   object itself.

	   Note: children scope	requires LDAPv3	subordinate feature extension.

       There are two ways of retrieving	the results of a requested LDAP
       search; inline and by using a callback subroutine.

       Using the inline	approach involves requesting the data and then waiting
       for all of the data to be returned before the user starts processing
       the data.


	use Net::LDAP;

	$ldap =	Net::LDAP->new('')	or die "$@";
	$mesg =	$ldap->search(
			      base   =>	"",
			      scope  =>	'sub',
			      filter =>	"sn=smith",
	# At this point	the user can get the returned data as an array
	# or as	a stack.
	# In this example we will use an array

	# How many entries were	returned from the search
	my $max	= $mesg->count;

	for (my	$index = 0 ; $index < $max ; $index++)
	  my $entry = $mesg->entry($index);
	  my $dn = $entry->dn; # Obtain	DN of this entry

	  @attrs = $entry->attributes; # Obtain	attributes for this entry.
	  foreach my $var (@attrs)
	    #get a list	of values for a	given attribute
	    $attr = $entry->get_value( $var, asref => 1	);
	    if ( defined($attr)	)
	      foreach my $value	( @$attr )
		print "$var: $value\n";	 # Print each value for	the attribute.

       As you can see the example is straightforward, but there	is one
       drawback	to this	approach.  You must wait until all entries for the
       request search to be returned before you	can process the	data.  If
       there several thousand entries that match the search filter this	could
       take quite a long time period.

       Using the callback approach involves requesting the data	be sent	to a
       callback	subroutine as each entry arrives at the	client.

       A callback is just a subroutine that is passed two parameters when it
       is called, the mesg and entry objects.


	use Net::LDAP;

	$ldap =	Net::LDAP->new('')	or die "$@";
	$mesg =	$ldap->search(
			      base   =>	"",
			      scope  =>	'sub',
			      filter =>	"sn=smith",
			      callback => \&callback,
	# At this point	the user needs to check	the status of the
	# ldap search.

	if ( $mesg->code )
	   $errstr = $mesg->code;
	   print "Error	code:  $errstr\n";
	   $errstr = ldap_error_text($errstr);
	   print "$errstr\n";

	sub callback
	my ( $mesg, $entry) = @_;

	  # First you must check to see	if something was returned.
	  # Last execution of callback subroutine will have no
	  # defined entry and mesg object
	  if ( !defined($entry)	)
	    print "No records found matching filter $match.\n"
	    if ($mesg->count ==	0) ; # if mesg is not defined nothing will print.

	  my $dn = $entry->dn; # Obtain	DN of this entry

	  @attrs = $entry->attributes; # Obtain	attributes for this entry.
	  foreach my $var (@attrs)
	   #get	a list of values for a given attribute
	   $attr = $entry->get_value( $var, asref => 1 );
	   if (	defined($attr) )
	     foreach my	$value ( @$attr	)
	       print "$var: $value\n";	# Print	each value for the attribute.
	  # For	large search requests the following line of code
	  # may	be very	important, it will reduce the amount of	memory
	  # used by the	search results.
	  # If the user	is not worried about memory usage then the line
	  # of code can	be omitted.

	}  # End of callback subroutine

       As you can see the example is straightforward and it does not waste
       time waiting for	all of the entries to be returned.  However if the
       pop_entry method	is not used the	callback approach can allocate a lot
       of memory to the	search request.

   Using an SSL	network	connection, how	do I connect to	my server?
       This class is a subclass	of Net::LDAP so	all the	normal Net::LDAP
       methods can be used with	a Net::LDAPS object; see the documentation for
       Net::LDAP to find out how to query a directory server using the LDAP

       The connection to the server is created when you	create a new
       Net::LDAPS object, e.g.

	 $ldaps	= Net::LDAPS->new($server,
				  port => '10000',
				  verify => 'require',
				  capath => '/usr/local/cacerts/',

       Starting	with version 0.28 perl-ldap also supports URIs in the new
       method.	So, the	above can also be expressed as:

	 $ldaps	= Net::LDAP->new("ldaps://$server",
				  port => '10000',
				  verify => 'require',
				  capath => '/usr/local/cacerts/',

       There are additional options to the new method with LDAPS URIs and the
       LDAPS new method	and several additional methods are included in the
       LDAPS object class.

       For further information and code	examples read the LDAPS	module
       documentation;  perldoc Net::LDAPS

   What	are LDAP groups?
       LDAP groups are object classes that contain an attribute	that can store
       multiple	DN values.  Two	standard object	classes	are 'groupOfNames'
       (which has a 'member' attribute)	and 'groupOfUniqueNames' (which	has a
       'uniqueMember' attribute.)

       According to the	RFCs a group can be a member of	another	group, but
       some LDAP server	vendors	restrict this flexibility by not allowing
       nested groups in	their servers.

       Two scripts for working with groups are available in the	contrib
       directory.  They	are	and

   How do you format a filter to search	for entries whose 'member' attribute
       has a particular	value?
       Asking for (member=*) is	OK - the directory uses	the equality matching
       rule which is defined for the member attribute.

       Asking for (member=c*) is not OK	- there	is no defined substring
       matching	rule for the member attribute. That's because the member
       values are *not*	strings, but distinguished names. There	is no
       substring matching rule for DNs,	see RFC	4519 section 2.7.

       What you	have to	do is get the results of (member=*) and	then select
       the required results from the returned values. You need to do this
       using knowledge of the string representation of DNs defined in RFC
       4514, which is important	because	the same DN can	have different string
       representations.	So you need to perform some canonicalization if	you
       want to be correct.

   How can I access DSML features from perl-ldap?
       Directory Service Markup	Language (DSML)	is the XML standard for
       representing directory service information in XML.

       Support for DSML	is included in perl-ldap starting with version .20.

       At the moment this module only reads and	writes DSML entry entities. It
       cannot process any schema entities because schema entities are
       processed differently than elements.

       Eventually this module will be a	full level 2 consumer and producer
       enabling	you to give you	full DSML conformance.

       The specification for DSML is at

       For further information and code	examples read the DSML module
       documentation;  perldoc Net::LDAP::DSML

   How do I access the Control features?
       Support for LDAP	version	3 Control objects is included in perl-ldap
       starting	with version .20.

       For further information and code	examples read the Control module
       documentation;  perldoc Net::LDAP::Control

   How do I access the Virtual List features?
       Support for Virtual Lists is included in	perl-ldap starting with
       version .20.

       For further information and code	examples read the Control module
       documentation;  perldoc Net::LDAP::Control

   Are there any other code examples.
       Yes, there is an	Examples pod file.  To view the	pod do the following
       command;	 perldoc Net::LDAP::Examples

       There is	user contributed software in the contrib directory that	is
       supplied	with the perl-ldap distribution.  This is an excellent source
       of information on how to	use the	perl-ldap module.

   Are there any performance issues with perl-ldap?
       In the vast majority of use cases (one user has suggested 9 out of 10)
       there are no performance	issues with perl-ldap.

       Where you may wish to use perl-ldap to perform, for example, a very
       large number of queries (e.g. 10,000) in	succession you may find	a
       noticeable performance difference between perl-ldap and non pure-Perl
       modules.	This is	not because of perl-ldap itself	but because of the
       pure-Perl Convert::ASN1 module that it depends on.

       You should make up your own mind, based upon your own situation
       (performance requirements, hardware etc.) as to whether you should use
       perl-ldap or not. The figures quoted in this answer are only
       indicative, and will differ for different people.

   Can I contribute Perl scripts that use perl-ldap to the contrib section?
       Any one can submit a Perl script	that uses perl-ldap for	inclusion in
       the contrib section.  The perl-ldap maintainers will determiner if the
       script will be included and will	do the initial check in	of the script
       to the Git repository at

       There are a couple of requirements for consideration.

       You must	supply a one line description of your script to	be included in
       the contrib README file.

       Inside the script will be the pod documentation for the script.	No
       auxiliary documentation will be allowed.	 For examples of how to	do
       this see	the tklkup script currently in the contrib section.

   Is it possible to get a complete entry, DN and attributes without
       specifying the attributes name?
       Yes, just specify you want a list of no attributes back.	The RFC	says
       that this tells the server to return all	readable attributes back
       (there may be access controls to	prevent	some from being	returned.)

       So in the search	method,	just set (for LDAPv2):

		       attrs =>	[ ]

       If you are using	LDAPv3,	you can	specify	an attribute called "*"
       instead,	which lets you ask for additional (i.g.	operational)
       attributes in the same search.

		       attrs =>	[ "*" ]

       To get all operational attributes in a search, some servers allow the
       use of the "+" pseudo attribute.	So that	with these servers

		       attrs =>	[ "*", "+" ]

       will return the most information	from the server.

   How do I put	a JPEG photo into a entry in the directory?
       Follow the following code example, replacing the	(...) with whatever is
       relevant	to your	setup.

	 use Net::LDAP;
	 use Net::LDAP::Util qw(ldap_error_text);
	 use CGI;

	 local $/ = undef;
	 my $jpeg = <$filename>;

	 my $ldap = Net::LDAP->new(...);
	 my $res = $ldap->bind(...);
	    $res = $ldap->modify(...,
			  add => [ 'jpegPhoto' => [ $jpeg ] ]);
	    $res = $ldap->unbind();

   How do I add	a jpeg photo into a entry in the directory via html-forms?
       Follow the following code example, replacing the	(...) with whatever is
       relevant	to your	setup.

	 use Net::LDAP;
	 use Net::LDAP::Util qw(ldap_error_text);
	 use CGI;

	 my $q = new CGI;

	 print $q->header;
	 print $q->start_html(-title =>	'Change	JPEG photo');

	 if ($q->param('Update')) {
		 my $filename =	$q->param('jpeg');
		 local $/ = undef;
		 my $jpeg = <$filename>;

		 my $ldap = Net::LDAP->new(...);
		 my $res = $ldap->bind(...);
		 $res =	$ldap->modify(...,
				 add =>	[ 'jpegPhoto' => [ $jpeg ] ]);
		 $res =	$ldap->unbind();
	 } else	{
		 print $q->start_multipart_form();
		 print $q->filefield(-name => 'jpeg', -size => 50);
		 print $q->submit('Update');
		 print $q->end_form();

	 print $q->end_html();

   What	happens	when you delete	an attribute that does not exist?
       It is an	error to delete	an attribute that doesn't exist.  When you get
       the error back the server ignores the entire modify operation you sent
       it, so you need to make sure the	error doesn't happen.

       Another approach, if you	are using LDAPv3 (note beginning with version
       .27 Net::LDAP uses LDAPv3 by default) is	to use a 'replace' with	your
       attribute name and no values.  In LDAPv3, this is defined to always
       work even if that attribute doesn't exist in the	entry.


	 my $mesg = $ldap->modify( $entry, replace => {	%qv_del_arry } );

       But make	sure you are using LDAPv3, because that	is defined to not work
       in LDAPv2. (A nice incompatibility between LDAPv2 and LDAPv3.)

   How can I delete a referral from an LDAP tree?
       Since this is a proprietary feature, you	will have to check your
       server's	documentation. You might find that you need to use a control.
       If there	is a control called something like ManageDsaIT,	that's the one
       you should probably use.	 For proper operation you will need the	oid
       number for ManageDsaIT; 2.16.840.1.113730.3.4.2 and do not specify a
       value for type.

       The code	required will look similar to the following code snippet.

	 $mesg =  $ldap->delete("ref=\"ldap://acme/c=us,o=bricks\",o=clay",
			 control => {type => "2.16.840.1.113730.3.4.2"}	);

   How do I add	an ACI/ACL entry to a directory	server with perl-ldap?
       ACIs and	ACLs are proprietary features in LDAP. The following code
       snippet works with a Netscape directory server. You will	need the
       specify the correct DN (-DN-) and correct attribute(s) (-ATTRNAMEs-).

	 my $aci = '(target="ldap:///-DN-")(targetattr="-ATTRNAMEs-")(version 3.0;
		     acl "-ACLNAME-"; deny(all)	userdn = "ldap:///self";)' ;

	 $ldap->modify($dn_modif, add => {'aci'	=> $aci	});

   How do I avoid file type and	data type mis-matching when loading data from
       a Win32 system?
       When loading a binary attribute with data read from a file on a Win32
       system, it has been noted that you should set "binmode" on the file
       before reading the file contents	into the data array.

       Another possible	solution to this problem is to convert the binary data
       into a base64 encoded string and	then store the encoded string in the
       file.  Then when	reading	the file, decode the base64 encoded string
       back to binary and then use perl-ldap to	store the data in the

   How do I create an account in Active	Directory?
       Active Directory	accounts need some AD-specific attributes (only	the
       method we're interested in, no error checking):

	 $mesg = $ldap->add( 'cn=John Doe,cn=Users,dc=your,dc=ads,dc=domain',
			     attrs => [
			       objectClass => [	qw/top user/ ],
			       cn => 'John Doe',
			       sn => 'Doe',
			       givenName => 'John',
			       displayName => 'John "the one" Doe',
			       userAccountControl => 514,      # disabled regular user
			       sAMAccountName => 'JohnDoe',
			       userPrincipalName => ''

       In order	to find	out what other attributes can be set, interactively
       edit the	user in	the Active Directory Users and Computers MCC plugin,
       perform an LDAP search operation	to find	out what changed, and update
       your "add" routine accordingly.

   How can I create a group in Active Directory?
       Similar to accounts, groups need	some AD-specific attributes too:

	 $mesg = $ldap->add( 'cn=NewGroup,cn=Users,dc=your,dc=ads,dc=domain',
			     attrs => [
			       objectClass => [	qw/top group/ ],
			       cn => 'NewGroup',
			       sAMAccountName => 'NewGroup',
			       groupType => 0x80000002	       # global, security enabled group

   How do I search for disabled	accounts in Active Directory
       The bit values in "userAccountControl" require the
       LDAP_MATCHING_RULE_BIT_AND matching rule's OID to be used in an
       extensible filter term:

	 $mesg = $ldap->search(	base   => 'cn=Users,dc=your,dc=ads,dc=domain',
				filter => '(&(objectclass=user)' .
				attrs  => [ '1.1' ]

   How can I search for	security groups	in Active Directory
       With groups, the	same applies to	the "groupType"	bit-field:

	 $mesg = $ldap->search(	base   => 'cn=Users,dc=your,dc=ads,dc=domain',
				filter => '(&(objectclass=group)' .
					     # 2147483648 = 0x80000000
				attrs  => [ '1.1' ]

   How can I search for	all members of a group in AD (including	group
       AD allows you to	find all members of a specified	group, the direct
       members plus those that are member of the group via group nesting.

       The trick to this is the	special	"LDAP_MATCHING_RULE_IN_CHAIN" matching

	 $mesg = $ldap->search(	base   => 'cn=Users,dc=your,dc=ads,dc=domain',
				filter => '(memberOf:1.2.840.113556.1.4.1941:=cn=Testgroup,dc=your,dc=ads,dc=domain)',
				attrs  => [ '1.1' ]

   How can I search for	all groups one user is a member	of in AD (including
       group nesting)?
       Similarly you can search	for all	the groups one user is member of,
       either directly or via group nesting.

	 $mesg = $ldap->search(	base   => 'dc=your,dc=ads,dc=domain',
				filter => '(member:1.2.840.113556.1.4.1941:=cn=TestUser,ou=Users,dc=your,dc=ads,dc=domain)',
				attrs  => [ '1.1' ]

   How do I search for all members of a	large group in AD?
       AD normally restricts the number	of attribute values returned in	one
       query.  The exact number	depends	on the AD server version: it was ~1000
       in Win2000, 1500	in Win2003 and is 5000 in Win2008 & Win2008R2.

       Performing the same standard search again will yield the	same values

       So, how can you get all members of a really large AD group?

       The trick to use	here is	to use Microsoft's range option	when
       searching, i.e instead of doing one search for plain "member", perform
       multiple	searches for e.g. "member;range=1000-*"	where the range
       starting	index increases	accordingly:

	 my $mesg;
	 my @members;
	 my $index = 0;

	 while ($index ne '*') {
	   $mesg = $ldap->search( base	 => 'cn=Testgroup,dc=your,dc=ads,dc=domain',
				  filter => '(objectclass=group)',
				  scope	 => 'base',
				  attrs	 => [ ($index >	0) ? "member;range=$index-*" : 'member'	]
	   if ($mesg->code == LDAP_SUCCESS) {
	     my	$entry = $mesg->entry(0);
	     my	$attr;

	     # large group: let's do the range option dance
	     if	(($attr) = grep(/^member;range=/, $entry->attributes)) {
	       push(@members, $entry->get_value($attr));

	       if ($attr =~ /^member;range=\d+-(.*)$/) {
		 $index	= $1;
		 $index++  if ($index ne '*');
	     # small group: no need for	the range dance
	     else {
	       @members	= $entry->get_value('member');
	   # failure
	   else	{

	 if ($mesg->code == LDAP_SUCCESS) {
	   # success: @members contains	the members of the group
	 else {
	   # failure: deal with	the error in $mesg

       for more	details.

   How do I create a Microsoft Exchange	5.x user?
       This is a solution provided by a	perl-ldap user.

       This code works with ActiveState	Perl running on	WinNT 4. Please	note
       that this requires the Win32::Perms module, and needs valid NT account
       info to replace the placeholders.

	 use Net::LDAP;
	 use Net::LDAP::Util;
	 use Win32::Perms;

	 #Constants taken from ADSI Type Library


	 $exch = Net::LDAP->new('server', debug	=>0) ||	die $@;

	 $exch->bind( 'cn=admin_user,cn=nt_domain,cn=admin', version =>3,

	 $myObj	= Win32::Perms->new();
	 $Result = $myObj->Owner('nt_domain\user_name');
	 $BinarySD = $myObj->GetSD(SD_RELATIVE);
	 $TextSD = uc(unpack( "H*", $BinarySD ));
	 Win32::Perms::ResolveSid('nt_domain\user_name', $sid);
	 $mysid	= uc(unpack("H*",$sid));

	 $result = $exch->add (	dn   =>
		       attr => [ 'objectClass' => ['organizationalPerson'],
				 'cn'	=> 'directory_name',
				 'uid' => 'mail_nickname',
				 'mail'	=> 'smtp_address',
			       'assoc-nt-account' => [ $mysid ],
			       'nt-security-descriptor'	=> [ $TextSD ],
			       'mailPreferenceOption'  => 0

	 print ldap_error_name($result->code);

   How do I reset a user's password ...
       ... in most LDAP	servers?

       Most LDAP servers use the standard userPassword attribute as the
       attribute to set	when you want to change	a user's password.

       They usually allow to set the password either using the regular modify
       operation on the	userPassword attribute or using	the extended LDAP
       Password	Modify operation defined in RFC3062.

       The recommended method is the extended Password Modify operation, which
       offers a	standardized way to set	user passwords but unfortunately is
       not available on	all LDAP servers.

       Whether the extended Password Modify operation is available can be
       found out by searching the attribute supportedExtension for the value in the RootDSE object.

       If the extended Password	Modify operation is not	available the
       alternative is the regular modification of the userPassword attribute.

       But this	method has some	drawbacks:

       o   Depending on	the type of the	server the arguments to	the modify
	   operations may vary.	Some want the modify done with replace,	some
	   want	it done	by explicitly deleting the old password	and add	of the
	   new one.  This may even depend on whether you change	the password
	   for the bound user or as an administrator for another user.

       o   With	the modify operation some servers expect the client to do the
	   hashing of the password on the client side. I.e. all	clients	that
	   set passwords need to agree on the algorithm	and the	format of the
	   hashed password.

       o   Some	LDAP servers do	not allow setting the password if the
	   connection is not sufficiently secured. I.e.	require	SSL or TLS
	   support to set the password (which is heavily recommended anyway

       Here is an example of how to change your	own password (for brevity's
       sake error checking is left out):

	 use Net::LDAP;

	 my $ldap = Net::LDAP->new('ldaps://server.domain')  or	 die "$@";
	 my $mesg = $ldap->bind('cn=Joe	User,dc=perl,dc=ldap,dc=org',
				password => 'oldPW');

	 my $rootdse = $ldap->root_dse();

	 if ($rootdse->supported_extension('') {

	     require Net::LDAP::Extension::SetPassword;

	     $mesg = $ldap->set_password(user => 'cn=Joe User,dc=perl,dc=ldap,dc=org',
					 oldpasswd => 'oldPW',
					 newpasswd => 'newPW');
	 else {
	     $mesg = $ldap->modify('cn=Joe User,dc=perl,dc=ldap,dc=org',
				   changes => [
				       delete => [ userPassword	=> $oldPW ]
				       add    => [ userPassword	=> $newPW ] ]);


       ... in MS Active	Directory?

       With Active Directory a user's password is stored in the	unicodePwd
       attribute and changed using the regular modify operation.

       ADS expects this	password to be encoded in Unicode - UTF-16 to be
       exact.  Before the Unicode conversion is	done the password needs	to be
       surrounded by double quotes which do not	belong to the user's password.

       For the password	modify operation to succeed SSL	is required.

       When changing the password for the user bound to	the directory ADS
       expects it to be	done by	deleting the old password and adding the new
       one.  When doing	it as a	user with administrative privileges replacing
       the unicodePwd's	value with a new one is	allowed	too.

       Perl-ldap contains convenience methods for Active Directory that	allow
       one to perform this task	very easily.

       Here's an example that demonstrates setting your	own password from
       $oldPW to $newPW	(again almost no error checking):

	 use Net::LDAP;
	 use Net::LDAP::Extra qw(AD);

	 my $ldap = Net::LDAP->new('ldaps://ads.domain.controller')  or	 die "$@";

	 my $mesg = $ldap->bind('cn=Joe	User,dc=your,dc=ads,dc=domain',
				password => $oldPW);

	 $mesg = $ldap->change_ADpassword('cn=Joe User,dc=your,dc=ads,dc=domain',
					  $oldPW, $newPW);


       And the same for	perl-ldap versions before 0.49,	where everything needs
       to be done by hand:

	 use Net::LDAP;
	 use Unicode::Map8;
	 use Unicode::String qw(utf16);

	 # build the conversion	map from your local character set to Unicode
	 my $charmap = Unicode::Map8->new('latin1')  or	 die;

	 # surround the	PW with	double quotes and convert it to	UTF-16
	 # byteswap() was necessary in experiments on i386 Linux, YMMV
	 my $oldUniPW =	$charmap->tou('"'.$oldPW.'"')->byteswap()->utf16();
	 my $newUniPW =	$charmap->tou('"'.$newPW.'"')->byteswap()->utf16();

	 my $ldap = Net::LDAP->new('ldaps://ads.domain.controller')  or	 die "$@";

	 my $mesg = $ldap->bind('cn=Joe	User,dc=your,dc=ads,dc=domain',
				password => $oldPW);

	 $mesg = $ldap->modify('cn=Joe User,dc=your,dc=ads,dc=domain',
			       changes => [
				   delete => [ unicodePwd => $oldUniPW ]
				   add	  => [ unicodePwd => $newUniPW ] ]);


   How can I simulate server failover?
       Perl-ldap does not do server failover, however there are	several
       programming options for getting around this situation.

       Here is one possible solution:

	 $ldaps	= Net::LDAPS->new([ $ldapserverone, $ldapservertwo ],
				  port=>636, timeout=>5)  or  die "$@";

       For perl-ldap versions before 0.27, the same goal can be	achieved

	 unless	( $ldaps =
				   port=>636,timeout=>5) )
		     $ldaps = Net::LDAPS->new($ldapservertwo,
					      port=>636,timeout=>20) ||
		     "Can't connect to $ldapserverone or $ldapservertwo	via LDAPS: $@";

Using X.509 certificates.
   How do I store X.509	certificates in	the directory?
       The first problem here is that there are	many different formats to hold
       certificates in,	for example PEM, DER, PKCS#7 and PKCS#12. The
       directory only uses the DER format (more	correctly, it only uses	the
       BER format) which is a binary format.

       Your first job is to ensure that	your certificates are therefore	in
       DER/BER format. You could use OpenSSL to	convert	from PEM like this:

	 openssl x509 -inform PEM -in cert.pem -outform	DER -out cert.der

       Consult the OpenSSL documentation to find out how to perform other

       To add a	certificate to the directory, just slurp in the	DER/BER
       certificate into	a scalar variable, and add it to the entry's
       userCertificate attribute. How you do that will depend on which version
       of LDAP you are using.

       To slurp	in the certificate try something like this:

	 my $cert;
	     local $/ =	undef; # Slurp mode
	     open CERT,	"cert.der" or die;
	     binmode CERT;     # for Windows e.a.
	     $cert = <CERT>;
	     close CERT;
	 # The certificate is now in $cert

       For LDAPv2, because most	directory vendors ignore the string
       representation of certificates defined in RFC 1778, you should add this
       value to	the directory like this:

	 $res =	$ldap->modify("cn=My User, o=My	Company,c=XY",
			      add => [
				      'userCertificate'	=> [ $cert ]
	 die "Modify failed (" . ldap_error_name($res->code) . ")\n"
	     if	$res->code;

       For LDAPv3, you must do this instead:

	 $res =	$ldap->modify("cn=My User, o=My	Company, c=XY",
			      add => [
				      'userCertificate;binary' => [ $cert ]
	 die "Modify failed (" . ldap_error_name($res->code) . ")\n"
	     if	$res->code;

       Of course, the entry you	are trying to add the certificate to must use
       object classes that permit the userCertificate attribute, otherwise the
       modify will fail	with an	object class violation error. The
       inetOrgPerson structural	object class permits userCertificates, as does
       the strongAuthenticationUser auxiliary object class. Others might also.

   How do I search objects by the contents of certificates.
       The directory needs to support one or more of the certificate*Match
       matching	rules.

       Then using the filter (for certificateExactMatch)

	 (userCertificate={ serialNumber 1234, issuer "cn=CA,o=TrustCenter" })

       allows searching	for the	objects	containing the attribute
       userCertificate with a certificate matching these criteria.

       Please note that	the exact syntax of the	values for the serialNumber
       and the issuer above may	depend on the LDAP server.  In any case	the
       example above works with	OpenLDAP 2.4.33.

       Net::LDAP::Server - LDAP	server framework in Perl

       Net::LDAP::SimpleServer - LDAP server in	Perl

       LemonLDAP::NG - Web SingleSignOn	solution & SAML	IdP in Perl

       Dancer::Plugin::LDAP - LDAP plugin for Dancer micro framework

       Directory Services Mark Language	(DSML)

       eMailman	LDAP information

       Rafael Corvalan's LDAP shell

       Jeff Hodges's Kings Mountain LDAP (outdated: last update
       was in 2004)'s LDAP Wiki

       OpenLDAP	Directory Server - open	source LDAP server.

       389 Directory Server - open source LDAP server

       ApacheDS	- open source LDAP server in Java


       ForgeRock's OpenDS - LDAPv3 server with additional REST APIs

       IBM Tivoli Directory Server

       Isode (was MessagingDirect)

       Nexor's X.500 and Internet Directories

       Novell's	eDirectory

       Octet String

       SUN JAVA	JNDI (Java Naming and Directory	Interface)

       Oracle Directory	Server Enterprise Edition, formerly Sun	One, formerly

       OptimalIDM - Virtual Identity Server - .NET LDAP	virtual	directory

       Quest One Quick Connect Virtual Directory Server	- LDAP virtual

       UnboundID's Identity data platform

       Virtual Directory Blogger

       eldapo -	a directory manager's blog

       Eine deutsche LDAP Website A german LDAP	Website

       (non-exhaustive)	list of	LDAP software on Wikipedia

       "RFC Sourcebook"	on LDAP

       web2ldap	- WWW gateway to LDAP server in	Python

       Softerra	LDAP Browser / Administrator

       The 2 following URLs deal mainly	with Microsoft's Active	Directory.

       Directory Works

       LDAP Client .Net	& ActiveX LDAP Client

       Developing LDAP and ADSI	Clients	for Microsoft(R) Exchange.  By Sven B.
       Schreiber.  ISBN:  0201657775

       Implementing LDAP.  By Mark Wilcox.  ISBN:  1861002211

       LDAP: Programming Directory-Enabled Applications	With Lightweight
       Directory Access	Protocol.  By Tim Howes, Mark Smith.  ISBN:

       LDAP Programming; Directory Management and Integration.	By Clayton
       Donley.	ISBN:  1884777910

       LDAP Programming	with Java.  By Rob Weltman, Tony Dahbura.  ISBN:

       LDAP System Administration.  By Gerald Carter.  ISBN:  1565924916

       Managing	Enterprise Active Directory Services.  By Robbie Allen,
       Richard Puckett.	 ISBN:	0672321254

       Solaris and LDAP	Naming Services.  By Tom Bialaski, Michael Haines.
       ISBN:  0-13-030678-9

       Understanding and Deploying LDAP	Directory Services (2ed).  By Tim
       Howes, Mark Smith, Gordon Good.	ISBN:  0672323168

       LDAP Directories	Explained.  By Brian Arkills. ISBN 0-201-78792-X

       Any good	FAQ is made up of many authors,	everyone that contributes
       information to the perl-ldap mail list is a potential author.

       An attempt to maintain this FAQ is being	done by	Chris Ridd
       <> and Peter	Marschall <>.  It was
       previously updated by Clif Harden <>.

       The original author of this FAQ was Graham Barr <>

       Please report any bugs, or post any suggestions,	to the perl-ldap
       mailing list <>.

       Copyright (c) 1999-2004 Graham Barr, (c)	2012 Peter Marschall. All
       rights reserved.	 This document is distributed, and may be
       redistributed, under the	same terms as Perl itself.

perl v5.32.1			  2015-04-06		     Net::LDAP::FAQ(3)


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