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Moose::Manual::AttribuUser3Contributed Perl DocumeMoose::Manual::Attributes(3)

NAME
       Moose::Manual::Attributes - Object attributes with Moose

VERSION
       version 2.2005

INTRODUCTION
       Moose attributes	have many properties, and attributes are probably the
       single most powerful and	flexible part of Moose.	You can	create a
       powerful	class simply by	declaring attributes. In fact, it's possible
       to have classes that consist solely of attribute	declarations.

       An attribute is a property that every member of a class has. For
       example,	we might say that "every "Person" object has a first name and
       last name". Attributes can be optional, so that we can say "some
       "Person"	objects	have a social security number (and some	don't)".

       At its simplest,	an attribute can be thought of as a named value	(as in
       a hash) that can	be read	and set. However, attributes can also have
       defaults, type constraints, delegation and much more.

       In other	languages, attributes are also referred	to as slots or
       properties.

ATTRIBUTE OPTIONS
       Use the "has" function to declare an attribute:

	 package Person;

	 use Moose;

	 has 'first_name' => ( is => 'rw' );

       This says that all "Person" objects have	an optional read-write
       "first_name" attribute.

   Read-write vs. read-only
       The options passed to "has" define the properties of the	attribute.
       There are many options, but in the simplest form	you just need to set
       "is", which can be either "ro" (read-only) or "rw" (read-write).	When
       an attribute is "rw", you can change it by passing a value to its
       accessor. When an attribute is "ro", you	may only read the current
       value of	the attribute.

       In fact,	you could even omit "is", but that gives you an	attribute that
       has no accessor.	This can be useful with	other attribute	options, such
       as "handles". However, if your attribute	generates no accessors,	Moose
       will issue a warning, because that usually means	the programmer forgot
       to say the attribute is read-only or read-write.	If you really mean to
       have no accessors, you can silence this warning by setting "is" to
       "bare".

   Accessor methods
       Each attribute has one or more accessor methods.	An accessor lets you
       read and	write the value	of that	attribute for an object.

       By default, the accessor	method has the same name as the	attribute. If
       you declared your attribute as "ro" then	your accessor will be read-
       only. If	you declared it	as "rw", you get a read-write accessor.
       Simple.

       Given our "Person" example above, we now	have a single "first_name"
       accessor	that can read or write a "Person" object's "first_name"
       attribute's value.

       If you want, you	can also explicitly specify the	method names to	be
       used for	reading	and writing an attribute's value. This is particularly
       handy when you'd	like an	attribute to be	publicly readable, but only
       privately settable. For example:

	 has 'weight' => (
	     is	    => 'ro',
	     writer => '_set_weight',
	 );

       This might be useful if weight is calculated based on other methods.
       For example, every time the "eat" method	is called, we might adjust
       weight. This lets us hide the implementation details of weight changes,
       but still provide the weight value to users of the class.

       Some people might prefer	to have	distinct methods for reading and
       writing.	In Perl	Best Practices,	Damian Conway recommends that reader
       methods start with "get_" and writer methods start with "set_".

       We can do exactly that by providing names for both the "reader" and
       "writer"	methods:

	 has 'weight' => (
	     is	    => 'rw',
	     reader => 'get_weight',
	     writer => 'set_weight',
	 );

       If you're thinking that doing this over and over	would be insanely
       tedious,	you're right! Fortunately, Moose provides a powerful extension
       system that lets	you override the default naming	conventions. See
       Moose::Manual::MooseX for more details.

   Predicate and clearer methods
       Moose allows you	to explicitly distinguish between a false or undefined
       attribute value and an attribute	which has not been set.	If you want to
       access this information,	you must define	clearer	and predicate methods
       for an attribute.

       A predicate method tells	you whether or not a given attribute is
       currently set. Note that	an attribute can be explicitly set to "undef"
       or some other false value, but the predicate will return	true.

       The clearer method unsets the attribute.	This is	not the	same as
       setting the value to "undef", but you can only distinguish between them
       if you define a predicate method!

       Here's some code	to illustrate the relationship between an accessor,
       predicate, and clearer method.

	 package Person;

	 use Moose;

	 has 'ssn' => (
	     is	       => 'rw',
	     clearer   => 'clear_ssn',
	     predicate => 'has_ssn',
	 );

	 ...

	 my $person = Person->new();
	 $person->has_ssn; # false

	 $person->ssn(undef);
	 $person->ssn; # returns undef
	 $person->has_ssn; # true

	 $person->clear_ssn;
	 $person->ssn; # returns undef
	 $person->has_ssn; # false

	 $person->ssn('123-45-6789');
	 $person->ssn; # returns '123-45-6789'
	 $person->has_ssn; # true

	 my $person2 = Person->new( ssn	=> '111-22-3333');
	 $person2->has_ssn; # true

       By default, Moose does not make a predicate or clearer for you. You
       must explicitly provide names for them, and then	Moose will create the
       methods for you.

   Required or not?
       By default, all attributes are optional,	and do not need	to be provided
       at object construction time. If you want	to make	an attribute required,
       simply set the "required" option	to true:

	 has 'name' => (
	     is	      => 'ro',
	     required => 1,
	 );

       There are a couple caveats worth	mentioning in regards to what
       "required" actually means.

       Basically, all it says is that this attribute ("name") must be provided
       to the constructor, or be lazy with either a default or a builder. It
       does not	say anything about its value, so it could be "undef".

       If you define a clearer method on a required attribute, the clearer
       will work, so even a required attribute can be unset after object
       construction.

       This means that if you do make an attribute required, providing a
       clearer doesn't make much sense.	In some	cases, it might	be handy to
       have a private "clearer"	and "predicate"	for a required attribute.

   Default and builder methods
       Attributes can have default values, and Moose provides two ways to
       specify that default.

       In the simplest form, you simply	provide	a non-reference	scalar value
       for the "default" option:

	 has 'size' => (
	     is	       => 'ro',
	     default   => 'medium',
	     predicate => 'has_size',
	 );

       If the size attribute is	not provided to	the constructor, then it ends
       up being	set to "medium":

	 my $person = Person->new();
	 $person->size;	# medium
	 $person->has_size; # true

       You can also provide a subroutine reference for "default". This
       reference will be called	as a method on the object.

	 has 'size' => (
	     is	=> 'ro',
	     default =>
		 sub { ( 'small', 'medium', 'large' )[ int( rand 3 ) ] },
	     predicate => 'has_size',
	 );

       This is a trivial example, but it illustrates the point that the
       subroutine will be called for every new object created.

       When you	provide	a "default" subroutine reference, it is	called as a
       method on the object, with no additional	parameters:

	 has 'size' => (
	     is	     =>	'ro',
	     default =>	sub {
		 my $self = shift;

		 return	$self->height >	200 ? 'large' :	'average';
	     },
	 );

       When the	"default" is called during object construction,	it may be
       called before other attributes have been	set. If	your default is
       dependent on other parts	of the object's	state, you can make the
       attribute "lazy". Laziness is covered in	the next section.

       If you want to use a reference of any sort as the default value,	you
       must return it from a subroutine.

	 has 'mapping' => (
	     is	     =>	'ro',
	     default =>	sub { {} },
	 );

       This is necessary because otherwise Perl	would instantiate the
       reference exactly once, and it would be shared by all objects:

	 has 'mapping' => (
	     is	     =>	'ro',
	     default =>	{}, # wrong!
	 );

       Moose will throw	an error if you	pass a bare non-subroutine reference
       as the default.

       If Moose	allowed	this then the default mapping attribute	could easily
       end up shared across many objects. Instead, wrap	it in a	subroutine
       reference as we saw above.

       This is a bit awkward, but it's just the	way Perl works.

       As an alternative to using a subroutine reference, you can supply a
       "builder" method	for your attribute:

	 has 'size' => (
	     is	       => 'ro',
	     builder   => '_build_size',
	     predicate => 'has_size',
	 );

	 sub _build_size {
	     return ( 'small', 'medium', 'large' )[ int( rand 3	) ];
	 }

       This has	several	advantages. First, it moves a chunk of code to its own
       named method, which improves readability	and code organization. Second,
       because this is a named method, it can be subclassed or provided	by a
       role.

       We strongly recommend that you use a "builder" instead of a "default"
       for anything beyond the most trivial default.

       A "builder", just like a	"default", is called as	a method on the	object
       with no additional parameters.

       Builders	allow subclassing

       Because the "builder" is	called by name,	it goes	through	Perl's method
       resolution. This	means that builder methods are both inheritable	and
       overridable.

       If we subclass our "Person" class, we can override "_build_size":

	 package Lilliputian;

	 use Moose;
	 extends 'Person';

	 sub _build_size { return 'small' }

       Builders	work well with roles

       Because builders	are called by name, they work well with	roles. For
       example,	a role could provide an	attribute but require that the
       consuming class provide the "builder":

	 package HasSize;
	 use Moose::Role;

	 requires '_build_size';

	 has 'size' => (
	     is	     =>	'ro',
	     lazy    =>	1,
	     builder =>	'_build_size',
	 );

	 package Lilliputian;
	 use Moose;

	 with 'HasSize';

	 sub _build_size { return 'small' }

       Roles are covered in Moose::Manual::Roles.

   Laziness
       Moose lets you defer attribute population by making an attribute
       "lazy":

	 has 'size' => (
	     is	     =>	'ro',
	     lazy    =>	1,
	     builder =>	'_build_size',
	 );

       When "lazy" is true, the	default	is not generated until the reader
       method is called, rather	than at	object construction time. There	are
       several reasons you might choose	to do this.

       First, if the default value for this attribute depends on some other
       attributes, then	the attribute must be "lazy". During object
       construction, defaults are not generated	in a predictable order,	so you
       cannot count on some other attribute being populated when generating a
       default.

       Second, there's often no	reason to calculate a default before it's
       needed. Making an attribute "lazy" lets you defer the cost until	the
       attribute is needed. If the attribute is	never needed, you save some
       CPU time.

       We recommend that you make any attribute	with a builder or non-trivial
       default "lazy" as a matter of course.

       Lazy defaults and $_

       Please note that	a lazy default or builder can be called	anywhere, even
       inside a	"map" or "grep". This means that if your default sub or
       builder changes $_, something weird could happen. You can prevent this
       by adding "local	$_" inside your	default	or builder.

   Constructor parameters ("init_arg")
       By default, each	attribute can be passed	by name	to the class's
       constructor. On occasion, you may want to use a different name for the
       constructor parameter. You may also want	to make	an attribute
       unsettable via the constructor.

       You can do either of these things with the "init_arg" option:

	 has 'bigness' => (
	     is	      => 'ro',
	     init_arg => 'size',
	 );

       Now we have an attribute	named "bigness", but we	pass "size" to the
       constructor.

       Even more useful	is the ability to disable setting an attribute via the
       constructor. This is particularly handy for private attributes:

	 has '_genetic_code' =>	(
	     is	      => 'ro',
	     lazy     => 1,
	     builder  => '_build_genetic_code',
	     init_arg => undef,
	 );

       By setting the "init_arg" to "undef", we	make it	impossible to set this
       attribute when creating a new object.

   Weak	references
       Moose has built-in support for weak references. If you set the
       "weak_ref" option to a true value, then it will call
       "Scalar::Util::weaken" whenever the attribute is	set:

	 has 'parent' => (
	     is	      => 'rw',
	     weak_ref => 1,
	 );

	 $node->parent($parent_node);

       This is very useful when	you're building	objects	that may contain
       circular	references.

       When the	object in a weak reference goes	out of scope, the attribute's
       value will become "undef" "behind the scenes". This is done by the Perl
       interpreter directly, so	Moose does not see this	change.	This means
       that triggers don't fire, coercions aren't applied, etc.

       The attribute is	not cleared, so	a predicate method for that attribute
       will still return true. Similarly, when the attribute is	next accessed,
       a default value will not	be generated.

   Triggers
       A "trigger" is a	subroutine that	is called whenever the attribute is
       set:

	 has 'size' => (
	     is	     =>	'rw',
	     trigger =>	\&_size_set,
	 );

	 sub _size_set {
	     my	( $self, $size,	$old_size ) = @_;

	     my	$msg = $self->name;

	     if	( @_ > 2 ) {
		 $msg .= " - old size was $old_size";
	     }

	     $msg .= " - size is now $size";
	     warn $msg;
	 }

       The trigger is called after an attribute's value	is set.	It is called
       as a method on the object, and receives the new and old values as its
       arguments. If the attribute had not previously been set at all, then
       only the	new value is passed. This lets you distinguish between the
       case where the attribute	had no value versus when the old value was
       "undef".

       This differs from an "after" method modifier in two ways. First,	a
       trigger is only called when the attribute is set, as opposed to
       whenever	the accessor method is called (for reading or writing).
       Second, it is also called when an attribute's value is passed to	the
       constructor.

       However,	triggers are not called	when an	attribute is populated from a
       "default" or "builder".

   Attribute types
       Attributes can be restricted to only accept certain types:

	 has 'first_name' => (
	     is	 => 'ro',
	     isa => 'Str',
	 );

       This says that the "first_name" attribute must be a string.

       Moose also provides a shortcut for specifying that an attribute only
       accepts objects that do a certain role:

	 has 'weapon' => (
	     is	  => 'rw',
	     does => 'MyApp::Weapon',
	 );

       See the Moose::Manual::Types documentation for a	complete discussion of
       Moose's type system.

   Delegation
       An attribute can	define methods which simply delegate to	its value:

	 has 'hair_color' => (
	     is	     =>	'ro',
	     isa     =>	'Graphics::Color::RGB',
	     handles =>	{ hair_color_hex => 'as_hex_string' },
	 );

       This adds a new method, "hair_color_hex". When someone calls
       "hair_color_hex", internally, the object	just calls
       "$self->hair_color->as_hex_string".

       See Moose::Manual::Delegation for documentation on how to set up
       delegation methods.

   Attribute traits and	metaclasses
       One of Moose's best features is that it can be extended in all sorts of
       ways through the	use of metaclass traits	and custom metaclasses.

       You can apply one or more traits	to an attribute:

	 use MooseX::MetaDescription;

	 has 'size' => (
	     is		 => 'ro',
	     traits	 => ['MooseX::MetaDescription::Meta::Trait'],
	     description => {
		 html_widget  => 'text_input',
		 serialize_as => 'element',
	     },
	 );

       The advantage of	traits is that you can mix more	than one of them
       together	easily (in fact, a trait is just a role	under the hood).

       There are a number of MooseX modules on CPAN which provide useful
       attribute metaclasses and traits. See Moose::Manual::MooseX for some
       examples. You can also write your own metaclasses and traits. See the
       "Meta" and "Extending" recipes in Moose::Cookbook for examples.

   Native Delegations
       Native delegations allow	you to delegate	to standard Perl data
       structures as if	they were objects.

       For example, we can pretend that	an array reference has methods like
       "push()", "shift()", "map()", "count()",	and more.

	 has 'options' => (
	     traits  =>	['Array'],
	     is	     =>	'ro',
	     isa     =>	'ArrayRef[Str]',
	     default =>	sub { [] },
	     handles =>	{
		 all_options	=> 'elements',
		 add_option	=> 'push',
		 map_options	=> 'map',
		 option_count	=> 'count',
		 sorted_options	=> 'sort',
	     },
	 );

       See Moose::Manual::Delegation for more details.

ATTRIBUTE INHERITANCE
       By default, a child inherits all	of its parent class(es)' attributes
       as-is. However, you can change most aspects of the inherited attribute
       in the child class. You cannot change any of its	associated method
       names (reader, writer, predicate, etc).

       To change some aspects of an attribute, you simply prepend a plus sign
       ("+") to	its name:

	 package LazyPerson;

	 use Moose;

	 extends 'Person';

	 has '+first_name' => (
	     lazy    =>	1,
	     default =>	'Bill',
	 );

       Now the "first_name" attribute in "LazyPerson" is lazy, and defaults to
       'Bill'.

       We recommend that you exercise caution when changing the	type ("isa")
       of an inherited attribute.

   Attribute Inheritance and Method Modifiers
       When an inherited attribute is defined, that creates an entirely	new
       set of accessors	for the	attribute (reader, writer, predicate, etc.).
       This is necessary because these may be what was changed when inheriting
       the attribute.

       As a consequence, any method modifiers defined on the attribute's
       accessors in an ancestor	class will effectively be ignored, because the
       new accessors live in the child class and do not	see the	modifiers from
       the parent class.

MULTIPLE ATTRIBUTE SHORTCUTS
       If you have a number of attributes that differ only by name, you	can
       declare them all	at once:

	 package Point;

	 use Moose;

	 has [ 'x', 'y'	] => ( is => 'ro', isa => 'Int'	);

       Also, because "has" is just a function call, you	can call it in a loop:

	 for my	$name (	qw( x y	) ) {
	     my	$builder = '_build_' . $name;
	     has $name => ( is => 'ro',	isa => 'Int', builder => $builder );
	 }

MORE ON	ATTRIBUTES
       Moose attributes	are a big topic, and this document glosses over	a few
       aspects.	We recommend that you read the Moose::Manual::Delegation and
       Moose::Manual::Types documents to get a more complete understanding of
       attribute features.

A FEW MORE OPTIONS
       Moose has lots of attribute options. The	ones listed below are
       superseded by some more modern features,	but are	covered	for the	sake
       of completeness.

   The "documentation" option
       You can provide a piece of documentation	as a string for	an attribute:

	 has 'first_name' => (
	     is		   => 'rw',
	     documentation => q{The person's first (personal) name},
	 );

       Moose does absolutely nothing with this information other than store
       it.

   The "auto_deref" option
       If your attribute is an array reference or hash reference, the
       "auto_deref" option will	make Moose dereference the value when it is
       returned	from the reader	method in list context:

	 my %map = $object->mapping;

       This option only	works if your attribute	is explicitly typed as an
       "ArrayRef" or "HashRef".	 When the reader is called in scalar context,
       the reference itself is returned.

       However,	we recommend that you use Moose::Meta::Attribute::Native
       traits for these	types of attributes, which gives you much more control
       over how	they are accessed and manipulated. See also
       Moose::Manual::BestPractices#Use_Moose::Meta::Attribute::Native_traits_instead_of_auto_deref.

   Initializer
       Moose provides an attribute option called "initializer".	This is	called
       when the	attribute's value is being set in the constructor, and lets
       you change the value before it is set.

AUTHORS
       o   Stevan Little <stevan.little@iinteractive.com>

       o   Dave	Rolsky <autarch@urth.org>

       o   Jesse Luehrs	<doy@tozt.net>

       o   Shawn M Moore <code@sartak.org>

       o   xxxx	x<section>xx'xx	(Yuval Kogman) <nothingmuch@woobling.org>

       o   Karen Etheridge <ether@cpan.org>

       o   Florian Ragwitz <rafl@debian.org>

       o   Hans	Dieter Pearcey <hdp@weftsoar.net>

       o   Chris Prather <chris@prather.org>

       o   Matt	S Trout	<mst@shadowcat.co.uk>

COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE
       This software is	copyright (c) 2006 by Infinity Interactive, Inc.

       This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
       the same	terms as the Perl 5 programming	language system	itself.

perl v5.24.1			  2017-05-03	  Moose::Manual::Attributes(3)

NAME | VERSION | INTRODUCTION | ATTRIBUTE OPTIONS | ATTRIBUTE INHERITANCE | MULTIPLE ATTRIBUTE SHORTCUTS | MORE ON ATTRIBUTES | A FEW MORE OPTIONS | AUTHORS | COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

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