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```Math::GSL::Matrix(3)  User Contributed Perl Documentation Math::GSL::Matrix(3)

NAME
Math::GSL::Matrix - Mathematical	functions concerning Matrices

SYNOPSIS
use Math::GSL::Matrix qw/:all/;
my \$matrix1 = Math::GSL::Matrix->new(5,5);  # OO interface
my \$matrix2 = \$matrix1 + 4;		       # You can add or	substract values or matrices to	OO matrices
my \$matrix3 = \$matrix1 - 4;
my \$matrix4 = \$matrix2 + \$matrix1;
my \$matrix5 = \$matrix2 . \$matrix1;	       # This is a scalar product, it simply multiply each element
# with the element of \$matrix1 that have	the same position
# See Math::GSL::BLAS if	you want scalar	product

my \$matrix6 = \$matrix2 . 8;		       # Multiply every	elements of \$matrix2 by	8
my \$matrix7 = \$matrix2 * \$matrix1;	       # scalar	product	of two matrices
if(\$matrix1 == \$matrix4) ...
if(\$matrix1 != \$matrix3) ...
my \$matrix8 = gsl_matrix_alloc(5,5);	       # standard interface

DESCRIPTION
This module is part of the Math::GSL distribution. It defines a Perl
insterface to GNU Scientific Library matrices.

There are two different (but not	exclusive) ways	to use this module:
using the OO API, built	manually over the GSL functions, or using
directly	the functions defined by GSL library.

OBJECT ORIENTED	API
Constructor
Math::GSL::Matrix-_new()

Creates a new Matrix of the given size.

my \$matrix =	Math::GSL::Matrix->new(10,10);

If by any chance	you already have a gsl_matrix and want to "objectify"
it, you can use the following constructor:

my \$m = gsl_matrix_alloc(10,	20);
# ... something
my \$matrix =	Math::GSL::Matrix->new(\$m);

Note that \$m is NOT copied. The new object will just refer to the old
gsl_matrix.

Getters
raw()

Get the underlying GSL matrix object created by SWIG, useful for	using
gsl_matrix_* functions which do not have	an OO counterpart.

my \$matrix	  = Math::GSL::Matrix->new(3,3);
my \$gsl_matrix = \$matrix->raw;
my \$stuff	  = gsl_matrix_get(\$gsl_matrix,	1, 2);

dim()

Returns the number of rows and columns in a matrix as an	array.

my (\$rows, \$cols) = \$matrix->dim;

Basically a shortcut to "rows" and "cols" methods.

rows()

Returns the number of rows in the matrix.

my \$rows = \$matrix->rows;

cols()

Returns the number of columns in	the matrix.

my \$cols = \$matrix->cols;

as_list()

Get the contents	of a Math::GSL::Matrix object as a Perl	list.

my \$matrix =	Math::GSL::Matrix->new(3,3);
...
my @matrix =	\$matrix->as_list;

as_vector()

Returns a 1xN or	Nx1 matrix as a	Math::GSL::Vector object. Dies if
called on a matrix that is not a	single row or column. Useful for
turning the output of "col()" or	"row()"	into a vector, like so:

my \$vector1 = \$matrix->col(0)->as_vector;
my \$vector2 = \$matrix->row(1)->as_vector;

get_elem()

Returns an element of a matrix.

my \$matrix =	Math::GSL::Matrix->new(3,3);
...
my \$middle =	\$matrix->get_elem(1,1);

NOTE: just like any other method	on this	module,	rows and arrays	start
with indice 0.

row()

Returns a row matrix of the row you enter.

my \$matrix =	Math::GSL::Matrix->new(3,3);
...
my \$matrix_row = \$matrix->row(0);

col()

Returns a col matrix of the column you enter.

my \$matrix =	Math::GSL::Matrix->new(3,3);
...
my \$matrix_col = \$matrix->col(0);

max()

Computes	the maximum value of a matrix. In array	context	returns	the
maximum value and the position of that element in the matrix. If	the
matrix is a vector (being it vertical or	horizontal) only one
coordinate is returned: the position of the element in the vector.

\$max	= \$matrix->max();
(\$max, \$i, \$j) = \$matrix->max();

min()

Computes	the minimum value of a matrix. In array	context	returns	the
minimum value and the position of that element in the matrix. If	the
matrix is a vector (being it vertical or	horizontal) only one
coordinate is returned: the position of the element in the vector.

\$min	= \$matrix->min();
(\$min, \$i, \$j) = \$matrix->min();

Setters
identity()

Set a matrix to the identity matrix, i.e. one on	the diagonal and zero
elsewhere.

my \$I = \$matrix->identity;

zero()

Set a matrix to the zero	matrix.

\$matrix->zero;

set_elem()

Sets a specific value in	the matrix.

my \$matrix =	Math::GSL::Matrix->new(2,2);
\$matrix->set_elem(0,	0, \$value);

You can set multiple elements at	once with chained calls:

\$matrix->set_elem(0,0,1)->set_elem(1,1,1);

NOTE: just like any other method	on this	module,	rows and arrays	start
with indice 0.

set_row()

Sets a the values of a row with the elements of an array.

my \$matrix =	Math::GSL::Matrix->new(3,3);
\$matrix->set_row(0, [8, 6, 2]);

You can also set	multiple rows at once with chained calls:

my \$matrix =	Math::GSL::Matrix->new(3,3);
\$matrix->set_row(0, [8, 6, 2])
->set_row(1, [2, 4, 1]);
...

set_col()

Sets a the values of a column with the elements of an array.

my \$matrix =	Math::GSL::Matrix->new(3,3);
\$matrix->set_col(0, [8, 6, 2]);

You can also set	multiple columns at once with chained calls:
my \$matrix =	Math::GSL::Matrix->new(3,3);
\$matrix->set_col(0, [8, 6, 2])
->set_col(1, [2, 4, 1]);
...

Utility Functions
copy()

Returns a copy of the matrix, which has the same	size and values	but
resides at a different location in memory.

my \$matrix =	Math::GSL::Matrix->new(5,5);
my \$copy   =	\$matrix->copy;

is_square()

Returns true if a matrix	is square, i.e.	it has the same	number of rows
as columns, false otherwise.

det()

Returns the determinant of a matrix (computed by	LU decomposition) or
dies if called on a non-square matrix.

my \$det = \$matrix->det();

write

Saves ONE matrix	into a file using the GSL binary format.

\$matrix->save("matrix.dat");

Note that this method always overwrite the file if it exists. In	case
more than one GSL object	will be	written	to the file,  please use the
"gsl_fopen", "gsl_matrix_fwrite"	and "gsl_fclose" manually. Future
versions	might include helper for this task.

NOTE: in	order to allow the read	of one of these	files without needing
to know in advance the size of the matrix, an horizontal	matrix with
two elements is saved in	the beginning of the file with the number of
rows and	columns	of the saved matrix.

Loads a matrix from a GSL binary	file (saved using the "save" method,
as it stores some extra information on the file).

lndet()

Returns the natural log of the absolute value of	the determinant	of a
matrix (computed	by LU decomposition) or	dies if	called on a non-square
matrix.

my \$lndet = \$matrix->lndet();

inverse()

Returns the inverse of a	matrix or dies when called on a	non-square
matrix.

my \$inverse = \$matrix->inverse;

transpose()

Returns the transpose of	a matrix  or dies when called on a non-square
matrix.

my \$transposed = \$matrix->transpose;

eigenvalues()

Computes	the a matrix eigen values.

eigenpair()

ieach()

Applied a function to each element of a matrix.

# compute exp to each element of matrix
\$matrix->ieach( sub { exp(shift) });

This method changes the original	matrix.	See "each" for a non
destructive method.

each()

Applied a function to each element of a matrix.

# compute exp to each element of matrix
\$matrix->each( sub {	exp(shift) });

This method returns a new matrix.

vconcat ()

Concatenates vertically a new matrix with the object matrix, where the
object matrix is	above in the final matrix.  Note that both matrices
need to have the	same number of columns.	 The method returns a new
matrix.

my \$final = \$m1->vconcat(\$m2);
# \$final is \$m1 on top of \$m2

hconcat ()

Concatenates horizontally a new matrix with the object matrix, where
the object matrix is at the left	in the final matrix.  Note that	both
matrices	need to	have the same number of	rows.  The method returns a
new matrix.

my \$final = \$m1->hconcat(\$m2);
# \$final is \$m1 at the left of \$m2

GSL FUNCTION INTERFACE
Here is a list of all the functions included in this module :

"gsl_matrix_alloc(\$i, \$j)" - Return a gsl_matrix	of \$i rows and \$j
columns
"gsl_matrix_calloc(\$i, \$j)" - Return a gsl_matrix of \$i rows and	\$j
columns and initialize all of the elements of the matrix	to zero
"gsl_matrix_alloc_from_block" -
"gsl_matrix_free" -
"gsl_matrix_alloc_from_matrix " -
"gsl_vector_alloc_row_from_matrix" -
"gsl_vector_alloc_col_from_matrix " -
"gsl_matrix_submatrix(\$m, \$k1, \$k2, \$n1,	\$n2)" -	Return a matrix	view
of the matrix \$m. The upper-left	element	of the submatrix is the
element (\$k1,\$k2) of the	original matrix. The submatrix has \$n1 rows
and \$n2 columns.
"gsl_matrix_row(\$m , \$i)" - Return a vector view	of the \$i-th row of
the matrix \$m
"gsl_matrix_column(\$m, \$j)" - Return a vector view of the \$j-th column
of the matrix \$m
"gsl_matrix_diagonal(\$m)" - Return a vector view	of the diagonal	of the
vector. The matrix doesn't have to be square.
"gsl_matrix_subdiagonal(\$m, \$k)"	- Return a vector view of the \$k-th
subdiagonal of the matrix \$m. The diagonal of the matrix	corresponds to
k=0.
"gsl_matrix_superdiagonal(\$m, \$k)" - Return a vector view of the	\$k-th
superdiagonal of	the matrix \$m. The matrix doesn't have to be square.
"gsl_matrix_subrow(\$m, \$i, \$offset, \$n)"	- Return a vector view of the
\$i-th row of the	matrix \$m beginning at offset elements and containing
n elements.
"gsl_matrix_subcolumn(\$m, \$j, \$offset, \$n)" - Return a vector view of
the \$j-th column	of the matrix \$m beginning at offset elements and
containing n elements.
"gsl_matrix_view_array(\$base, \$n1, \$n2)"	- This function	returns	a
matrix view of the array	reference \$base. The matrix has	\$n1 rows and
\$n2 columns. The	physical number	of columns in memory is	also given by
\$n2. Mathematically, the	(i,j)-th element of the	new matrix is given
by, m'(i,j) = \$base->[i*\$n2 + j]	where the index	i runs from 0 to \$n1-1
and the index j runs from 0 to \$n2-1. The new matrix is only a view of
the array reference \$base. When the view	goes out of scope the original
array reference \$base will continue to exist. The original memory can
only be deallocated by freeing the original array. Of course, the
original	array should not be deallocated	while the view is still	in
use.
"gsl_matrix_view_array_with_tda(\$base, \$n1, \$n2,	\$tda)" - This function
returns a matrix	view of	the array reference \$base with a physical
number of columns \$tda which may	differ from the	corresponding
dimension of the	matrix.	The matrix has \$n1 rows	and \$n2	columns, and
the physical number of columns in memory	is given by \$tda.
Mathematically, the (i,j)-th element of the new matrix is given by,
m'(i,j) = \$base->[i*\$tda	+ j] where the index i runs from 0 to \$n1-1
and the index j runs from 0 to \$n2-1. The new matrix is only a view of
the array reference \$base. When the view	goes out of scope the original
array reference \$base will continue to exist. The original memory can
only be deallocated by freeing the original array. Of course, the
original	array should not be deallocated	while the view is still	in
use.
"gsl_matrix_view_vector"	-
"gsl_matrix_view_vector_with_tda" -
"gsl_matrix_const_submatrix" -
"gsl_matrix_get(\$m, \$i, \$j)" - Return the (i,j)-th element of the
matrix \$m
"gsl_matrix_set(\$m, \$i, \$j, \$x)"	- Set the value	of the (i,j)-th
element of the matrix \$m	to \$x
"gsl_matrix_ptr"	-
"gsl_matrix_const_ptr" -
"gsl_matrix_set_zero(\$m)" - Set all the elements	of the matrix \$m to
zero
"gsl_matrix_set_identity(\$m)" - Set the elements	of the matrix \$m to
the corresponding elements of the identity matrix
"gsl_matrix_set_all(\$m, \$x)" - Set all the elements of the matrix \$m to
the value \$x
gsl_matrix_fwrite from the stream \$fh opened with the gsl_fopen
function	from the Math::GSL module and stores the data inside the
matrix \$m
"gsl_matrix_fwrite(\$fh, \$m)" - Write the	elements of the	matrix \$m in
binary format to	a stream \$fh opened with the gsl_fopen function	from
the Math::GSL module
"gsl_matrix_fscanf(\$fh, \$m)" - Read a file which	has been written with
gsl_matrix_fprintf from the stream \$fh opened with the
gsl_fopenfunction from the Math::GSL module and stores the data inside
the matrix \$m
"gsl_matrix_fprintf(\$fh,	\$m, \$format)" -	Write the elements of the
matrix \$m in the	format \$format (for example "%f" is the	format for
double) to a stream \$fh opened with the gsl_fopen function from the
Math::GSL module
"gsl_matrix_memcpy(\$dest, \$src)"	- Copy the elements of the matrix \$src
to the matrix \$dest. The	two matrices must have the same	size.
"gsl_matrix_swap(\$m1, \$m2)" - Exchange the elements of the matrices \$m1
and \$m2 by copying. The two matrices must have the same size.
"gsl_matrix_swap_rows(\$m, \$i, \$j)" - Exchange the \$i-th and \$j-th row
of the matrix \$m. The function returns 0	if the operation suceeded, 1
otherwise.
"gsl_matrix_swap_columns(\$m, \$i,	\$j)" - Exchange	the \$i-th and \$j-th
column of the matrix \$m.	The function returns 0 if the operation
suceeded, 1 otherwise.
"gsl_matrix_swap_rowcol(\$m, \$i, \$j)" - Exchange the \$i-th row and the
\$j-th column of the matrix \$m. The matrix must be square. The function
returns 0 if the	operation suceeded, 1 otherwise.
"gsl_matrix_transpose(\$m)" - This function replaces the matrix m	by its
transpose by copying the	elements of the	matrix in-place. The matrix
must be square for this operation to be possible.
"gsl_matrix_transpose_memcpy(\$dest, \$src)" - Make the matrix \$dest the
transpose of the	matrix \$src. This function works for all matrices
provided	that the dimensions of the matrix dest match the transposed
dimensions of the matrix	src.
"gsl_matrix_max(\$m)" - Return the maximum value in the matrix \$m
"gsl_matrix_min(\$m)" - Return the minimum value in the matrix \$m
"gsl_matrix_minmax(\$m)" - Return	two values, the	first is the minimum
value of	the Matrix \$m and the second is	the maximum of the same	the
same matrix.
"gsl_matrix_max_index(\$m)" - Return two values, the first is the	the i
indice of the maximum value of the matrix \$m and	the second is the j
indice of the same value.
"gsl_matrix_min_index(\$m)" - Return two values, the first is the	the i
indice of the minimum value of the matrix \$m and	the second is the j
indice of the same value.
"gsl_matrix_minmax_index(\$m)" - Return four values, the first is	the i
indice of the minimum of	the matrix \$m, the second is the j indice of
the same	value, the third is the	i indice of the	maximum	of the matrix
\$m and the fourth is the	j indice of the	same value
"gsl_matrix_isnull(\$m)" - Return	1 if all the elements of the matrix \$m
are zero, 0 otherwise
"gsl_matrix_ispos(\$m)" -	Return 1 if all	the elements of	the matrix \$m
are strictly positve, 0 otherwise
"gsl_matrix_isneg(\$m)" -	Return 1 if all	the elements of	the matrix \$m
are strictly negative, 0	otherwise
"gsl_matrix_isnonneg(\$m)" - Return 1 if all the elements	of the matrix
\$m are non-negatuive, 0 otherwise
elements	of matrix \$a
"gsl_matrix_sub(\$a, \$b)"	- Subtract the elements	of matrix \$b from the
elements	of matrix \$a
"gsl_matrix_mul_elements(\$a, \$b)" - Multiplie the elements of matrix \$a
by the elements of matrix \$b
"gsl_matrix_div_elements(\$a, \$b)" - Divide the elements of matrix \$a by
the elements of matrix \$b
"gsl_matrix_scale(\$a, \$x)" - Multiplie the elements of matrix \$a	by the
constant	factor \$x
elements	of the matrix \$a
elements	of the diagonal	of the matrix \$a
"gsl_matrix_get_row(\$v, \$m, \$i)"	- Copy the elements of the \$i-th row
of the matrix \$m	into the vector	\$v. The	lenght of the vector must be
of the same as the lenght of the	row. The function returns 0 if it
succeded, 1 otherwise.
"gsl_matrix_get_col(\$v, \$m, \$i)"	- Copy the elements of the \$j-th
column of the matrix \$m into the	vector \$v. The lenght of the vector
must be of the same as the lenght of the	column.	The function returns 0
if it succeded, 1 otherwise.
"gsl_matrix_set_row(\$m, \$i, \$v)"	- Copy the elements of vector \$v into
the \$i-th row of	the matrix \$m The lenght of the	vector must be of the
same as the lenght of the row. The function returns 0 if	it succeded, 1
otherwise.
"gsl_matrix_set_col(\$m, \$j, \$v)"	- Copy the elements of vector \$v into
the \$j-th row of	the matrix \$m The lenght of the	vector must be of the
same as the lenght of the column. The function returns 0	if it
succeded, 1 otherwise.

These are related to constant views of a	matrix.

"gsl_matrix_const_row"
"gsl_matrix_const_column"
"gsl_matrix_const_diagonal"
"gsl_matrix_const_subdiagonal"
"gsl_matrix_const_superdiagonal"
"gsl_matrix_const_subrow"
"gsl_matrix_const_subcolumn"
"gsl_matrix_const_view_array"
"gsl_matrix_const_view_array_with_tda"

The following functions are similar to those above but work with
"char"'s	and "int"'s. We	are not	quite sure if anyone wants these.
Please speak up if you do and/or	submit some patches to this

gsl_matrix_const_view_vector
gsl_matrix_const_view_vector_with_tda
gsl_matrix_char_alloc
gsl_matrix_char_calloc
gsl_matrix_char_alloc_from_block
gsl_matrix_char_alloc_from_matrix
gsl_vector_char_alloc_row_from_matrix
gsl_vector_char_alloc_col_from_matrix
gsl_matrix_char_free
gsl_matrix_char_submatrix
gsl_matrix_char_row
gsl_matrix_char_column
gsl_matrix_char_diagonal
gsl_matrix_char_subdiagonal
gsl_matrix_char_superdiagonal
gsl_matrix_char_subrow
gsl_matrix_char_subcolumn
gsl_matrix_char_view_array
gsl_matrix_char_view_array_with_tda
gsl_matrix_char_view_vector
gsl_matrix_char_view_vector_with_tda
gsl_matrix_char_const_submatrix
gsl_matrix_char_const_row
gsl_matrix_char_const_column
gsl_matrix_char_const_diagonal
gsl_matrix_char_const_subdiagonal
gsl_matrix_char_const_superdiagonal
gsl_matrix_char_const_subrow
gsl_matrix_char_const_subcolumn
gsl_matrix_char_const_view_array
gsl_matrix_char_const_view_array_with_tda
gsl_matrix_char_const_view_vector
gsl_matrix_char_const_view_vector_with_tda
gsl_matrix_char_get
gsl_matrix_char_set
gsl_matrix_char_ptr
gsl_matrix_char_const_ptr
gsl_matrix_char_set_zero
gsl_matrix_char_set_identity
gsl_matrix_char_set_all
gsl_matrix_char_fwrite
gsl_matrix_char_fscanf
gsl_matrix_char_fprintf
gsl_matrix_char_memcpy
gsl_matrix_char_swap
gsl_matrix_char_swap_rows
gsl_matrix_char_swap_columns
gsl_matrix_char_swap_rowcol
gsl_matrix_char_transpose
gsl_matrix_char_transpose_memcpy
gsl_matrix_char_max
gsl_matrix_char_min
gsl_matrix_char_minmax
gsl_matrix_char_max_index
gsl_matrix_char_min_index
gsl_matrix_char_minmax_index
gsl_matrix_char_isnull
gsl_matrix_char_ispos
gsl_matrix_char_isneg
gsl_matrix_char_isnonneg
gsl_matrix_char_sub
gsl_matrix_char_mul_elements
gsl_matrix_char_div_elements
gsl_matrix_char_scale
gsl_matrix_int_alloc
gsl_matrix_int_calloc
gsl_matrix_int_alloc_from_block
gsl_matrix_int_alloc_from_matrix
gsl_vector_int_alloc_row_from_matrix
gsl_vector_int_alloc_col_from_matrix
gsl_matrix_int_free
gsl_matrix_int_submatrix
gsl_matrix_int_row
gsl_matrix_int_column
gsl_matrix_int_diagonal
gsl_matrix_int_subdiagonal
gsl_matrix_int_superdiagonal
gsl_matrix_int_subrow
gsl_matrix_int_subcolumn
gsl_matrix_int_view_array
gsl_matrix_int_view_array_with_tda
gsl_matrix_int_view_vector
gsl_matrix_int_view_vector_with_tda
gsl_matrix_int_const_submatrix
gsl_matrix_int_const_row
gsl_matrix_int_const_column
gsl_matrix_int_ptr
gsl_matrix_int_const_ptr
gsl_matrix_int_set_zero
gsl_matrix_int_set_identity
gsl_matrix_int_set_all
gsl_matrix_int_fwrite
gsl_matrix_int_fscanf
gsl_matrix_int_fprintf
gsl_matrix_int_memcpy
gsl_matrix_int_swap
gsl_matrix_int_swap_rows
gsl_matrix_int_swap_columns
gsl_matrix_int_swap_rowcol
gsl_matrix_int_transpose
gsl_matrix_int_transpose_memcpy
gsl_matrix_int_max
gsl_matrix_int_min
gsl_matrix_int_minmax
gsl_matrix_int_max_index
gsl_matrix_int_min_index
gsl_matrix_int_minmax_index
gsl_matrix_int_isnull
gsl_matrix_int_ispos
gsl_matrix_int_isneg
gsl_matrix_int_isnonneg
gsl_matrix_int_sub
gsl_matrix_int_mul_elements
gsl_matrix_int_div_elements
gsl_matrix_int_scale

You have	to add the functions you want to use inside the	qw
/put_funtion_here /.  You can also write	use Math::GSL::Matrix qw/:all/
to use all avaible functions of the module.  Other tags are also
avaible,	here is	a complete list	of all tags for	this module :

"all"
"int"
"double"
"char"
"complex"

For more	informations on	the functions, we refer	you to the GSL offcial
documentation <http://www.gnu.org/software/gsl/manual/html_node/>

EXAMPLES
Most of	the examples from this section are perl	versions of the	examples at L<http://www.gnu.org/software/gsl/manual/html_node/Example-programs-for-matrices.html>

The program below shows	how to allocate, initialize and	read from a matrix using the functions gsl_matrix_alloc, gsl_matrix_set	and gsl_matrix_get.

use Math::GSL::Matrix qw/:all/;
my \$m =	gsl_matrix_alloc (10,3);
for my \$i (0..9){
for my \$j (0..2){
gsl_matrix_set(\$m, \$i, \$j, 0.23 + 100*\$i	+ \$j);
}
}

for my \$i (0..99){ # OUT OF RANGE ERROR
for	my \$j (0..2){
print "m(\$i, \$j)	= " . gsl_matrix_get (\$m, \$i, \$j) . "\n";
}
}
gsl_matrix_free	(\$m);

use Math::GSL::Matrix qw/:all/;

my \$m =	gsl_matrix_alloc (100, 100);
my \$a =	gsl_matrix_alloc (100, 100);

for my \$i (0..99){
for	my \$j (0..99){
gsl_matrix_set (\$m, \$i,	\$j, 0.23 + \$i +	\$j);
}
}

The next program shows how to write a matrix to	a file.

my \$out	= gsl_fopen("test.dat",	"wb");
gsl_matrix_fwrite (\$out, \$m);
gsl_fclose (\$out);

my \$in = gsl_fopen("test.dat", "rb");
gsl_fclose(\$in);

my \$k=0;
for my \$i (0..99){
for	my \$j (0..99){
\$mij = gsl_matrix_get (\$m, \$i, \$j);
\$aij = gsl_matrix_get (\$a, \$i, \$j);
\$k++ if	(\$mij != \$aij);
}
}

gsl_matrix_free(\$m);
gsl_matrix_free(\$a);

print "differences = \$k	(should	be zero)\n";

AUTHORS
Jonathan	"Duke" Leto <jonathan@leto.net>	and Thierry Moisan
<thierry.moisan@gmail.com>