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IO::WrapTie(3)	      User Contributed Perl Documentation	IO::WrapTie(3)

       IO::WrapTie - wrap tieable objects in IO::Handle	interface

       This is currently Alpha code, released for comments.
	 Please	give me	your feedback!

       First of	all, you'll need tie(),	so:

	  require 5.004;

       Function	interface (experimental).  Use this with any existing class...

	  use IO::WrapTie;
	  use FooHandle;		  ### implements TIEHANDLE interface

	  ### Suppose we want a	"FooHandle->new(&FOO_RDWR, 2)".
	  ### We can instead say...

	  $FH =	wraptie('FooHandle', &FOO_RDWR,	2);

	  ### Now we can use...
	  print	$FH "Hello, ";		  ### traditional operator syntax...
	  $FH->print("world!\n");	  ### ...and OO	syntax as well!

       OO interface (preferred).  You can inherit from the IO::WrapTie::Slave
       mixin to	get a nifty "new_tie()"	constructor...

	  package FooHandle;			    ###	a class	which can TIEHANDLE

	  use IO::WrapTie;
	  @ISA = qw(IO::WrapTie::Slave);	    ###	inherit	new_tie()

	  package main;

	  $FH =	FooHandle->new_tie(&FOO_RDWR, 2);   ###	$FH is an IO::WrapTie::Master
	  print	$FH "Hello, ";			    ###	traditional operator syntax
	  $FH->print("world!\n");		    ###	OO syntax

       See IO::Scalar as an example.  It also shows you	how to create classes
       which work both with and	without	5.004.

       Suppose you have	a class	"FooHandle", where...

       o   FooHandle does not inherit from IO::Handle; that is,	it performs
	   filehandle-like I/O,	but to something other than an underlying file
	   descriptor.	Good examples are IO::Scalar (for printing to a
	   string) and IO::Lines (for printing to an array of lines).

       o   FooHandle implements	the TIEHANDLE interface	(see perltie); that
	   is, it provides methods TIEHANDLE, GETC, PRINT, PRINTF, READ, and

       o   FooHandle implements	the traditional	OO interface of	FileHandle and
	   IO::Handle; i.e., it	contains methods like getline(), read(),
	   print(), seek(), tell(), eof(), etc.

       Normally, users of your class would have	two options:

       o   Use only OO syntax, and forsake named I/O operators like 'print'.

       o   Use with tie, and forsake treating it as a first-class object
	   (i.e., class-specific methods can only be invoked through the
	   underlying object via tied()... giving the object a "split

       But now with IO::WrapTie, you can say:

	   $WT = wraptie('FooHandle', &FOO_RDWR, 2);
	   $WT->print("Hello, world\n");   ### OO syntax
	   print $WT "Yes!\n";		   ### Named operator syntax too!
	   $WT->weird_stuff;		   ### Other methods!

       And if you're authoring a class like FooHandle, just have it inherit
       from "IO::WrapTie::Slave" and that first	line becomes even prettier:

	   $WT = FooHandle->new_tie(&FOO_RDWR, 2);

       The bottom line:	now, almost any	class can look and work	exactly	like
       an IO::Handle...	and be used both with OO and non-OO filehandle syntax.

   The data structures
       Consider	this example code, using classes in this distribution:

	   use IO::Scalar;
	   use IO::WrapTie;

	   $WT = wraptie('IO::Scalar',\$s);
	   print $WT "Hello, ";

       In it, the wraptie() function creates a data structure as follows:

				 * $WT is a blessed reference to a tied	filehandle
		     $WT	   glob; that glob is tied to the "Slave" object.
		      |		 * You would do	all your i/o with $WT directly.
		      |	    ,---isa--> IO::WrapTie::Master >--isa--> IO::Handle
		      V	   /
	       |	     |
	       |	     |	 * Perl	i/o operators work on the tied object,
	       |  "Master"   |	   invoking the	TIEHANDLE methods.
	       |	     |	 * Method invocations are delegated to the tied
	       |	     |	   slave.
	   tied(*$WT) |	    .---isa--> IO::WrapTie::Slave
		      V	   /
	       |	     |
	       |   "Slave"   |	 * Instance of FileHandle-like class which doesn't
	       |	     |	   actually use	file descriptors, like IO::Scalar.
	       |  IO::Scalar |	 * The slave can be any	kind of	object.
	       |	     |	 * Must	implement the TIEHANDLE	interface.

       NOTE: just as an	IO::Handle is really just a blessed reference to a
       traditional filehandle glob... so also, an IO::WrapTie::Master is
       really just a blessed reference to a filehandle glob which has been
       tied to some "slave" class.

   How wraptie() works
       1.  The call to function	"wraptie(SLAVECLASS, TIEARGS...)" is passed
	   onto	"IO::WrapTie::Master::new()".  Note that class
	   IO::WrapTie::Master is a subclass of	IO::Handle.

       2.  The "IO::WrapTie::Master::new" method creates a new IO::Handle
	   object, reblessed into class	IO::WrapTie::Master.  This object is
	   the master, which will be returned from the constructor.  At	the
	   same	time...

       3.  The "new" method also creates the slave: this is an instance	of
	   SLAVECLASS which is created by tying	the master's IO::Handle	to
	   SLAVECLASS via "tie(HANDLE, SLAVECLASS, TIEARGS...)".  This call to
	   "tie()" creates the slave in	the following manner:

       4.  Class SLAVECLASS is sent the	message	"TIEHANDLE(TIEARGS...)"; it
	   will	usually	delegate this to "SLAVECLASS::new(TIEARGS...)",
	   resulting in	a new instance of SLAVECLASS being created and

       5.  Once	both master and	slave have been	created, the master is
	   returned to the caller.

   How I/O operators work (on the master)
       Consider	using an i/o operator on the master:

	   print $WT "Hello, world!\n";

       Since the master	($WT) is really	a [blessed] reference to a glob, the
       normal Perl i/o operators like "print" may be used on it.  They will
       just operate on the symbol part of the glob.

       Since the glob is tied to the slave, the	slave's	PRINT method (part of
       the TIEHANDLE interface)	will be	automatically invoked.

       If the slave is an IO::Scalar, that means IO::Scalar::PRINT will	be
       invoked,	and that method	happens	to delegate to the "print()" method of
       the same	class.	So the real work is ultimately done by

   How methods work (on	the master)
       Consider	using a	method on the master:

	   $WT->print("Hello, world!\n");

       Since the master	($WT) is blessed into the class	IO::WrapTie::Master,
       Perl first attempts to find a "print()" method there.  Failing that,
       Perl next attempts to find a "print()" method in	the superclass,
       IO::Handle.  It just so happens that there is such a method; that
       method merely invokes the "print" i/o operator on the self object...
       and for that, see above!

       But let's suppose we're dealing with a method which isn't part of
       IO::Handle... for example:

	   my $sref = $WT->sref;

       In this case, the intuitive behavior is to have the master delegate the
       method invocation to the	slave (now do you see where the	designations
       come from?).  This is indeed what happens: IO::WrapTie::Master contains
       an AUTOLOAD method which	performs the delegation.

       So: when	"sref()" can't be found	in IO::Handle, the AUTOLOAD method of
       IO::WrapTie::Master is invoked, and the standard	behavior of delegating
       the method to the underlying slave (here, an IO::Scalar)	is done.

       Sometimes, to get this to work properly,	you may	need to	create a
       subclass	of IO::WrapTie::Master which is	an effective master for	your
       class, and do the delegation there.

       Why not simply use the object's OO interface?
	   Because that	means forsaking	the use	of named operators like
       print(),	and you	may need to pass the object to a subroutine which will
       attempt to use those operators:

	   $O =	FooHandle->new(&FOO_RDWR, 2);
	   $O->print("Hello, world\n");	 ### OO	syntax is okay,	BUT....

	   sub nope { print $_[0] "Nope!\n" }
	X  nope($O);			 ### ERROR!!! (not a glob ref)

       Why not simply use tie()?
	   Because (1) you have	to use tied() to invoke	methods	in the
       object's	public interface (yuck), and (2) you may need to pass the tied
       symbol to another subroutine which will attempt to treat	it in an OO-
       way... and that will break it:

	   tie *T, 'FooHandle',	&FOO_RDWR, 2;
	   print T "Hello, world\n";   ### Operator is okay, BUT...

	   tied(*T)->other_stuff;      ### yuck! AND...

	   sub nope { shift->print("Nope!\n") }
	X  nope(\*T);		       ### ERROR!!! (method "print" on unblessed ref)

       Why a master and	slave?
	 Why not simply	write FooHandle	to inherit from	IO::Handle?
	   I tried this, with an implementation	similar	to that	of IO::Socket.
       The problem is that the whole point is to use this with objects that
       don't have an underlying	file/socket descriptor..  Subclassing
       IO::Handle will work fine for the OO stuff, and fine with named
       operators if you	tie()... but if	you just attempt to say:

	   $IO = FooHandle->new(&FOO_RDWR, 2);
	   print $IO "Hello!\n";

       you get a warning from Perl like:

	   Filehandle GEN001 never opened

       because it's trying to do system-level i/o on an	(unopened) file
       descriptor.  To avoid this, you apparently have to tie()	the handle...
       which brings us right back to where we started!	At least the
       IO::WrapTie mixin lets us say:

	   $IO = FooHandle->new_tie(&FOO_RDWR, 2);
	   print $IO "Hello!\n";

       and so is not too bad.  ":-)"

       Remember: this stuff is for doing FileHandle-like i/o on	things without
       underlying file descriptors.  If	you have an underlying file
       descriptor, you're better off just inheriting from IO::Handle.

       Be aware	that new_tie() always returns an instance of a kind of
       IO::WrapTie::Master... it does not return an instance of	the i/o	class
       you're tying to!

       Invoking	some methods on	the master object causes AUTOLOAD to delegate
       them to the slave object... so it looks like you're manipulating	a
       "FooHandle" object directly, but	you're not.

       I have not explored all the ramifications of this use of	tie().	Here
       there be	dragons.

       $Id:,v 1.2 2005/02/10	21:21:53 dfs Exp $

       Primary Maintainer
	   Dianne Skoll	(

       Original	Author
	   Eryq	(  President, ZeeGee Software Inc

       Hey! The	above document had some	coding errors, which are explained

       Around line 481:
	   '=item' outside of any '=over'

	   =over without closing =back

perl v5.24.1			  2015-04-22			IO::WrapTie(3)


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