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Tabular(3)	      User Contributed Perl Documentation	    Tabular(3)

       Getopt::Tabular - table-driven argument parsing for Perl	5

	   use Getopt::Tabular;


	   use Getopt::Tabular qw/GetOptions
				  SetHelp SetHelpOption
				  SetError GetError/;


	   &Getopt::Tabular::SetHelp (long_help, usage_string);

	   @opt_table =	(
			 [section_description, "section"],
			 [option, type,	num_values, option_data, help_string],
	   &GetOptions (\@opt_table, \@ARGV [, \@newARGV]) || exit 1;

       Getopt::Tabular is a Perl 5 module for table-driven argument parsing,
       vaguely inspired	by John	Ousterhout's Tk_ParseArgv.  All	you really
       need to do to use the package is	set up a table describing all your
       command-line options, and call &GetOptions with three arguments:	a
       reference to your option	table, a reference to @ARGV (or	something like
       it), and	an optional third array	reference (say,	to @newARGV).
       &GetOptions will	process	all arguments in @ARGV,	and copy any leftover
       arguments (i.e. those that are not options or arguments to some option)
       to the @newARGV array.  (If the @newARGV	argument is not	supplied,
       "GetOptions" will replace @ARGV with the	stripped-down argument list.)
       If there	are any	invalid	options, "GetOptions" will print an error
       message and return 0.

       Before I	tell you all about why Getopt::Tabular is a wonderful thing,
       let me explain some of the terminology that will	keep popping up	here.

	   any single word appearing on	the command-line, i.e. one element of
	   the @ARGV array.

	   an argument that starts with	a certain sequence of characters; the
	   default is "-".  (If	you like GNU-style options, you	can change
	   this	to "--".)  In most Getopt::Tabular-based applications, options
	   can come anywhere on	the command line, and their order is
	   unimportant (unless one option overrides a previous option).	 Also,
	   Getopt::Tabular will	allow any non-ambiguous	abbreviation of

       option argument
	   (or value) an argument that immediately follows certain types of
	   options.  For instance, if "-foo" is	a scalar-valued	integer
	   option, and "-foo 3"	appears	on the command line, then 3 will be
	   the argument	to "-foo".

       option type
	   controls how	"GetOptions" deals with	an option and the arguments
	   that	follow it.  (Actually, for most	option types, the type
	   interacts with the "num_values" field, which	determines whether the
	   option is scalar- or	vector-valued.	This will be fully explained
	   in due course.)

       Now for the advertising,	i.e. why Getopt::Tabular is a good thing.

       o   Command-line	arguments are carefully	type-checked, both by pattern
	   and number---e.g. if	an option requires two integers, GetOptions
	   makes sure that exactly two integers	follow it!

       o   The valid command-line arguments are	specified in a data structure
	   separate from the call to GetOptions; this makes it easier to have
	   very	long lists of options, and to parse options from multiple
	   sources (e.g. the command line, an environment variable, and	a
	   configuration file).

       o   Getopt::Tabular can intelligently generate help text	based on your
	   option descriptions.

       o   The type system is extensible, and if you can define	your desired
	   argument type using a single	Perl regular expression	then it's
	   particularly	easy to	extend.

       o   To make your	program	look smarter, options can be abbreviated and
	   come	in any order.


	    You	can parse options in a "spoof" mode that has no	side-effects --	this
	   is useful for making	a validation pass over the command line	without
	   actually doing anything.

       In general, I have found	that Getopt::Tabular tends to encourage
       programs	with long lists	of sophisticated options, leading to great
       flexibility, intelligent	operation, and the potential for insanely long
       command lines.

       The basic operation of Getopt::Tabular is driven	by an option table,
       which is	just a list of option descriptions (otherwise known as option
       table entries, or just entries).	 Each option description tells
       "GetOptions" everything it needs	to know	when it	encounters a
       particular option on the	command	line.  For instance,

	   ["-foo", "integer", 2, \@Foo, "set the foo values"]

       means that whenever "-foo" is seen on the command line, "GetOptions" is
       to make sure that the next two arguments	are integers, and copy them
       into the	caller's @Foo array.  (Well, really into the @Foo array	where
       the option table	is defined.  This is almost always the same as
       "GetOptions"' caller, though.)

       Typically, you'll group a bunch of option descriptions together like

	   @options =
	       (["-range", "integer", 2, \@Range,
		 "set the range	of allowed values"],
		["-file", "string", 1, \$File,
		  "set the output file"],
		["-clobber", "boolean",	0, \$Clobber,
		  "clobber existing files"],

       and then	call "GetOptions" like this:

	   &GetOptions (\@options, \@ARGV) || exit 1;

       which replaces @ARGV with a new array containing	all the	arguments
       left-over after options and their arguments have	been removed.  You can
       also call "GetOptions" with three arguments, like this:

	   &GetOptions (\@options, \@ARGV, \@newARGV) || exit 1;

       in which	case @ARGV is untouched, and @newARGV gets the leftover

       In case of error, "GetOptions" prints enough information	for the	user
       to figure out what's going wrong.  If you supply	one, it'll even	print
       out a brief usage message in case of error.  Thus, it's enough to just
       "exit 1"	when "GetOptions" indicates an error by	returning 0.

       Detailed	descriptions of	the contents of	an option table	entry are
       given next, followed by the complete run-down of	available types, full
       details on error	handling, and how help text is generated.

       The fields in the option	table control how arguments are	parsed,	so
       it's important to understand each one in	turn.  First, the format of
       entries in the table is fairly rigid, even though this isn't really
       necessary with Perl.  It's done that way	to make	the Getopt::Tabular
       code a little easier; the drawback is that some entries will have
       unused values (e.g. the "num_values" field is never used	for boolean
       options,	but you	still have to put something there as a place-holder).
       The fields are as follows:

	   This	is the option name, e.g. "-verbose" or "-some_value".  For
	   most	option types, this is simply an	option prefix followed by
	   text; for boolean options, however, it can be a little more
	   complicated.	 (The exact rules are discussed	under "OPTION TYPES".)
	   And yes, even though	you tell Getopt::Tabular the valid option
	   prefixes, you still have to put one onto the	option names in	the

	   The option type decides what	action will be taken when this option
	   is seen on the command line,	and (if	applicable) what sort of
	   values will be accepted for this option.  There are three broad
	   classes of types: those that	imply copying data from	the command
	   line	into some variable in the caller's space; those	that imply
	   copying constant data into the caller's space without taking	any
	   more	arguments from the command line; and those that	imply some
	   other action	to be taken.  The available option types are covered
	   in greater detail below (see	"OPTION	TYPES"), but briefly:
	   "string", "integer",	and "float" all	imply copying values from the
	   command line	to a variable; "constant", "boolean", "copy",
	   "arrayconst", and "hashconst" all imply copying some	pre-defined
	   data	into a variable; "call"	and "eval" allow the execution of some
	   arbitrary subroutine	or chunk of code; and "help" options will
	   cause "GetOptions" to print out all available help text and return

	   for "string", "integer", and	"float"	options, this determines
	   whether the option is a scalar (num_values =	1) or vector
	   (num_values > 1) option.  (Note that	whether	the option is scalar-
	   or vector-valued has	an important influence on what you must	supply
	   in the option_data field!)  For "constant", "copy", "arrayconst",
	   and "hashconst" option types, num_values is a bit of	a misnomer: it
	   actually contains the value (or a reference to it, if array or
	   hash) to be copied when the option is encountered.  For "call"
	   options, num_values can be used to supply extra arguments to	the
	   called subroutine.  In any case, though, you	can think of
	   num_values as an input value.  For "boolean"	and "eval" options,
	   num_values is ignored and should be "undef" or 0.

	   For "string", "integer", "float", "boolean",	"constant", "copy",
	   "arrayconst", and "hashconst" types,	this must be a reference to
	   the variable	into which you want "GetOptions" to copy the
	   appropriate thing.  The "appropriate	thing" is either the
	   argument(s) following the option, the constant supplied as
	   num_values, or 1 or 0 (for boolean options).

	   For "boolean", "constant", "copy", and scalar-valued	"string",
	   "integer", and "float" options, this	must be	a scalar reference.
	   For vector-valued "string", "integer", and "float" options
	   (num_values > 1), and for "arrayconst" options, this	must be	an
	   array reference.  For "hashconst" options, this must	be a hash

	   Finally, option_data	is also	used as	an input value for "call" and
	   "eval" options: for "call", it should be a subroutine reference,
	   and for "eval" options, it should be	a string containing valid Perl
	   code	to evaluate when the option is seen.  The subroutine called by
	   a "call" option should take at least	two arguments: a string, which
	   is the actual option	that triggered the call	(because the same
	   subroutine could be tied to many options), and an array reference,
	   which contains all command line arguments after that	option.
	   (Further arguments can be supplied in the num_values	field.)	 The
	   subroutine may freely modify	this array, and	those modifications
	   will	affect the behaviour of	"GetOptions" afterwards.

	   The chunk of	code passed to an "eval" option	is evaluated in	the
	   package from	which "GetOptions" is called, and does not have	access
	   to any internal Getopt::Tabular data.

	   (optional) a	brief description of the option.  Don't	worry about
	   formatting this in any way; when "GetOptions" has to	print out your
	   help, it will do so quite nicely without any	intervention.  If the
	   help	string is not defined, then that option	will not be included
	   in the option help text.  (However, you could supply	an empty
	   string -- which is defined -- to make "GetOptions" just print out
	   the option name, but	nothing	else.)

	   (optional) an even briefer description of the values	that you
	   expect to follow your option.  This is mainly used to supply	place-
	   holders in the help string, and is specified	separately so that
	   "GetOptions"	can act	fairly intelligently when formatting a help
	   message.  See "HELP TEXT" for more information.

       The option type field is	the single-most	important field	in the table,
       as the type for an option "-foo"	determines (along with num_values)
       what action "GetOptions"	takes when it sees "-foo" on the command line:
       how many	following arguments become "-foo"'s arguments, what regular
       expression those	arguments must conform to, or whether some other
       action should be	taken.

       As mentioned above, there are three main	classes	of argument types:

       argument-driven options
	   These are options that imply	taking one or more option arguments
	   from	the command line after the option itself is taken.  The
	   arguments are then copied into some variable	supplied (by
	   reference) in the option table entry.

       constant-valued options
	   These are options that have a constant value	associated with	them;
	   when	the option is seen on the command line,	that constant is
	   copied to some variable in the caller's space.  (Both the constant
	   and the value are supplied in the option table entry.)  Constants
	   can be scalars, arrays, or hashes.

       other options
	   These imply some other action to be taken, usually supplied as a
	   string to "eval" or a subroutine to call.

   Argument-driven option types
       string, integer,	float
	   These are the option	types that imply "option arguments", i.e.
	   arguments after the option that will	be consumed when that option
	   is encountered on the command line and copied into the caller's
	   space via some reference.  For instance, if you want	an option
	   "-foo" to take a single string as an	argument, with that string
	   being copied	to the scalar variable $Foo, then you would have this
	   entry in your option	table:

	       ["-foo",	"string", 1, \$Foo]

	   (For	conciseness, I've omitted the help_string and argdesc entries
	   in all of the example entries in this section.  In reality, you
	   should religiously supply help text in order	to make	your programs
	   easier to use and easier to maintain.)

	   If num_values is some n greater than	one, then the option_data
	   field must be an array reference, and n arguments are copied	from
	   the command line into that array.  (The array is clobbered each
	   time	"-foo" is encountered, not appended to.)  In this case,	"-foo"
	   is referred to as a vector-valued option, as	it must	be followed by
	   a fixed number of arguments.	 (Eventually, I	plan to	add list-
	   valued options, which take a	variable number	of arguments.)	For
	   example an option table like

	       ["-foo",	"string", 3, \@Foo]

	   would result	in the @Foo array being	set to the three strings
	   immediately following any "-foo" option on the command line.

	   The only difference between string, integer,	and float options is
	   how picky "GetOptions" is about the value(s)	it will	accept.	 For
	   string options, anything is OK; for integer options,	the values
	   must	look like integers (i.e., they must match "/[+-]?\d+/"); for
	   float options, the values must look like C floating point numbers
	   (trust me, you don't	want to	see the	regexp for this).  Note	that
	   since string	options	will accept anything, they might accidentally
	   slurp up arguments that are meant to	be further options, if the
	   user	forgets	to put the correct string.  For	instance, if "-foo"
	   and "-bar" are both scalar-valued string options, and the arguments
	   "-foo -bar" are seen	on the command-line, then "-bar" will become
	   the argument	to "-foo", and never be	processed as an	option itself.
	   (This could be construed as either a	bug or a feature.  If you feel
	   really strongly that	it's a bug, then complain and I'll consider
	   doing something about it.)

	   If not enough arguments are found that match	the required regular
	   expression, "GetOptions" prints to standard error a clear and
	   useful error	message, followed by the usage summary (if you
	   supplied one), and returns 0.  The error messages look something
	   like	"-foo option must be followed by an integer", or "-foo option
	   must	be followed by 3 strings", so it really	is enough for your
	   program to "exit 1" without printing	any further message.

       User-defined patterns
	   Since the three option types	described above	are defined by nothing
	   more	than a regular expression, it's	easy to	define your own	option
	   types.  For instance, let's say you want an option to accept	only
	   strings of upper-case letters.  You could then call
	   &Getopt::Tabular::AddPatternType as follows:

		 ("upperstring", "[A-Z]+", "uppercase string")

	   Note	that the third parameter is optional, and is only supplied to
	   make	error messages clearer.	 For instance, if you now have a
	   scalar-valued option	"-zap" of type "upperstring":

	      ["-zap", "upperstring", 1, \$Zap]

	   and the user	gets it	wrong and puts an argument that	doesn't
	   consist of all uppercase letters after "-zap", then "GetOptions"
	   will	complain that "-zap option must	be followed by an uppercase
	   string".  If	you hadn't supplied the	third argument to &AddType,
	   then	the error message would	have been the slightly less helpful
	   "-zap option	must be	followed by an upperstring".  Also, you	might
	   have	to worry about how "GetOptions"	pluralizes your	description:
	   in this case, it will simply	add an "s", which works	fine much of
	   the time, but not always.  Alternately, you could supply a two-
	   element list	containing the singular	and plural forms:

		 ("upperstring", "[A-Z]+",
		   ["string of uppercase letters", "strings of uppercase letters"])

	   So, if "-zap" instead expects three "upperstring"s, and the user
	   goofs, then the error message would be (in the first	example) "-zap
	   option must be followed by 3	uppercase strings" or "-zap option
	   must	be followed by three strings of	uppercase letters" (second

	   Of course, if you don't intend to have vector-valued	options	of
	   your	new type, pluralization	hardly matters.	 Also, while it	might
	   seem	that this is a nice stab in the	direction of multi-lingual
	   support, the	error messages are still hard-coded to English in
	   other places.  Maybe	in the next version...

   Constant-valued option types
	   For boolean options,	option_data must be a scalar reference;
	   num_values is ignored (you can just set it to "undef" or 0).
	   Booleans are	slightly weird in that every boolean option implies
	   two possible	arguments that will be accepted	on the command line,
	   called the positive and negative alternatives.  The positive
	   alternative (which is what you specify as the option	name) results
	   in a	true value, while the negative alternative results in false.
	   Most	of the time, you can let "GetOptions" pick the negative
	   alternative for you:	it just	inserts	"no" after the option prefix,
	   so "-clobber" becomes "-noclobber".	(More precisely, "GetOptions"
	   tests all option prefixes until one of them matches at the
	   beginning of	the option name.  It then inserts "no" between this
	   prefix and the rest of the string.  So, if you want to support both
	   GNU-style options (like "--clobber")	and one-hyphen options ("-c"),
	   be sure to give "--"	first when setting the option patterns with
	   &SetOptionPatterns.	Otherwise, the negative	alternative to
	   "--clobber" will be "-no-clobber", which might not be what you
	   wanted.)  Sometimes,	though,	you want to explicitly specify the
	   negative alternative.  This is done by putting both alternatives in
	   the option name, separated by a vertical bar, e.g.

	   For example,	the above two examples might be	specified as

	       ["-clobber", "boolean", undef, \$Clobber],
	       ["-verbose|-quiet", "boolean", undef, \$Verbose],...);

	   If "-clobber" is seen on the	command	line, $Clobber will be set to
	   1; if "-noclobber" is seen, then $Clobber will be set to 0.
	   Likewise, "-verbose"	results	in $Verbose being set to 1, and
	   "-quiet" will set $Verbose to 0.

	   For const options, put a scalar value (not reference) in
	   num_values, and a scalar reference in option_data.  For example:

	       ["-foo",	"const", "hello	there",	\$Foo]

	   On encountering "-foo", "GetOptions"	will copy "hello there"	to

	   For arrayconst options, put an array	reference (input) (not an
	   array value)	in num_values, and another array reference (output) in
	   option_data.	 For example:

	       ["-foo",	"arrayconst", [3, 6, 2], \@Foo]

	   On encountering "-foo", "GetOptions"	will copy the array "(3,6,2)"
	   into	@Foo.

	   For hashconst options, put a	hash reference (input) (not a hash
	   value) in num_values, and another hash reference (output) in
	   option_data.	 For example:

	       ["-foo",	"hashconst", { "Perl"	=> "Larry Wall",
				       "C"	=> "Dennis Ritchie",
				       "Pascal"	=> "Niklaus Wirth" },

	   On encountering "-foo", "GetOptions"	will copy into %Inventors a
	   hash	relating various programming languages to the culprits
	   primarily responsible for their invention.

	   copy	options	act just like const options, except when num_values is
	   undefined.  In that case, the option	name itself will be copied to
	   the scalar referenced by option_data, rather	than the "undef" value
	   that	would be copied	under these circumstances with a const option.
	   This	is useful when one program accepts options that	it simply
	   passes to a sub-program; for	instance, if prog1 calls prog2,	and
	   prog2 might be run with the -foo option, then prog1's argument
	   table might have this option:

	       ["-foo",	"copy",	undef, \$Foo,
		"run prog2 with	the -foo option"]

	   and later on, you would run prog2 like this:

	       system ("prog2 $Foo ...");

	   That	way, if	"-foo" is never	seen on	prog1's	command	line, $Foo
	   will	be untouched, and will expand to the empty string when
	   building the	command	line for prog2.

	   If num_values is anything other than	"undef", then copy options
	   behave just like constant options.

   Other option	types
	   For call options, option_data must be a reference to	a subroutine.
	   The subroutine will be called with at least two arguments: a	string
	   containing the option that triggered	the call (because the same
	   subroutine might be activated by many options), a reference to an
	   array containing all	remaining command-line arguments after the
	   option, and other arguments specified using the num_values field.
	   (To be used for this	purpose, num_values must be an array
	   reference; otherwise, it is ignored.)  For example, you might
	   define a subroutine

	       sub process_foo
		  my ($opt, $args, $dest) = @_;

		  $$dest = shift @$args;    # not quite	right! (see below)

	   with	a corresponding	option table entry:

	       ["-foo",	"call",	[\$Foo], \&process_foo]

	   and then "-foo" would act just like a scalar-valued string option
	   that	copies into $Foo.  (Well, almost ... read on.)

	   A subtle point that might be	missed from the	above code: the	value
	   returned by &process_foo does matter: if it is false, then
	   "GetOptions"	will return 0 to its caller, indicating	failure.  To
	   make	sure that the user gets	a useful error message,	you should
	   supply one by calling "SetError"; doing so will prevent
	   "GetOptions"	from printing out a rather mysterious (to the end
	   user, at least) message along the lines of "subroutine call
	   failed".  The above example has two subtle problems:	first, if the
	   argument following "-foo" is	an empty string, then "process_foo"
	   will	return the empty string---a false value---thus causing
	   "GetOptions"	to fail	confusingly.  Second, if there no arguments
	   after "-foo", then "process_foo" will return	"undef"---again, a
	   false value,	causing	"GetOptions" to	fail.

	   To solve these problems, we have to define the requirements for the
	   "-foo" option a little more rigorously.  Let's say that any string
	   (including the empty	string)	is valid, but that there must be
	   something there.  Then "process_foo"	is written as follows:

	       sub process_foo
		  my ($opt, $args, $dest) = @_;

		  $$dest = shift @$args;
		  (defined $$dest) && return 1;
		    ("bad_foo",	"$opt option must be followed by a string");
		  return 0;

	   The "SetError" routine actually takes two arguments:	an error class
	   and an error	message.  This is explained fully in the "ERROR
	   HANDLING" section, below.  And, if you find yourself	writing	a lot
	   of routines like this, "SetError" is	optionally exported from
	   "Getopt::Tabular", so you can of course import it into your main
	   package like	this:

	       use Getopt::Tabular qw/GetOptions SetError/;

	   An eval option specifies a chunk of Perl code to be executed
	   ("eval"'d) when the option is encountered on	the command line.  The
	   code	is supplied (as	a string) in the option_data field; again,
	   num_values is ignored.  For example:

	       ["-foo",	"eval",	undef,
		'print "-foo seen on command line\n"']

	   will	cause "GetOptions" to print out	(via an	"eval")	the string
	   "-foo seen on the command line\n" when -foo is seen.	 No other
	   action is taken apart from what you include in the eval string.
	   The code is evaluated in the	package	from which "GetOptions"	was
	   called, so you can access variables and subroutines in your program
	   easily.  If any error occurs	in the "eval", "GetOptions" complains
	   loudly and returns 0.

	   Note	that the supplied code is always evaluated in a	"no strict"
	   environment---that's	because	Getopt::Tabular	is itself "use
	   strict"-compliant, and I didn't want	to force strictness on every
	   quick hack that uses	the module.  (Especially since eval options
	   seem	to be used mostly in quick hacks.)  (Anyone who	knows how to
	   fetch the strictness	state for another package or scope is welcome
	   to send me hints!)  However,	the -w state is	untouched.

	   section options are just used to help formatting the	help text.
	   See "HELP TEXT" below for more details.

       Generally, handling errors in the argument list is pretty transparent:
       "GetOptions" (or	one of its minions) generates an error message and
       assigns an error	class, "GetOptions" prints the message to the standard
       error, and returns 0.  You can access the error class and error message
       using the "GetError" routine:

	   ($err_class,	$err_msg) = &Getopt::Tabular::GetError ();

       (Like "SetError", "GetError" can	also be	exported from
       Getopt::Tabular.)  The error message is pretty simple---it is an
       explanation for the end user of what went wrong,	which is why
       "GetOptions" just prints	it out and forgets about it.  The error	class
       is further information that might be useful for your program; the
       current values are:

	   set when something that looks like an option	is found on the
	   command line, but it's either unknown or an ambiguous abbreviation.

	   set when an option is followed by an	invalid	argument (i.e.,	one
	   that	doesn't	match the regexp for that type), or the	wrong number
	   of arguments.

	   set when a subroutine called	via a call option or the code
	   evaluated for an eval option	returns	a false	value.	The subroutine
	   or eval'd code can override this by calling "SetError" itself.

	   set when the	code evaluted for an eval option has an	error in it.

	   set when the	user requests help

       Note that most of these are errors on the end user's part, such as bad
       or missing arguments.  There are	also errors that can be	caused by you,
       the programmer, such as bad or missing values in	the option table;
       these generally result in "GetOptions" croaking so that your program
       dies immediately	with enough information	that you can figure out	where
       the mistake is.	bad_eval is a borderline case; there are conceivably
       cases where the end user's input	can result in bogus code to evaluate,
       so I grouped this one in	the "user errors" class.  Finally, asking for
       help isn't really an error, but the assumption is that you probably
       shouldn't continue normal processing after printing out the help---so
       "GetOptions" returns 0 in this case.  You can always fetch the error
       class with "GetError" if	you want to treat real errors differently from
       help requests.

       One of Getopt::Tabular's	niftier	features is the	ability	to generate
       and format a pile of useful help	text from the snippets of help you
       include in your option table.  The best way to illustrate this is with
       a couple	of brief examples.  First, it's	helpful	to know	how the	user
       can trigger a help display.  This is quite simple: by default,
       "GetOptions" always has a "-help" option, presence of which on the
       command line triggers a help display.  (Actually, the help option is
       really your preferred option prefix plus	"help".	 So, if	you like to
       make GNU-style options to take precedence as follows:

	   &Getopt::Tabular::SetOptionPatterns qw|(--)([\w-]+) (-)(\w+)|;

       then the	help option will be "--help".  There is	only one help option
       available, and you can set it by	calling	&SetHelpOption (another
       optional	export).

       Note that in addition to	the option help	embedded in the	option table,
       "GetOptions" can	optionally print out two other messages: a descriptive
       text (usually a short paragraph giving a	rough overview of what your
       program does, possibly referring	the user to the	fine manual page), and
       a usage text.  These are	both supplied by calling &SetHelp, e.g.

	   $Help = <<HELP;
	   This	is the foo program.  It	reads one file (specified by -infile),
	   operates on it some unspecified way (possibly modified by
	   -threshold),	and does absolutely nothing with the results.
	   (The	utility	of the -clobber	option has yet to be established.)

	   $Usage = <<USAGE;
	   usage: foo [options]
		  foo -help to list options

	   &Getopt::Tabular::SetHelp ($Help, $Usage)

       Note that either	of the long help or usage strings may be empty,	in
       which case "GetOptions" simply won't print them.	 In the	case where
       both are	supplied, the long help	message	is printed first, followed by
       the option help summary,	followed by the	usage.	"GetOptions" inserts
       enough blank lines to make the output look just fine on its own,	so you
       shouldn't pad either the	long help or usage message with	blanks.	 (It
       looks best if each ends with a newline, though, so setting the help
       strings with here-documents---as	in this	example---is the recommended

       As an example of	the help display generated by a	typical	option table,
       let's take a look at the	following:

	   $Verbose = 1;
	   $Clobber = 0;
	   undef $InFile;
	   @Threshold =	(0, 1);

	   @argtbl = (["-verbose|-quiet", "boolean", 0,	\$Verbose,
		       "be noisy"],
		      ["-clobber", "boolean", 0, \$Clobber,
		       "overwrite existing files"],
		      ["-infile", "string", 1, \$InFile,
		       "specify	the input file from which to read a large " .
		       "and sundry variety of data, to which many " .
		       "interesting operations will be applied", "<f>"],
		      ["-threshold", "float", 2, \@Threshold,
		       "only consider values between <v1> and <v2>",
		       "<v1> <v2>"]);

       Assuming	you haven't supplied long help or usage	strings, then when
       "GetOptions" encounters the help	option,	it will	immediately stop
       parsing arguments and print out the following option summary:

	   Summary of options:
	      -verbose	  be noisy [default]
	      -quiet	  opposite of -verbose
	      -clobber	  overwrite existing files
	      -noclobber  opposite of -clobber [default]
	      -infile <f> specify the input file from which to read a large and
			  sundry variety of data, to which many	interesting
			  operations will be applied
	      -threshold <v1> <v2>
			  only consider	values between <v1> and	<v2> [default: 0 1]

       There are a number of interesting things	to note	here.  First, there
       are three option	table fields that affect the generation	of help	text:
       option, help_string, and	argdesc.  Note how the argdesc strings are
       simply option placeholders, usually used	to 1) indicate how many	values
       are expected to follow an option, 2) (possibly) imply what form they
       take (although that's not really	shown here), and 3) explain the	exact
       meaning of the values in	the help text.	argdesc	is just	a string like
       the help	string;	you can	put whatever you like in it.  What I've	shown
       above is	just my	personal preference (which may well evolve).

       A new feature with version 0.3 of Getopt::Tabular is the	inclusion of
       default values with the help for	certain	options.  A number of
       conditions must be fulfilled for	this to	happen for a given option:
       first, the option type must be one of the "argument-driven" types, such
       as "integer", "float", "string",	or a user-defined type.	 Second, the
       option data field must refer either to a	defined	scalar value (for
       scalar-valued options) or to a list of one or more defined values (for
       vector-valued options).	Thus, in the above example, the	"-infile"
       option doesn't have its default printed because the $InFile scalar is
       undefined.  Likewise, if	the @Threshold array were the empty list "()",
       or a list of undefined values "(undef,undef)", then the default value
       for "-threshold"	also would not have been printed.

       The formatting is done as follows: enough room is made on the right
       hand side for the longest option	name, initially	omitting the argument
       placeholders.  Then, if an option has placeholders, and there is	room
       for them	in between the option and the help string, everything (option,
       placeholders, help string) is printed together.	An example of this is
       the "-infile" option: here, "-infile <f>" is just small enough to fit
       in the 12-character column (10 characters because that is the length of
       the longest option, and 2 blanks), so the help text is placed right
       after it	on the same line.  However, the	"-threshold" option becomes
       too long	when its argument placeholders are appended to it, so the help
       text is pushed onto the next line.

       In any event, the help string supplied by the caller starts at the same
       column, and is filled to	make a nice paragraph of help.	"GetOptions"
       will fill to the	width of the terminal (or 80 columns if	it fails to
       find the	terminal width).

       Finally,	you can	have pseudo entries of type section, which are
       important to make long option lists readable (and one consequence of
       using Getopt::Tabular is	programs with ridiculously long	option lists
       -- not altogether a bad thing, I	suppose).  For example,	this table

	   @argtbl = (...,
		      ["-foo", "integer", 1, \$Foo,
		       "set the	foo value", "f"],
		      ["-enterfoomode",	"call",	0, \&enter_foo_mode,
		       "enter foo mode"],
		      ["Non-foo	related	options", "section"],
		      ["-bar", "string", 2, \@Bar,
		       "set the	bar strings (which have	nothing	whatsoever " .
		       "to do with foo", "<bar1> <bar2>"],

       results in the following	chunk of help text:

	      -foo f	     set the foo value
	      -enterfoomode  enter foo mode

	   -- Non-foo related options ---------------------------------
	      -bar b1 b2     set the bar strings (which	have nothing
			     whatsoever	to do with foo

       (This example also illustrates a	slightly different style of argument
       placeholder.  Take your pick, or	invent your own!)

       Since callbacks from the	command	line ("call" and "eval"	options) can
       do anything, they might be quite	expensive.  In certain cases, then,
       you might want to make an initial pass over the command line to ensure
       that everything is OK before parsing it "for real" and incurring	all
       those expensive callbacks.  Thus, "Getopt::Tabular" provides a "spoof"
       mode for	parsing	a command line without side-effects.  In the simplest
       case, you can access spoof mode like this:

	  use Getopt::Tabular qw(SpoofGetOptions GetOptions);
	  &SpoofGetOptions (\@options, \@ARGV, \@newARGV) || exit 1;

       and then	later on, you would call "GetOptions" with the original	@ARGV
       (so it can do what "SpoofGetOptions" merely pretended to	do):

	  &GetOptions (\@options, \@ARGV, \@newARGV) ||	exit 1;

       For most	option types, any errors that "GetOptions" would catch should
       also be caught by "SpoofGetOptions" -- so you might initially think
       that you	can get	away without that "|| exit 1" after calling
       "GetOptions".  However, it's a good idea	for a couple of	reasons.
       First, you might	inadvertently changed @ARGV -- this is usually a bug
       and a silly thing to do,	so you'd probably want your program to crash
       loudly rather than fail mysteriously later on.  Second, and more
       likely, some of those expensive operations that you're initially
       avoiding	by using "SpoofGetOptions" might themselves fail -- which
       would cause "GetOptions"	to return false	where "SpoofGetOption"
       completes without a problem.  (Finally, there's the faint possiblity of
       bugs in "Getopt::Tabular" that would cause different behaviour in spoof
       mode and	real mode -- this really shouldn't happen, though.)

       In reality, using spoof mode requires a bit more	work.  In particular,
       the whole reason	for spoof argument parsing is to avoid expensive
       callbacks, but since callbacks can eat any number of command line
       arguments, you have to emulate them in some way.	 It's not possible for
       "SpoofGetOptions" to do this for	you, so	you have to help out by
       supplying "spoof" callbacks.  As	an example, let's say you have a
       callback	option that eats one argument (a filename) and immediately
       reads that file:

	  @filedata = ();

	  sub read_file
	     my	($opt, $args) =	@_;

	     warn ("$opt option	requires an argument\n"), return 0 unless @$args;
	     my	$file =	shift @$args;
	     open (FILE, $file)	||
		(warn ("$file: $!\n"), return 0);
	     push (@filedata, <FILE>);
	     close (FILE);
	     return 1;

	  @options =
	     (['-read_file', 'call', undef, \&read_file]);

       Since "-read_file" could	occur any number of times on the command line,
       we might	end up reading an awful	lot of files, and thus it might	be a
       long time before	we catch errors	late in	the command line.  Thus, we'd
       like to do a "spoof" pass over the command line to catch	all errors.  A
       simplistic approach would be to supply a	spoof callback that just eats
       one argument and	returns	success:

	  sub spoof_read_file
	     my	($opt, $args) =	@_;
	     (warn ("$opt option requires an argument\n"), return 0)
		unless @$args;
	     shift @$args;
	     return 1;

       Then, you have to tell "Getopt::Tabular"	about this alternate callback
       with no side-effects (apart from	eating that one	argument):

	  &Getopt::Tabular::SetSpoofCodes (-read_file => \&spoof_read_file);

       ("SetSpoofCodes"	just takes a list of key/value pairs, where the	keys
       are "call" or "eval" options, and the values are	the "no	side-effects"
       callbacks.  Naturally, the replacement callback for an "eval" option
       should be a string, and for a "call" option it should be	a code
       reference.  This	is not actually	checked, however, until	you call
       "SpoofGetOptions", because "SetSpoofCodes" doesn't know whether options
       are "call" or "eval" or what.)

       A more useful "spoof_read_file",	however, would actually	check if the
       requested file exists --	i.e., we should	try to catch as	many errors as
       possible, as early as possible:

	  sub spoof_read_file
	     my	($opt, $args) =	@_;
	     warn ("$opt option	requires an argument\n"), return 0
		unless @$args;
	     my	$file =	shift @$args;
	     warn ("$file does not exist or is not readable\n"), return	0
		unless -r $file;
	     return 1;

       Finally,	you can	frequently merge the "real" and	"spoof"	callback into
       one subroutine:

	  sub read_file
	     my	($opt, $args, $spoof) =	@_;

	     warn ("$opt option	requires an argument\n"), return 0 unless @$args;
	     my	$file =	shift @$args;
	     warn ("$file does not exist or is not readable\n"), return	0
		unless -r $file;
	     return 1 if $spoof;
	     open (FILE, $file)	||
		(warn ("$file: $!\n"), return 0);
	     push (@filedata, <FILE>);
	     close (FILE);
	     return 1;

       And then, when specifying the replacement callback to "SetSpoofCodes",
       just create an anonymous	sub that calls "read_file" with	$spoof true:

	     (-read_file => sub	{ &read_file (@_[0,1], 1) });

       Even though this	means a	bigger and more	complicated callback, you only
       need one	such callback -- the alternative is to carry around both
       "read_file" and "spoof_read_file", which	might do redundant processing
       of the argument list.

       Greg Ward <>

       Started in July,	1995 as, with John	Ousterhout's
       Tk_ParseArgv.c as a loose inspiration.  Many many features added	over
       the ensuing months; documentation written in a mad frenzy 16-18 April,
       1996.  Renamed to Getopt::Tabular, revamped, reorganized, and
       documentation expanded 8-11 November, 1996.

       Copyright (c) 1995-97 Greg Ward.	All rights reserved.  This is free
       software; you can redistribute it and/or	modify it under	the same terms
       as Perl itself.

       The documentation is bigger than	the code, and I	still haven't covered
       option patterns or extending the	type system (apart from	pattern
       types).	Yow!

       No support for list-valued options, although you	can roll your own with
       call options.  (See the demo program included with the distribution for
       an example.)

       Error messages are hard-coded to	English.

perl v5.24.1			  1998-01-20			    Tabular(3)


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