Skip site navigation (1)Skip section navigation (2)

FreeBSD Manual Pages


home | help
Gc(3)				 OCaml library				 Gc(3)

       Gc - Memory management control and statistics; finalised	values.

       Module	Gc

       Module Gc
	: sig end

       Memory management control and statistics; finalised values.

       type stat = {
	minor_words  : float ;	(* Number of words allocated in	the minor heap
       since the program was started.  This number is  accurate	 in  byte-code
       programs,  but  only  an	 approximation	in programs compiled to	native
	promoted_words : float ;  (* Number of words allocated	in  the	 minor
       heap  that survived a minor collection and were moved to	the major heap
       since the program was started.
	major_words : float ;  (* Number of words allocated in the major heap,
       including the promoted words, since the program was started.
	minor_collections  :  int  ;  (* Number	of minor collections since the
       program was started.
	major_collections : int	;  (* Number of	major collection  cycles  com-
       pleted since the	program	was started.
	heap_words : int ;  (* Total size of the major heap, in	words.
	heap_chunks  :	int  ;	 (* Number of contiguous pieces	of memory that
       make up the major heap.
	live_words : int ;  (* Number of words of live data in the major heap,
       including the header words.
	live_blocks : int ;  (*	Number of live blocks in the major heap.
	free_words : int ;  (* Number of words in the free list.
	free_blocks : int ;  (*	Number of blocks in the	free list.
	largest_free  :	 int ;	(* Size	(in words) of the largest block	in the
       free list.
	fragments : int	;  (* Number of	wasted	words  due  to	fragmentation.
       These are 1-words free blocks placed between two	live blocks.  They are
       not available for allocation.
	compactions : int ;  (*	Number of heap compactions since  the  program
       was started.
	top_heap_words	: int ;	 (* Maximum size reached by the	major heap, in
	stack_size : int ;  (* Current size of the stack, in words.

       Since 3.12.0

       The memory management counters are returned in a	stat record.

       The total amount	of memory  allocated  by  the  program	since  it  was
       started	is  (in	 words)	 minor_words  +	major_words - promoted_words .
       Multiply	by the word size (4 on a 32-bit	machine, 8  on	a  64-bit  ma-
       chine) to get the number	of bytes.

       type control = {

       mutable	minor_heap_size	 :  int	;  (* The size (in words) of the minor
       heap.  Changing this parameter will trigger a  minor  collection.   De-
       fault: 256k.

       mutable	major_heap_increment  :	int ;  (* How much to add to the major
       heap when increasing it.	If this	number is less than or equal to	 1000,
       it  is  a  percentage  of the current heap size (i.e. setting it	to 100
       will double the heap size at each increase). If it is more  than	 1000,
       it  is a	fixed number of	words that will	be added to the	heap. Default:

       mutable space_overhead :	int ;  (* The major GC speed is	computed  from
       this  parameter.	  This is the memory that will be "wasted" because the
       GC does not immediatly collect unreachable blocks.  It is expressed  as
       a  percentage  of the memory used for live data.	 The GC	will work more
       (use more CPU time and collect blocks more eagerly)  if	space_overhead
       is smaller.  Default: 80.

       mutable	verbose	 :  int	 ;   (*	This value controls the	GC messages on
       standard	error output.  It is a sum of some of the following flags,  to
       print messages on the corresponding events:

       - 0x001 Start of	major GC cycle.

       - 0x002 Minor collection	and major GC slice.

       - 0x004 Growing and shrinking of	the heap.

       - 0x008 Resizing	of stacks and memory manager tables.

       - 0x010 Heap compaction.

       - 0x020 Change of GC parameters.

       - 0x040 Computation of major GC slice size.

       - 0x080 Calling of finalisation functions.

       - 0x100 Bytecode	executable and shared library search at	start-up.

       - 0x200 Computation of compaction-triggering condition.	Default: 0.


       mutable	max_overhead : int ;  (* Heap compaction is triggered when the
       estimated amount	of "wasted" memory is more than	 max_overhead  percent
       of  the	amount	of  live data.	If max_overhead	is set to 0, heap com-
       paction is triggered at the end of each major GC	cycle (this setting is
       intended	for testing purposes only).  If	max_overhead >=	1000000	, com-
       paction is never	triggered.  If compaction is permanently disabled,  it
       is strongly suggested to	set allocation_policy to 1.  Default: 500.

       mutable	stack_limit  :	int  ;	 (*  The maximum size of the stack (in
       words).	This is	only relevant to the byte-code runtime,	as the	native
       code runtime uses the operating system's	stack.	Default: 1024k.

       mutable allocation_policy : int ;  (* The policy	used for allocating in
       the heap.  Possible values are 0	and 1.	 0  is	the  next-fit  policy,
       which  is  quite	 fast  but  can	 result	 in  fragmentation.   1	is the
       first-fit policy, which can be slower in	some cases but can  be	better
       for programs with fragmentation problems.  Default: 0.

       Since 3.11.0

       The  GC	parameters are given as	a control record.  Note	that these pa-
       rameters	can also be initialised	by setting the OCAMLRUNPARAM  environ-
       ment variable.  See the documentation of	ocamlrun .

       val stat	: unit -> stat

       Return  the  current values of the memory management counters in	a stat
       record.	This function examines every heap block	to get the statistics.

       val quick_stat :	unit ->	stat

       Same as stat except  that  live_words  ,	 live_blocks  ,	 free_words  ,
       free_blocks , largest_free , and	fragments are set to 0.	 This function
       is much faster than stat	because	it does	not need  to  go  through  the

       val counters : unit -> float * float * float

       Return  (minor_words,  promoted_words, major_words) .  This function is
       as fast as quick_stat .

       val get : unit -> control

       Return the current values of the	GC parameters in a control record.

       val set : control -> unit

       set r changes the GC parameters according to the	 control  record  r  .
       The normal usage	is: Gc.set { (Gc.get())	with Gc.verbose	= 0x00d	}

       val minor : unit	-> unit

       Trigger a minor collection.

       val major_slice : int ->	int

       Do a minor collection and a slice of major collection.  The argument is
       the size	of the slice, 0	to use the automatically-computed slice	 size.
       In all cases, the result	is the computed	slice size.

       val major : unit	-> unit

       Do a minor collection and finish	the current major collection cycle.

       val full_major :	unit ->	unit

       Do  a  minor collection,	finish the current major collection cycle, and
       perform a complete new cycle.  This will	collect	all currently unreach-
       able blocks.

       val compact : unit -> unit

       Perform	a  full	major collection and compact the heap.	Note that heap
       compaction is a lengthy operation.

       val print_stat :	Pervasives.out_channel -> unit

       Print the current values	of the	memory	management  counters  (in  hu-
       man-readable form) into the channel argument.

       val allocated_bytes : unit -> float

       Return  the  total  number  of  bytes  allocated	 since the program was
       started.	 It is returned	as a float to avoid overflow problems with int
       on 32-bit machines.

       val finalise : ('a -> unit) -> 'a -> unit

       finalise	 f v registers f as a finalisation function for	v .  v must be
       heap-allocated.	f will be called with v	as argument at some point  be-
       tween  the first	time v becomes unreachable and the time	v is collected
       by the GC.  Several functions can be registered for the same value,  or
       even  several  instances	 of  the same function.	 Each instance will be
       called once (or never, if the program terminates	before v  becomes  un-

       The  GC	will call the finalisation functions in	the order of dealloca-
       tion.  When several values become unreachable at	the  same  time	 (i.e.
       during the same GC cycle), the finalisation functions will be called in
       the reverse order of the	corresponding calls to finalise	.  If finalise
       is  called  in  the  same order as the values are allocated, that means
       each value is finalised before the values it depends upon.  Of  course,
       this becomes false if additional	dependencies are introduced by assign-

       In the presence of multiple OCaml threads it should be assumed that any
       particular finaliser may	be executed in any of the threads.

       Anything	 reachable  from the closure of	finalisation functions is con-
       sidered reachable, so the following code	will not work as expected:

       - let v = ... in	Gc.finalise (fun x -> ... v ...) v

       Instead you should make sure that v is not in the closure of the	final-
       isation function	by writing:

       - let f = fun x -> ... ;; let v = ... in	Gc.finalise f v

       The  f  function	 can  use all features of OCaml, including assignments
       that make the value reachable again.  It	can also loop forever (in this
       case,  the  other  finalisation functions will not be called during the
       execution of f, unless it calls finalise_release	).  It	can  call  fi-
       nalise on v or other values to register other functions or even itself.
       It can raise an exception; in this case the  exception  will  interrupt
       whatever	the program was	doing when the function	was called.

       finalise	 will raise Invalid_argument if	v is not heap-allocated.  Some
       examples	of values that are not heap-allocated are  integers,  constant
       constructors,  booleans,	 the  empty  array,  the  empty	list, the unit
       value.  The exact list of what is heap-allocated	or not is  implementa-
       tion-dependent.	 Some  constant	values can be heap-allocated but never
       deallocated during the lifetime of the program, for example a  list  of
       integer	constants;  this is also implementation-dependent.  You	should
       also be aware that compiler optimisations may duplicate some  immutable
       values,	for example floating-point numbers when	stored into arrays, so
       they can	be finalised and collected while another copy is still in  use
       by the program.

       The  results  of	 calling String.make , Bytes.make , Bytes.create , Ar-
       ray.make	, and Pervasives.ref are guaranteed to be  heap-allocated  and
       non-constant except when	the length argument is 0 .

       val finalise_release : unit -> unit

       A  finalisation	function may call finalise_release to tell the GC that
       it can launch the next finalisation function without  waiting  for  the
       current one to return.

       type alarm

       An  alarm  is  a	piece of data that calls a user	function at the	end of
       each major GC cycle.  The following functions are  provided  to	create
       and delete alarms.

       val create_alarm	: (unit	-> unit) -> alarm

       create_alarm f will arrange for f to be called at the end of each major
       GC cycle, starting with the current cycle or the	next one.  A value  of
       type alarm is returned that you can use to call delete_alarm .

       val delete_alarm	: alarm	-> unit

       delete_alarm  a	will  stop the calls to	the function associated	to a .
       Calling delete_alarm a again has	no effect.

OCamldoc			  2017-04-30				 Gc(3)

NAME | Module | Documentation

Want to link to this manual page? Use this URL:

home | help