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Gantry::Docs::Why(3)  User Contributed Perl Documentation Gantry::Docs::Why(3)

       Gantry::Docs::Why - What's a framework and why should I want one?

       This document attempts to explain why a programmer should want a	web
       app framework.  It is not specific to the Gantry	framework.  There are
       reasons why we prefer Gantry to other frameworks, but they are not
       discussed here.

Do It Yourself
       Once upon a time, I had a computer savvy	friend with an unorthodox
       opinion.	 He hated the idea of using an SQL database, unless the	amount
       of data or the frequency	of accessing it	justified its use solely on
       the basis of run	time performance.  "Why	not roll your own?" was	his
       continual question.  After all, he reasoned, a small application
       probably	has only a small amount	of data	which can be easily described.
       Therefore, a flat file scheme is	sufficient for almost all apps.

       For the moment, set aside the problems of scalability.  That is,	ignore
       for the moment the valid	point that the complexity of apps tends	to
       grow as they age	and that more and more users come from the woodwork to
       use successful apps.

       The argument against databases falls on its own,	just based on
       developer efficiency.  If you have your data in a hand written scheme I
       have a hurdle to	clear before I can work	on your	app.  With an SQL
       database, I can use standard tools to explain your data layout.	This
       leads quickly to	an understanding of the	app itself (as the famous
       quote about sharing and concealing flowcharts so	well states).

       So, there is an important lesson	to be learned from SQL databases.
       Even when they make no sense in terms of	throughput during app
       execution, they still make a great deal of sense	in a typical shop.
       They create a lingua franca for describing data.	 That common language,
       by itself, is a great help to developers.

Web Apps
       No matter what a	web application	does, it shares	an obvious trait with
       all other web apps: the web.  Users will	interact with our web apps
       through their browsers.	The details of the interaction may differ
       depending on whether we use mod_perl, CGI, or something else, but the
       fact remains that all the data coming into and out of our apps travels
       in http requests.

       This leads naturally to a common	set of problems	and benefits for all
       web apps.  When we notice that programs have things in common, we
       should immediately begin	thinking of code they can share.  Factoring
       out the common code will	save us	development time.  If we factor	out
       enough behavior,	we can call it a framework.  If	other people use our
       framework it can	become a lingua	franca at least	among our friends and

       The following section describes one of the most common web app

Typical	Web Apps
       Though there is some variation in what web applications do (we have
       some that provision cable modems) they are primarily occupied with the
       same basic task.	 They manage data in an	SQL database.  This leads to a
       small number of common tasks that each app must perform.	 In fact, most
       apps have multiple database tables to manage, so	they perform these
       common tasks repeatedly.

       Consider	a typical work flow.  A	user comes to a	customer facing	web
       site to update their address.  From a generic front page, they choose a
       link to the app which updates the relevant data.	 On that app, they log
       in (providing account name or number and	a password or two).  Once
       authenticated, they choose a navigation tab or link which displays an
       address form with their current information.  The user then updates the
       relevant	bits and presses submit.  The site validates data (shunting
       the user	back to	the page with error messages on	failure) and updates
       it in the underlying SQL	table.	Finally, the site takes	them back to
       some reasonable page, like their	account	home.

       Our company does	not allow users	to update their	address	as described
       above, since we are a wire line data provider (cable TV,	telephone,
       internet).  Yet,	the outline above is exactly correct for a large
       number of the pieces in almost all of our apps.	Here are the steps in

       1.  Display a page of information with links to update some of it.

       2.  Upon	a user click, display a	form for entering or editing data.

       3.  Upon	user submission	of the form, validate the data.	 If it is not
	   valid, point	out errors and repeat from step	2.

       4.  Update database table(s) to reflect the change.

       5.  Display a reasonable	page to	the user.

       Now, there may be substantial additional	work to	be done	in concert
       with step 4 (like configuring those cable modems	or sending spam	to the
       marketing department).  And there may be	other activities, like report
       generation (but that may	really be a special case of the	above).	 Yet,
       for all the special things that a particular application	needs to do,
       the five	steps above are	repeated by multiple pieces of almost all

       Programmers are (or should be) lazy.  We	don't want to continually
       recode the above.  Not only is that tedious, but	it suffers from	the
       same problems that rolling our own data scheme for each app would.  It
       makes for lots of apps which are	almost the same, to the	point that the
       details which differ are	hard to	deduce.	 Further, newly	hired
       programmers face	a number of hurdles to understanding a bunch of
       separately coded	apps.

       So, we want a lingua franca for web applications	in the same way	that
       we wanted SQL for database access.  The problems	of a web app are more
       numerous	and more disparate, so the solution is more complex.  But, a
       web framework is	a lingua franca	for web	apps.

       There are many web app frameworks in the	wild these days.  I'll not
       even bother to start a list of them.  Suffice it	to say,	if you find
       one that	will work for you and your shop, it will save you development
       time.  And, it will provide an easier path for those new	to your	shop.
       If it happens to	be wildly popular, you might even be able to hire
       people already familiar with it.

       In our shop we go one step further.  Since database backed web apps are
       so similar, we developed	a language for describing them called Bigtop.
       By describing an	app in Bigtop syntax, we can generate and regenerate
       its repetitive bits.  This leaves us free to work on the	more
       interesting bits.

       Phil Crow <>

Copyright and License
       Copyright (c) 2006, Phil	Crow.

       This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the same terms as Perl itself, either Perl	version	5.8.6 or, at
       your option, any	later version of Perl 5	you may	have available.

perl v5.32.0			  2020-08-27		  Gantry::Docs::Why(3)

Name | Intro | Do It Yourself | Web Apps | Typical Web Apps | Conclusion | Author | Copyright and License

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