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File::Which(3)	      User Contributed Perl Documentation	File::Which(3)

       File::Which - Perl implementation of the	which utility as an API

       version 1.23

	use File::Which;		  # exports which()
	use File::Which	qw(which where);  # exports which() and	where()

	my $exe_path = which 'perldoc';

	my @paths = where 'perl';
	# Or
	my @paths = which 'perl'; # an array forces search for all of them

       File::Which finds the full or relative paths to executable programs on
       the system.  This is normally the function of "which" utility.  "which"
       is typically implemented	as either a program or a built in shell
       command.	 On some platforms, such as Microsoft Windows it is not
       provided	as part	of the core operating system.  This module provides a
       consistent API to this functionality regardless of the underlying

       The focus of this module	is correctness and portability.	 As a
       consequence platforms where the current directory is implicitly part of
       the search path such as Microsoft Windows will find executables in the
       current directory, whereas on platforms such as UNIX where this is not
       the case	executables in the current directory will only be found	if the
       current directory is explicitly added to	the path.

       If you need a portable "which" on the command line in an	environment
       that does not provide it, install App::pwhich which provides a command
       line interface to this API.

       File::Which searches the	directories of the user's "PATH" (the current
       implementation uses File::Spec#path to determine	the correct "PATH"),
       looking for executable files having the name specified as a parameter
       to "which". Under Win32 systems,	which do not have a notion of directly
       executable files, but uses special extensions such as ".exe" and	".bat"
       to identify them, "File::Which" takes extra steps to assure that	you
       will find the correct file (so for example, you might be	searching for
       "perl", it'll try perl.exe, perl.bat, etc.)

       Linux, *BSD and other UNIXes

       There should not	be any surprises here.	The current directory will not
       be searched unless it is	explicitly added to the	path.

       Modern Windows (including NT, XP, Vista,	7, 8, 10 etc)

       Windows NT has a	special	environment variable called "PATHEXT", which
       is used by the shell to look for	executable files. Usually, it will
       contain a list in the form ".EXE;.BAT;.COM;.JS;.VBS" etc. If
       "File::Which" finds such	an environment variable, it parses the list
       and uses	it as the different extensions.


       Cygwin provides a Unix-like environment for Microsoft Windows users.
       In most ways it works like other	Unix and Unix-like environments, but
       in a few	key aspects it works like Windows.  As with other Unix
       environments, the current directory is not included in the search
       unless it is explicitly included	in the search path.  Like on Windows,
       files with ".EXE" or <.BAT> extensions will be discovered even if they
       are not part of the query.  ".COM" or extensions	specified using	the
       "PATHEXT" environment variable will NOT be discovered without the fully
       qualified name, however.

       Windows ME, 98, 95, MS-DOS, OS/2

       This set	of operating systems don't have	the "PATHEXT" variable,	and
       usually you will	find executable	files there with the extensions
       ".exe", ".bat" and (less	likely)	".com".	"File::Which" uses this
       hardcoded list if it's running under Win32 but does not find a
       "PATHEXT" variable.

       As of 2015 none of these	platforms are tested frequently	(or perhaps
       ever), but the current maintainer is determined not to intentionally
       remove support for older	operating systems.


       Same case as Windows 9x:	uses ".exe" and	".com" (in that	order).

       As of 2015 the current maintainer does not test on VMS, and is in fact
       not certain it has ever been tested on VMS.  If this platform is
       important to you	and you	can help me verify and or support it on	that
       platform	please contact me.

	my $path = which $short_exe_name;
	my @paths = which $short_exe_name;

       Exported	by default.

       $short_exe_name is the name used	in the shell to	call the program (for
       example,	"perl").

       If it finds an executable with the name you specified, "which()"	will
       return the absolute path	leading	to this	executable (for	example,
       /usr/bin/perl or	C:\Perl\Bin\perl.exe).

       If it does not find the executable, it returns "undef".

       If "which()" is called in list context, it will return all the matches.

	my @paths = where $short_exe_name;

       Not exported by default.

       Same as "which" in array	context.  Similar to the "where" csh built-in
       command or "which -a" command for platforms that	support	the "-a"
       option. Will return an array containing all the path names matching

       True if the current directory is	included in the	search implicitly on
       whatever	platform you are using.	 Normally the default is reasonable,
       but on Windows the current directory is included	implicitly for older
       shells like "cmd.exe" and "",	but not	for newer shells like
       PowerShell.  If you overrule this default, you should ALWAYS localize
       the variable to the tightest scope possible, since setting this
       variable	from a module can affect other modules.	 Thus on Windows you
       can get the correct result if the user is running either	"cmd.exe" or
       PowerShell on Windows you can do	this:

	use File::Which	qw( which );
	use Shell::Guess;

	my $path = do {
	  my $is_power = Shell::Guess->running_shell->is_power;
	  local	$File::Which::IMPLICIT_CURRENT_DIR = !$is_power;
	  which	'foo';

       For a variety of	reasons	it is difficult	to accurately compute the
       shell that a user is using, but Shell::Guess makes a reasonable effort.

       This module has no non-core requirements	for Perl 5.6.2 and better.

       This module is fully supported back to Perl 5.8.1.  It may work on
       5.8.0.  It should work on Perl 5.6.x and	I may even test	on 5.6.2.  I
       will accept patches to maintain compatibility for such older Perls, but
       you may need to fix it on 5.6.x / 5.8.0 and send	me a patch.

       Not tested on VMS although there	is platform specific code for those.
       Anyone who haves	a second would be very kind to send me a report	of how
       it went.

       Bugs should be reported via the GitHub issue tracker


       For other issues, contact the maintainer.

       pwhich, App::pwhich
	   Command line	interface to this module.

	   This	module provides	(among other things) a "can_run" function,
	   which is similar to "which".	 It is a much heavier module since it
	   does	a lot more, and	if you use "can_run" it	pulls in
	   ExtUtils::MakeMaker.	 This combination may be overkill for
	   applications	which do not need IPC::Cmd's complicated interface for
	   running programs, or	do not need the	memory overhead	required for
	   installing Perl modules.

	   At least some older versions	will find executables in the current
	   directory, even if the current directory is not in the search path
	   (which is the default on modern Unix).

	   "can_run" converts directory	path name to the 8.3 version on
	   Windows using "Win32::GetShortPathName" in some cases.  This	is
	   frequently useful for tools that just need to run something using
	   "system" in scalar mode, but	may be inconvenient for	tools like
	   App::pwhich where user readability is a premium.  Relying on
	   "Win32::GetShortPathName" to	produce	filenames without spaces is
	   problematic,	as 8.3 filenames can be	turned off with	tweaks to the
	   registry (see

	   This	module purports	to "check that a command is available",	but
	   does	not provide any	documentation on how you might use it.

       o   Per Einar Ellefsen <>

       o   Adam	Kennedy	<>

       o   Graham Ollis	<>

       This software is	copyright (c) 2002 by Per Einar	Ellefsen

       This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
       the same	terms as the Perl 5 programming	language system	itself.

perl v5.32.1			  2018-12-31			File::Which(3)


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