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File::Path(3)	       Perl Programmers	Reference Guide		 File::Path(3)

NAME
       File::Path - Create or remove directory trees

VERSION
       This document describes version 2.12 of File::Path.

SYNOPSIS
	 use File::Path	qw(make_path remove_tree);

	 @created = make_path('foo/bar/baz', '/zug/zwang');
	 @created = make_path('foo/bar/baz', '/zug/zwang', {
	     verbose =>	1,
	     mode => 0711,
	 });
	 make_path('foo/bar/baz', '/zug/zwang',	{
	     chmod => 0777,
	 });

	 $removed_count	= remove_tree('foo/bar/baz', '/zug/zwang');
	 $removed_count	= remove_tree('foo/bar/baz', '/zug/zwang', {
	     verbose =>	1,
	     error  => \my $err_list,
	 });

	 # legacy (interface promoted before v2.00)
	 @created = mkpath('/foo/bar/baz');
	 @created = mkpath('/foo/bar/baz', 1, 0711);
	 @created = mkpath(['/foo/bar/baz', 'blurfl/quux'], 1, 0711);
	 $removed_count	= rmtree('foo/bar/baz',	1, 1);
	 $removed_count	= rmtree(['foo/bar/baz', 'blurfl/quux'], 1, 1);

	 # legacy (interface promoted before v2.06)
	 @created = mkpath('foo/bar/baz', '/zug/zwang',	{ verbose => 1,	mode =>	0711 });
	 $removed_count	= rmtree('foo/bar/baz',	'/zug/zwang', {	verbose	=> 1, mode => 0711 });

DESCRIPTION
       This module provide a convenient	way to create directories of arbitrary
       depth and to delete an entire directory subtree from the	filesystem.

       The following functions are provided:

       make_path( $dir1, $dir2,	.... )
       make_path( $dir1, $dir2,	...., \%opts )
	   The "make_path" function creates the	given directories if they
	   don't exists	before,	much like the Unix command "mkdir -p".

	   The function	accepts	a list of directories to be created. Its
	   behaviour may be tuned by an	optional hashref appearing as the last
	   parameter on	the call.

	   The function	returns	the list of directories	actually created
	   during the call; in scalar context the number of directories
	   created.

	   The following keys are recognised in	the option hash:

	   mode	=> $num
	       The numeric permissions mode to apply to	each created directory
	       (defaults to 0777), to be modified by the current "umask". If
	       the directory already exists (and thus does not need to be
	       created), the permissions will not be modified.

	       "mask" is recognised as an alias	for this parameter.

	   chmod => $num
	       Takes a numeric mode to apply to	each created directory (not
	       modified	by the current "umask"). If the	directory already
	       exists (and thus	does not need to be created), the permissions
	       will not	be modified.

	   verbose => $bool
	       If present, will	cause "make_path" to print the name of each
	       directory as it is created. By default nothing is printed.

	   error => \$err
	       If present, it should be	a reference to a scalar.  This scalar
	       will be made to reference an array, which will be used to store
	       any errors that are encountered.	 See the "ERROR	HANDLING"
	       section for more	information.

	       If this parameter is not	used, certain error conditions may
	       raise a fatal error that	will cause the program to halt,	unless
	       trapped in an "eval" block.

	   owner => $owner
	   user	=> $owner
	   uid => $owner
	       If present, will	cause any created directory to be owned	by
	       $owner.	If the value is	numeric, it will be interpreted	as a
	       uid, otherwise as username is assumed. An error will be issued
	       if the username cannot be mapped	to a uid, or the uid does not
	       exist, or the process lacks the privileges to change ownership.

	       Ownership of directories	that already exist will	not be
	       changed.

	       "user" and "uid"	are aliases of "owner".

	   group => $group
	       If present, will	cause any created directory to be owned	by the
	       group $group.  If the value is numeric, it will be interpreted
	       as a gid, otherwise as group name is assumed. An	error will be
	       issued if the group name	cannot be mapped to a gid, or the gid
	       does not	exist, or the process lacks the	privileges to change
	       group ownership.

	       Group ownership of directories that already exist will not be
	       changed.

		   make_path '/var/tmp/webcache', {owner=>'nobody', group=>'nogroup'};

       mkpath( $dir )
       mkpath( $dir, $verbose, $mode )
       mkpath( [$dir1, $dir2,...], $verbose, $mode )
       mkpath( $dir1, $dir2,..., \%opt )
	   The mkpath()	function provide the legacy interface of make_path()
	   with	a different interpretation of the arguments passed.  The
	   behaviour and return	value of the function is otherwise identical
	   to make_path().

       remove_tree( $dir1, $dir2, .... )
       remove_tree( $dir1, $dir2, ....,	\%opts )
	   The "remove_tree" function deletes the given	directories and	any
	   files and subdirectories they might contain,	much like the Unix
	   command "rm -r" or the Windows commands "rmdir /s" and "rd /s". The
	   only	exception to the function similarity is	"remove_tree" accepts
	   only	directories whereas "rm	-r" also accepts files.

	   The function	accepts	a list of directories to be removed. Its
	   behaviour may be tuned by an	optional hashref appearing as the last
	   parameter on	the call.  If an empty string is passed	to
	   "remove_tree", an error will	occur.

	   The functions returns the number of files successfully deleted.

	   The following keys are recognised in	the option hash:

	   verbose => $bool
	       If present, will	cause "remove_tree" to print the name of each
	       file as it is unlinked. By default nothing is printed.

	   safe	=> $bool
	       When set	to a true value, will cause "remove_tree" to skip the
	       files for which the process lacks the required privileges
	       needed to delete	files, such as delete privileges on VMS. In
	       other words, the	code will make no attempt to alter file
	       permissions. Thus, if the process is interrupted, no filesystem
	       object will be left in a	more permissive	mode.

	   keep_root =>	$bool
	       When set	to a true value, will cause all	files and
	       subdirectories to be removed, except the	initially specified
	       directories. This comes in handy	when cleaning out an
	       application's scratch directory.

		 remove_tree( '/tmp', {keep_root => 1} );

	   result => \$res
	       If present, it should be	a reference to a scalar.  This scalar
	       will be made to reference an array, which will be used to store
	       all files and directories unlinked during the call. If nothing
	       is unlinked, the	array will be empty.

		 remove_tree( '/tmp', {result => \my $list} );
		 print "unlinked $_\n" for @$list;

	       This is a useful	alternative to the "verbose" key.

	   error => \$err
	       If present, it should be	a reference to a scalar.  This scalar
	       will be made to reference an array, which will be used to store
	       any errors that are encountered.	 See the "ERROR	HANDLING"
	       section for more	information.

	       Removing	things is a much more dangerous	proposition than
	       creating	things.	As such, there are certain conditions that
	       "remove_tree" may encounter that	are so dangerous that the only
	       sane action left	is to kill the program.

	       Use "error" to trap all that is reasonable (problems with
	       permissions and the like), and let it die if things get out of
	       hand. This is the safest	course of action.

       rmtree( $dir )
       rmtree( $dir, $verbose, $safe )
       rmtree( [$dir1, $dir2,...], $verbose, $safe )
       rmtree( $dir1, $dir2,..., \%opt )
	   The rmtree()	function provide the legacy interface of remove_tree()
	   with	a different interpretation of the arguments passed. The
	   behaviour and return	value of the function is otherwise identical
	   to remove_tree().

   ERROR HANDLING
       NOTE:
	   The following error handling	mechanism is consistent	throughout all
	   code	paths EXCEPT in	cases where the	ROOT node is nonexistent.  In
	   version 2.11	the maintainers	attempted to rectify this
	   inconsistency but too many downstream modules encountered problems.
	   In such case, if you	require	root node evaluation or	error checking
	   prior to calling "make_path"	or "remove_tree", you should take
	   additional precautions.

       If "make_path" or "remove_tree" encounter an error, a diagnostic
       message will be printed to "STDERR" via "carp" (for non-fatal errors),
       or via "croak" (for fatal errors).

       If this behaviour is not	desirable, the "error" attribute may be	used
       to hold a reference to a	variable, which	will be	used to	store the
       diagnostics. The	variable is made a reference to	an array of hash
       references.  Each hash contain a	single key/value pair where the	key is
       the name	of the file, and the value is the error	message	(including the
       contents	of $! when appropriate).  If a general error is	encountered
       the diagnostic key will be empty.

       An example usage	looks like:

	 remove_tree( 'foo/bar', 'bar/rat', {error => \my $err}	);
	 if (@$err) {
	     for my $diag (@$err) {
		 my ($file, $message) =	%$diag;
		 if ($file eq '') {
		     print "general error: $message\n";
		 }
		 else {
		     print "problem unlinking $file: $message\n";
		 }
	     }
	 }
	 else {
	     print "No error encountered\n";
	 }

       Note that if no errors are encountered, $err will reference an empty
       array.  This means that $err will always	end up TRUE; so	you need to
       test @$err to determine if errors occurred.

   NOTES
       "File::Path" blindly exports "mkpath" and "rmtree" into the current
       namespace. These	days, this is considered bad style, but	to change it
       now would break too much	code. Nonetheless, you are invited to specify
       what it is you are expecting to use:

	 use File::Path	'rmtree';

       The routines "make_path"	and "remove_tree" are not exported by default.
       You must	specify	which ones you want to use.

	 use File::Path	'remove_tree';

       Note that a side-effect of the above is that "mkpath" and "rmtree" are
       no longer exported at all. This is due to the way the "Exporter"	module
       works. If you are migrating a codebase to use the new interface,	you
       will have to list everything explicitly.	But that's just	good practice
       anyway.

	 use File::Path	qw(remove_tree rmtree);

       API CHANGES

       The API was changed in the 2.0 branch. For a time, "mkpath" and
       "rmtree"	tried, unsuccessfully, to deal with the	two different calling
       mechanisms. This	approach was considered	a failure.

       The new semantics are now only available	with "make_path" and
       "remove_tree". The old semantics	are only available through "mkpath"
       and "rmtree". Users are strongly	encouraged to upgrade to at least 2.08
       in order	to avoid surprises.

       SECURITY	CONSIDERATIONS

       There were race conditions 1.x implementations of File::Path's "rmtree"
       function	(although sometimes patched depending on the OS	distribution
       or platform). The 2.0 version contains code to avoid the	problem
       mentioned in CVE-2002-0435.

       See the following pages for more	information:

	 http://bugs.debian.org/cgi-bin/bugreport.cgi?bug=286905
	 http://www.nntp.perl.org/group/perl.perl5.porters/2005/01/msg97623.html
	 http://www.debian.org/security/2005/dsa-696

       Additionally, unless the	"safe" parameter is set	(or the	third
       parameter in the	traditional interface is TRUE),	should a "remove_tree"
       be interrupted, files that were originally in read-only mode may	now
       have their permissions set to a read-write (or "delete OK") mode.

DIAGNOSTICS
       FATAL errors will cause the program to halt ("croak"), since the
       problem is so severe that it would be dangerous to continue. (This can
       always be trapped with "eval", but it's not a good idea.	Under the
       circumstances, dying is the best	thing to do).

       SEVERE errors may be trapped using the modern interface.	If the they
       are not trapped,	or the old interface is	used, such an error will cause
       the program will	halt.

       All other errors	may be trapped using the modern	interface, otherwise
       they will be "carp"ed about. Program execution will not be halted.

       mkdir [path]: [errmsg] (SEVERE)
	   "make_path" was unable to create the	path. Probably some sort of
	   permissions error at	the point of departure,	or insufficient
	   resources (such as free inodes on Unix).

       No root path(s) specified
	   "make_path" was not given any paths to create. This message is only
	   emitted if the routine is called with the traditional interface.
	   The modern interface	will remain silent if given nothing to do.

       No such file or directory
	   On Windows, if "make_path" gives you	this warning, it may mean that
	   you have exceeded your filesystem's maximum path length.

       cannot fetch initial working directory: [errmsg]
	   "remove_tree" attempted to determine	the initial directory by
	   calling "Cwd::getcwd", but the call failed for some reason. No
	   attempt will	be made	to delete anything.

       cannot stat initial working directory: [errmsg]
	   "remove_tree" attempted to stat the initial directory (after	having
	   successfully	obtained its name via "getcwd"), however, the call
	   failed for some reason. No attempt will be made to delete anything.

       cannot chdir to [dir]: [errmsg]
	   "remove_tree" attempted to set the working directory	in order to
	   begin deleting the objects therein, but was unsuccessful. This is
	   usually a permissions issue.	The routine will continue to delete
	   other things, but this directory will be left intact.

       directory [dir] changed before chdir, expected dev=[n] ino=[n], actual
       dev=[n] ino=[n],	aborting. (FATAL)
	   "remove_tree" recorded the device and inode of a directory, and
	   then	moved into it. It then performed a "stat" on the current
	   directory and detected that the device and inode were no longer the
	   same. As this is at the heart of the	race condition problem,	the
	   program will	die at this point.

       cannot make directory [dir] read+writeable: [errmsg]
	   "remove_tree" attempted to change the permissions on	the current
	   directory to	ensure that subsequent unlinkings would	not run	into
	   problems, but was unable to do so. The permissions remain as	they
	   were, and the program will carry on,	doing the best it can.

       cannot read [dir]: [errmsg]
	   "remove_tree" tried to read the contents of the directory in	order
	   to acquire the names	of the directory entries to be unlinked, but
	   was unsuccessful. This is usually a permissions issue. The program
	   will	continue, but the files	in this	directory will remain after
	   the call.

       cannot reset chmod [dir]: [errmsg]
	   "remove_tree", after	having deleted everything in a directory,
	   attempted to	restore	its permissions	to the original	state but
	   failed. The directory may wind up being left	behind.

       cannot remove [dir] when	cwd is [dir]
	   The current working directory of the	program	is /some/path/to/here
	   and you are attempting to remove an ancestor, such as /some/path.
	   The directory tree is left untouched.

	   The solution	is to "chdir" out of the child directory to a place
	   outside the directory tree to be removed.

       cannot chdir to [parent-dir] from [child-dir]: [errmsg],	aborting.
       (FATAL)
	   "remove_tree", after	having deleted everything and restored the
	   permissions of a directory, was unable to chdir back	to the parent.
	   The program halts to	avoid a	race condition from occurring.

       cannot stat prior working directory [dir]: [errmsg], aborting. (FATAL)
	   "remove_tree" was unable to stat the	parent directory after have
	   returned from the child. Since there	is no way of knowing if	we
	   returned to where we	think we should	be (by comparing device	and
	   inode) the only way out is to "croak".

       previous	directory [parent-dir] changed before entering [child-dir],
       expected	dev=[n]	ino=[n], actual	dev=[n]	ino=[n], aborting. (FATAL)
	   When	"remove_tree" returned from deleting files in a	child
	   directory, a	check revealed that the	parent directory it returned
	   to wasn't the one it	started	out from. This is considered a sign of
	   malicious activity.

       cannot make directory [dir] writeable: [errmsg]
	   Just	before removing	a directory (after having successfully removed
	   everything it contained), "remove_tree" attempted to	set the
	   permissions on the directory	to ensure it could be removed and
	   failed. Program execution continues,	but the	directory may possibly
	   not be deleted.

       cannot remove directory [dir]: [errmsg]
	   "remove_tree" attempted to remove a directory, but failed. This may
	   because some	objects	that were unable to be removed remain in the
	   directory, or a permissions issue. The directory will be left
	   behind.

       cannot restore permissions of [dir] to [0nnn]: [errmsg]
	   After having	failed to remove a directory, "remove_tree" was	unable
	   to restore its permissions from a permissive	state back to a
	   possibly more restrictive setting. (Permissions given in octal).

       cannot make file	[file] writeable: [errmsg]
	   "remove_tree" attempted to force the	permissions of a file to
	   ensure it could be deleted, but failed to do	so. It will, however,
	   still attempt to unlink the file.

       cannot unlink file [file]: [errmsg]
	   "remove_tree" failed	to remove a file. Probably a permissions
	   issue.

       cannot restore permissions of [file] to [0nnn]: [errmsg]
	   After having	failed to remove a file, "remove_tree" was also	unable
	   to restore the permissions on the file to a possibly	less
	   permissive setting. (Permissions given in octal).

       unable to map [owner] to	a uid, ownership not changed");
	   "make_path" was instructed to give the ownership of created
	   directories to the symbolic name [owner], but "getpwnam" did	not
	   return the corresponding numeric uid. The directory will be
	   created, but	ownership will not be changed.

       unable to map [group] to	a gid, group ownership not changed
	   "make_path" was instructed to give the group	ownership of created
	   directories to the symbolic name [group], but "getgrnam" did	not
	   return the corresponding numeric gid. The directory will be
	   created, but	group ownership	will not be changed.

SEE ALSO
       o   File::Remove

	   Allows files	and directories	to be moved to the Trashcan/Recycle
	   Bin (where they may later be	restored if necessary) if the
	   operating system supports such functionality. This feature may one
	   day be made available directly in "File::Path".

       o   File::Find::Rule

	   When	removing directory trees, if you want to examine each file to
	   decide whether to delete it (and possibly leaving large swathes
	   alone), File::Find::Rule offers a convenient	and flexible approach
	   to examining	directory trees.

BUGS AND LIMITATIONS
       The following describes File::Path limitations and how to report	bugs.

   MULTITHREAD APPLICATIONS
       File::Path rmtree and remove_tree will not work with multithreaded
       applications due	to its use of chdir.  At this time, no warning or
       error results and you will certainly encounter unexpected results.

       The implementation that surfaces	this limitation	may change in a	future
       release.

   NFS Mount Points
       File::Path is not responsible for triggering the	automounts, mirror
       mounts, and the contents	of network mounted filesystems.	 If your NFS
       implementation requires an action to be performed on the	filesystem in
       order for File::Path to perform operations, it is strongly suggested
       you assure filesystem availability by reading the root of the mounted
       filesystem.

   REPORTING BUGS
       Please report all bugs on the RT	queue, either via the web interface:

       <http://rt.cpan.org/NoAuth/Bugs.html?Dist=File-Path>

       or by email:

	   bug-File-Path@rt.cpan.org

       In either case, please attach patches to	the bug	report rather than
       including them inline in	the web	post or	the body of the	email.

       You can also send pull requests to the Github repository:

       <https://github.com/rpcme/File-Path>

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
       Paul Szabo identified the race condition	originally, and	Brendan	O'Dea
       wrote an	implementation for Debian that addressed the problem.  That
       code was	used as	a basis	for the	current	code. Their efforts are
       greatly appreciated.

       Gisle Aas made a	number of improvements to the documentation for	2.07
       and his advice and assistance is	also greatly appreciated.

AUTHORS
       Prior authors and maintainers: Tim Bunce, Charles Bailey, and David
       Landgren	<david@landgren.net>.

       Current maintainers are Richard Elberger	<riche@cpan.org> and James
       (Jim) Keenan <jkeenan@cpan.org>.

CONTRIBUTORS
       Contributors to File::Path, in alphabetical order.

       <bulkdd@cpan.org>
       Craig A.	Berry <craigberry@mac.com>
       Richard Elberger	<riche@cpan.org>
       Ryan Yee	<ryee@cpan.org>
       Skye Shaw <shaw@cpan.org>
       Tom Lutz	<tommylutz@gmail.com>

COPYRIGHT
       This module is copyright	(C) Charles Bailey, Tim	Bunce, David Landgren,
       James Keenan, and Richard Elberger 1995-2015. All rights	reserved.

LICENSE
       This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the same terms as Perl itself.

perl v5.26.0			  2017-04-19			 File::Path(3)

NAME | VERSION | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | DIAGNOSTICS | SEE ALSO | BUGS AND LIMITATIONS | ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS | AUTHORS | CONTRIBUTORS | COPYRIGHT | LICENSE

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