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File::Glob(3)	       Perl Programmers	Reference Guide		 File::Glob(3)

NAME
       File::Glob - Perl extension for BSD glob	routine

SYNOPSIS
	 use File::Glob	':bsd_glob';

	 @list = bsd_glob('*.[ch]');
	 $homedir = bsd_glob('~gnat', GLOB_TILDE | GLOB_ERR);

	 if (GLOB_ERROR) {
	   # an	error occurred reading $homedir
	 }

	 ## override the core glob (CORE::glob() does this automatically
	 ## by default anyway, since v5.6.0)
	 use File::Glob	':globally';
	 my @sources = <*.{c,h,y}>;

	 ## override the core glob, forcing case sensitivity
	 use File::Glob	qw(:globally :case);
	 my @sources = <*.{c,h,y}>;

	 ## override the core glob forcing case	insensitivity
	 use File::Glob	qw(:globally :nocase);
	 my @sources = <*.{c,h,y}>;

	 ## glob on all	files in home directory
	 use File::Glob	':globally';
	 my @sources = <~gnat/*>;

DESCRIPTION
       The glob	angle-bracket operator "<>" is a pathname generator that
       implements the rules for	file name pattern matching used	by Unix-like
       shells such as the Bourne shell or C shell.

       File::Glob::bsd_glob() implements the FreeBSD glob(3) routine, which is
       a superset of the POSIX glob() (described in IEEE Std 1003.2
       "POSIX.2").  bsd_glob() takes a mandatory "pattern" argument, and an
       optional	"flags"	argument, and returns a	list of	filenames matching the
       pattern,	with interpretation of the pattern modified by the "flags"
       variable.

       Since v5.6.0, Perl's CORE::glob() is implemented	in terms of
       bsd_glob().  Note that they don't share the same
       prototype--CORE::glob() only accepts a single argument.	Due to
       historical reasons, CORE::glob()	will also split	its argument on
       whitespace, treating it as multiple patterns, whereas bsd_glob()
       considers them as one pattern.  But see ":bsd_glob" under "EXPORTS",
       below.

   META	CHARACTERS
	 \	 Quote the next	metacharacter
	 []	 Character class
	 {}	 Multiple pattern
	 *	 Match any string of characters
	 ?	 Match any single character
	 ~	 User name home	directory

       The metanotation	"a{b,c,d}e" is a shorthand for "abe ace	ade".  Left to
       right order is preserved, with results of matches being sorted
       separately at a low level to preserve this order.  As a special case
       "{", "}", and "{}" are passed undisturbed.

   EXPORTS
       See also	the "POSIX FLAGS" below, which can be exported individually.

       ":bsd_glob"

       The ":bsd_glob" export tag exports bsd_glob() and the constants listed
       below.  It also overrides glob()	in the calling package with one	that
       behaves like bsd_glob() with regard to spaces (the space	is treated as
       part of a file name), but supports iteration in scalar context; i.e.,
       it preserves the	core function's	feature	of returning the next item
       each time it is called.

       ":glob"

       The ":glob" tag,	now discouraged, is the	old version of ":bsd_glob".
       It exports the same constants and functions, but	its glob() override
       does not	support	iteration; it returns the last file name in scalar
       context.	 That means this will loop forever:

	   use File::Glob ':glob';
	   while (my $file = <*	copy.txt>) {
	       ...
	   }

       "bsd_glob"

       This function, which is included	in the two export tags listed above,
       takes one or two	arguments.  The	first is the glob pattern.  The
       second, if given, is a set of flags ORed	together.  The available flags
       and the default set of flags are	listed below under "POSIX FLAGS".

       Remember	that to	use the	named constants	for flags you must import
       them, for example with ":bsd_glob" described above.  If not imported,
       and "use	strict"	is not in effect, then the constants will be treated
       as bareword strings, which won't	do what	you what.

       ":nocase" and ":case"

       These two export	tags globally modify the default flags that bsd_glob()
       and, except on VMS, Perl's built-in "glob" operator use.	 "GLOB_NOCASE"
       is turned on or off, respectively.

       "csh_glob"

       The csh_glob() function can also	be exported, but you should not	use it
       directly	unless you really know what you	are doing.  It splits the
       pattern into words and feeds each one to	bsd_glob().  Perl's own	glob()
       function	uses this internally.

   POSIX FLAGS
       If no flags argument is give then "GLOB_CSH" is set, and	on VMS and
       Windows systems,	"GLOB_NOCASE" too.  Otherwise the flags	to use are
       determined solely by the	flags argument.	 The POSIX defined flags are:

       "GLOB_ERR"
	   Force bsd_glob() to return an error when it encounters a directory
	   it cannot open or read.  Ordinarily bsd_glob() continues to find
	   matches.

       "GLOB_LIMIT"
	   Make	bsd_glob() return an error (GLOB_NOSPACE) when the pattern
	   expands to a	size bigger than the system constant "ARG_MAX"
	   (usually found in limits.h).	 If your system	does not define	this
	   constant, bsd_glob()	uses "sysconf(_SC_ARG_MAX)" or
	   "_POSIX_ARG_MAX" where available (in	that order).  You can inspect
	   these values	using the standard "POSIX" extension.

       "GLOB_MARK"
	   Each	pathname that is a directory that matches the pattern has a
	   slash appended.

       "GLOB_NOCASE"
	   By default, file names are assumed to be case sensitive; this flag
	   makes bsd_glob() treat case differences as not significant.

       "GLOB_NOCHECK"
	   If the pattern does not match any pathname, then bsd_glob() returns
	   a list consisting of	only the pattern.  If "GLOB_QUOTE" is set, its
	   effect is present in	the pattern returned.

       "GLOB_NOSORT"
	   By default, the pathnames are sorted	in ascending ASCII order; this
	   flag	prevents that sorting (speeding	up bsd_glob()).

       The FreeBSD extensions to the POSIX standard are	the following flags:

       "GLOB_BRACE"
	   Pre-process the string to expand "{pat,pat,...}" strings like
	   csh(1).  The	pattern	'{}' is	left unexpanded	for historical reasons
	   (and	csh(1) does the	same thing to ease typing of find(1)
	   patterns).

       "GLOB_NOMAGIC"
	   Same	as "GLOB_NOCHECK" but it only returns the pattern if it	does
	   not contain any of the special characters "*", "?" or "[".
	   "NOMAGIC" is	provided to simplify implementing the historic csh(1)
	   globbing behaviour and should probably not be used anywhere else.

       "GLOB_QUOTE"
	   Use the backslash ('\') character for quoting: every	occurrence of
	   a backslash followed	by a character in the pattern is replaced by
	   that	character, avoiding any	special	interpretation of the
	   character.  (But see	below for exceptions on	DOSISH systems).

       "GLOB_TILDE"
	   Expand patterns that	start with '~' to user name home directories.

       "GLOB_CSH"
	   For convenience, "GLOB_CSH" is a synonym for	"GLOB_BRACE |
	   GLOB_NOMAGIC	| GLOB_QUOTE | GLOB_TILDE | GLOB_ALPHASORT".

       The POSIX provided "GLOB_APPEND", "GLOB_DOOFFS",	and the	FreeBSD
       extensions "GLOB_ALTDIRFUNC", and "GLOB_MAGCHAR"	flags have not been
       implemented in the Perl version because they involve more complex
       interaction with	the underlying C structures.

       The following flag has been added in the	Perl implementation for	csh
       compatibility:

       "GLOB_ALPHASORT"
	   If "GLOB_NOSORT" is not in effect, sort filenames is	alphabetical
	   order (case does not	matter)	rather than in ASCII order.

DIAGNOSTICS
       bsd_glob() returns a list of matching paths, possibly zero length.  If
       an error	occurred, &File::Glob::GLOB_ERROR will be non-zero and $! will
       be set.	&File::Glob::GLOB_ERROR	is guaranteed to be zero if no error
       occurred, or one	of the following values	otherwise:

       "GLOB_NOSPACE"
	   An attempt to allocate memory failed.

       "GLOB_ABEND"
	   The glob was	stopped	because	an error was encountered.

       In the case where bsd_glob() has	found some matching paths, but is
       interrupted by an error,	it will	return a list of filenames and set
       &File::Glob::ERROR.

       Note that bsd_glob() deviates from POSIX	and FreeBSD glob(3) behaviour
       by not considering "ENOENT" and "ENOTDIR" as errors - bsd_glob()	will
       continue	processing despite those errors, unless	the "GLOB_ERR" flag is
       set.

       Be aware	that all filenames returned from File::Glob are	tainted.

NOTES
       o   If you want to use multiple patterns, e.g. "bsd_glob("a* b*")", you
	   should probably throw them in a set as in "bsd_glob("{a*,b*}")".
	   This	is because the argument	to bsd_glob() isn't subjected to
	   parsing by the C shell.  Remember that you can use a	backslash to
	   escape things.

       o   On DOSISH systems, backslash	is a valid directory separator
	   character.  In this case, use of backslash as a quoting character
	   (via	GLOB_QUOTE) interferes with the	use of backslash as a
	   directory separator.	 The best (simplest, most portable) solution
	   is to use forward slashes for directory separators, and backslashes
	   for quoting.	 However, this does not	match "normal practice"	on
	   these systems.  As a	concession to user expectation,	therefore,
	   backslashes (under GLOB_QUOTE) only quote the glob metacharacters
	   '[',	']', '{', '}', '-', '~', and backslash itself.	All other
	   backslashes are passed through unchanged.

       o   Win32 users should use the real slash.  If you really want to use
	   backslashes,	consider using Sarathy's File::DosGlob,	which comes
	   with	the standard Perl distribution.

SEE ALSO
       "glob" in perlfunc, glob(3)

AUTHOR
       The Perl	interface was written by Nathan	Torkington <gnat@frii.com>,
       and is released under the artistic license.  Further modifications were
       made by Greg Bacon <gbacon@cs.uah.edu>, Gurusamy	Sarathy
       <gsar@activestate.com>, and Thomas Wegner <wegner_thomas@yahoo.com>.
       The C glob code has the following copyright:

       Copyright (c) 1989, 1993	The Regents of the University of California.
       All rights reserved.

       This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by Guido van
       Rossum.

       Redistribution and use in source	and binary forms, with or without
       modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are
       met:

       1.  Redistributions of source code must retain the above	copyright
	   notice, this	list of	conditions and the following disclaimer.

       2.  Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
	   notice, this	list of	conditions and the following disclaimer	in the
	   documentation and/or	other materials	provided with the
	   distribution.

       3.  Neither the name of the University nor the names of its
	   contributors	may be used to endorse or promote products derived
	   from	this software without specific prior written permission.

       THIS SOFTWARE IS	PROVIDED BY THE	REGENTS	AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND
       ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
       IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
       PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED.	IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS
       BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL,	EXEMPLARY, OR
       CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF
       SUBSTITUTE GOODS	OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA,	OR PROFITS; OR
       BUSINESS	INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY	THEORY OF LIABILITY,
       WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR
       OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE	USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF
       ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

perl v5.28.3			  2020-05-14			 File::Glob(3)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | DIAGNOSTICS | NOTES | SEE ALSO | AUTHOR

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