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ExtUtils::MM_Any(3)    Perl Programmers	Reference Guide	   ExtUtils::MM_Any(3)

       ExtUtils::MM_Any	- Platform-agnostic MM methods


	 package ExtUtils::MM_SomeOS;

	 # Temporarily,	you have to subclass both.  Put	MM_Any first.
	 require ExtUtils::MM_Any;
	 require ExtUtils::MM_Unix;
	 @ISA =	qw(ExtUtils::MM_Any ExtUtils::Unix);


       ExtUtils::MM_Any	is a superclass	for the	ExtUtils::MM_* set of modules.
       It contains methods which are either inherently cross-platform or are
       written in a cross-platform manner.

       Subclass	off of ExtUtils::MM_Any	and ExtUtils::MM_Unix.	This is	a
       temporary solution.


       Any methods marked Abstract must	be implemented by subclasses.

   Cross-platform helper methods
       These are methods which help writing cross-platform code.

       os_flavor  Abstract

	   my @os_flavor = $mm->os_flavor;

       @os_flavor is the style of operating system this	is, usually
       corresponding to	the MM_*.pm file we're using.

       The first element of @os_flavor is the major family (ie.	Unix, Windows,
       VMS, OS/2, etc...) and the rest are sub families.

       Some examples:

	   Cygwin98	  ('Unix',  'Cygwin', 'Cygwin9x')
	   Windows	  ('Win32')
	   Win98	  ('Win32', 'Win9x')
	   Linux	  ('Unix',  'Linux')
	   MacOS X	  ('Unix',  'Darwin', 'MacOS', 'MacOS X')
	   OS/2		  ('OS/2')

       This is used to write code for styles of	operating system.  See
       os_flavor_is() for use.


	   my $is_this_flavor =	$mm->os_flavor_is($this_flavor);
	   my $is_this_flavor =	$mm->os_flavor_is(@one_of_these_flavors);

       Checks to see if	the current operating system is	one of the given

       This is useful for code like:

	   if( $mm->os_flavor_is('Unix') ) {
	       $out = `foo 2>&1`;
	   else	{
	       $out = `foo`;


	   my $can_load_xs = $self->can_load_xs;

       Returns true if we have the ability to load XS.

       This is important because miniperl, used	to build XS modules in the
       core, can not load XS.


	 use ExtUtils::MM;
	 my $runnable =	MM->can_run($Config{make});

       If called in a scalar context it	will return the	full path to the
       binary you asked	for if it was found, or	"undef"	if it was not.

       If called in a list context, it will return a list of the full paths to
       instances of the	binary where found in "PATH", or an empty list if it
       was not found.

       Copied from IPC::Cmd, but modified into a method	(and removed
       $INSTANCES capability).


	 $useredirect =	MM->can_redirect_error;

       True if on an OS	where qx operator (or backticks) can redirect "STDERR"
       onto "STDOUT".


	   my $is_dmake	= $self->is_make_type('dmake');

       Returns true if "$self->make" is	the given type;	possibilities are:

	 gmake	  GNU make
	 bsdmake  BSD pmake-derived


	   my $can_dep_space = $self->can_dep_space;

       Returns true if "make" can handle (probably by quoting) dependencies
       that contain a space. Currently known true for GNU make,	false for BSD
       pmake derivative.


	 $text = $mm->quote_dep($text);

       Method that protects Makefile single-value constants (mainly
       filenames), so that make	will still treat them as single	values even if
       they inconveniently have	spaces in. If the make program being used
       cannot achieve such protection and the given text would need it,	throws
       an exception.


	   my @cmds = $MM->split_command($cmd, @args);

       Most OS have a maximum command length they can execute at once.	Large
       modules can easily generate commands well past that limit.  Its
       necessary to split long commands	up into	a series of shorter commands.

       "split_command" will return a series of @cmds each processing part of
       the args.  Collectively they will process all the arguments.  Each
       individual line in @cmds	will not be longer than	the
       $self->max_exec_len being careful to take into account macro expansion.

       $cmd should include any switches	and repeated initial arguments.

       If no @args are given, no @cmds will be returned.

       Pairs of	arguments will always be preserved in a	single command,	this
       is a heuristic for things like pm_to_blib and pod2man which work	on
       pairs of	arguments.  This makes things like this	safe:

	   $self->split_command($cmd, %pod2man);


       Returns a suitable string describing the	type of	makefile being


	   my @recipelines = $MM->stashmeta($text, $file);

       Generates a set of @recipelines which will result in the	literal	$text
       ending up in literal $file when the recipe is executed. Call it once,
       with all	the text you want in $file. Make macros	will not be expanded,
       so the locations	will be	fixed at configure-time, not at	build-time.


	   my @commands	= $MM->echo($text);
	   my @commands	= $MM->echo($text, $file);
	   my @commands	= $MM->echo($text, $file, \%opts);

       Generates a set of @commands which print	the $text to a $file.

       If $file	is not given, output goes to STDOUT.

       If $opts{append}	is true	the $file will be appended to rather than
       overwritten.  Default is	to overwrite.

       If $opts{allow_variables} is true, make variables of the	form "$(...)"
       will not	be escaped.  Other "$" will.  Default is to escape all "$".

       Example of use:

	   my $make = join '', map "\t$_\n", $MM->echo($text, $file);


	 my $args = $mm->wraplist(@list);

       Takes an	array of items and turns them into a well-formatted list of
       arguments.  In most cases this is simply	something like:

	   FOO \
	   BAR \


	   my $filter_make_text	= $mm->maketext_filter($make_text);

       The text	of the Makefile	is run through this method before writing to
       disk.  It allows	systems	a chance to make portability fixes to the

       By default it does nothing.

       This method is protected	and not	intended to be called outside of

       cd  Abstract

	 my $subdir_cmd	= $MM->cd($subdir, @cmds);

       This will generate a make fragment which	runs the @cmds in the given
       $dir.  The rough	equivalent to this, except cross platform.

	 cd $subdir && $cmd

       Currently $dir can only go down one level.  "foo" is fine.  "foo/bar"
       is not.	"../foo" is right out.

       The resulting $subdir_cmd has no	leading	tab nor	trailing newline.
       This makes it easier to embed in	a make string.	For example.

	     my	$make =	sprintf	<<'CODE', $subdir_cmd;
	 foo :
	     $(ECHO) what
	     $(ECHO) mouche

       oneliner	 Abstract

	 my $oneliner =	$MM->oneliner($perl_code);
	 my $oneliner =	$MM->oneliner($perl_code, \@switches);

       This will generate a perl one-liner safe	for the	particular platform
       you're on based on the given $perl_code and @switches (a	-e is assumed)
       suitable	for using in a make target.  It	will use the proper shell
       quoting and escapes.

       $(PERLRUN) will be used as perl.

       Any newlines in $perl_code will be escaped.  Leading and	trailing
       newlines	will be	stripped.  Makes this idiom much easier:

	   my $code = $MM->oneliner(<<'CODE', [...switches...]);
       some code here
       another line here

       Usage might be something	like:

	   # an	echo emulation
	   $oneliner = $MM->oneliner('print "Foo\n"');
	   $make = '$oneliner >	somefile';

       Dollar signs in the $perl_code will be protected	from make using	the
       "quote_literal" method, unless they are recognised as being a make
       variable, "$(varname)", in which	case they will be left for make	to
       expand. Remember	to quote make macros else it might be used as a
       bareword. For example:

	   # Assign the	value of the $(VERSION_FROM) make macro	to $vf.
	   $oneliner = $MM->oneliner('$vf = "$(VERSION_FROM)"');

       Its currently very simple and may be expanded sometime in the figure to
       include more flexible code and switches.

       quote_literal  Abstract

	   my $safe_text = $MM->quote_literal($text);
	   my $safe_text = $MM->quote_literal($text, \%options);

       This will quote $text so	it is interpreted literally in the shell.

       For example, on Unix this would escape any single-quotes	in $text and
       put single-quotes around	the whole thing.

       If $options{allow_variables} is true it will leave '$(FOO)' make
       variables untouched.  If	false they will	be escaped like	any other "$".
       Defaults	to true.


	   my $escaped_text = $MM->escape_dollarsigns($text);

       Escapes stray "$" so they are not interpreted as	make variables.

       It lets by "$(...)".


	   my $escaped_text = $MM->escape_all_dollarsigns($text);

       Escapes all "$" so they are not interpreted as make variables.

       escape_newlines	Abstract

	   my $escaped_text = $MM->escape_newlines($text);

       Shell escapes newlines in $text.

       max_exec_len  Abstract

	   my $max_exec_len = $MM->max_exec_len;

       Calculates the maximum command size the OS can exec.  Effectively, this
       is the max size of a shell command line.


	   my $make = $MM->make;

       Returns the make	variant	we're generating the Makefile for.  This
       attempts	to do some normalization on the	information from %Config or
       the user.

       These are methods which produce make targets.


       Generate	the default target 'all'.


	   my $make_frag = $mm->blibdirs_target;

       Creates the blibdirs target which creates all the directories we	use in

       The blibdirs.ts target is deprecated.  Depend on	blibdirs instead.

       clean (o)

       Defines the clean target.


	 my $make_frag = $MM->clean_subdirs_target;

       Returns the clean_subdirs target.  This is used by the clean target to
       call clean on any subdirectories	which contain Makefiles.


	   my $make_frag = $mm->dir_target(@directories);

       Generates targets to create the specified directories and set its
       permission to PERM_DIR.

       Because depending on a directory	to just	ensure it exists doesn't work
       too well	(the modified time changes too often) dir_target() creates a
       .exists file in the created directory.  It is this you should depend
       on.  For	portability purposes you should	use the	$(DIRFILESEP) macro
       rather than a '/' to separate the directory from	the file.



       Defines the scratch directory target that will hold the distribution
       before tar-ing (or shar-ing).


       Defines a target	that produces the distribution in the scratch
       directory, and runs 'perl Makefile.PL; make ;make test' in that


       Returns command-line arg(s) to linker for file listing dlsyms to
       export.	Defaults to returning empty string, can	be overridden by e.g.


       Returns file-extension for "xs_make_dlsyms" method's output file,
       including any "." character.


       Returns any extra text to be prepended to the $extra argument of


       Iterates	over necessary shared objects, calling "xs_make_dlsyms"	method
       for each	with appropriate arguments.


	       \%attribs, # hashref from %attribs in caller
	       "$self->{BASEEXT}.def", # output	file for Makefile target
	       'Makefile.PL', #	dependency
	       $self->{NAME}, #	shared object's	"name"
	       $self->{DLBASE},	# last ::-separated part of name
	       $attribs{DL_FUNCS} || $self->{DL_FUNCS} || {}, #	various	params
	       $attribs{FUNCLIST} || $self->{FUNCLIST} || [],
	       $attribs{IMPORTS} || $self->{IMPORTS} ||	{},
	       $attribs{DL_VARS} || $self->{DL_VARS} ||	[],
	       # optional extra	param that will	be added as param to Mksymlists

       Utility method that returns Makefile snippet to call "Mksymlists".

       dynamic (o)

       Defines the dynamic target.


	 my $make_frag = $mm->makemakerdflt_target

       Returns a make fragment with the	makemakerdeflt_target specified.  This
       target is the first target in the Makefile, is the default target and
       simply points off to 'all' just in case any make	variant	gets confused
       or something gets snuck in before the real 'all'	target.


	 my $manifypods_target = $self->manifypods_target;

       Generates the manifypods	target.	 This target generates man pages from
       all POD files in	MAN1PODS and MAN3PODS.


	   my $target =	$mm->metafile_target;

       Generate	the metafile target.

       Writes the file META.yml	(YAML encoded meta-data) and META.json (JSON
       encoded meta-data) about	the module in the distdir.  The	format follows
       Module::Build's as closely as possible.


	   my $metadata_hashref	= $mm->metafile_data(\%meta_add, \%meta_merge);

       Returns the data	which MakeMaker	turns into the META.yml	file and the
       META.json file. It is always in version 2.0 of the format.

       Values of %meta_add will	overwrite any existing metadata	in those keys.
       %meta_merge will	be merged with them.


	   my $meta_yml	= $mm->metafile_file(@metadata_pairs);

       Turns the @metadata_pairs into YAML.

       This method does	not implement a	complete YAML dumper, being limited to
       dump a hash with	values which are strings, undef's or nested hashes and
       arrays of strings. No quoting/escaping is done.


	   my $make_frag = $mm->distmeta_target;

       Generates the distmeta target to	add META.yml and META.json to the
       MANIFEST	in the distdir.


	   my $mymeta =	$mm->mymeta;

       Generate	MYMETA information as a	hash either from an existing CPAN Meta
       file (META.json or META.yml) or from internal data.


	   $self->write_mymeta(	$mymeta	);

       Write MYMETA information	to MYMETA.json and MYMETA.yml.

       realclean (o)

       Defines the realclean target.


	 my $make_frag = $MM->realclean_subdirs_target;

       Returns the realclean_subdirs target.  This is used by the realclean
       target to call realclean	on any subdirectories which contain Makefiles.


	   my $target =	$mm->signature_target;

       Generate	the signature target.

       Writes the file SIGNATURE with "cpansign	-s".


	   my $make_frag = $mm->distsignature_target;

       Generates the distsignature target to add SIGNATURE to the MANIFEST in
       the distdir.


	 my $make_frag = $mm->special_targets

       Returns a make fragment containing any targets which have special
       meaning to make.	 For example, .SUFFIXES	and .PHONY.

   Init	methods
       Methods which help initialize the MakeMaker object and macros.





       Called by init_main.  Sets up all INST_*	variables except those related
       to XS code.  Those are handled in init_xs.



       Called by init_main.  Sets up all INSTALL_* variables (except





       init_VERSION  Abstract


       Initialize macros representing versions of MakeMaker and	other tools

       MAKEMAKER: path to the MakeMaker	module.

       MM_VERSION: ExtUtils::MakeMaker Version

       MM_REVISION: ExtUtils::MakeMaker	version	control	revision (for

       VERSION:	version	of your	module

       VERSION_MACRO: which macro represents the version (usually 'VERSION')

       VERSION_SYM: like version but safe for use as an	RCS revision number

       DEFINE_VERSION: -D line to set the module version when compiling

       XS_VERSION: version in your .xs file.  Defaults to $(VERSION)

       XS_VERSION_MACRO: which macro represents	the XS version.

       XS_DEFINE_VERSION: -D line to set the xs	version	when compiling.

       Called by init_main.



       Initializes the simple macro definitions	used by	tools_other() and
       places them in the $MM object.  These use conservative cross platform
       versions	and should be overridden with platform specific	versions for

       Defines at least	these macros.

	 Macro		   Description

	 NOOP		   Do nothing
	 NOECHO		   Tell	make not to display the	command	itself

	 SHELL		   Program used	to run shell commands

	 ECHO		   Print text adding a newline on the end
	 RM_F		   Remove a file
	 RM_RF		   Remove a directory
	 TOUCH		   Update a file's timestamp
	 TEST_F		   Test	for a file's existence
	 TEST_S		   Test	the size of a file
	 CP		   Copy	a file
	 CP_NONEMPTY	   Copy	a file if it is	not empty
	 MV		   Move	a file
	 CHMOD		   Change permissions on a file
	 FALSE		   Exit	with non-zero
	 TRUE		   Exit	with zero

	 UMASK_NULL	   Nullify umask
	 DEV_NULL	   Suppress all	command	output



       Initializes the macro definitions having	to do with compiling and
       linking used by tools_other() and places	them in	the $MM	object.

       If there	is no description, its the same	as the parameter to
       WriteMakefile() documented in ExtUtils::MakeMaker.


	   my $make_frag = $MM->tools_other;

       Returns a make fragment containing definitions for the macros
       init_others() initializes.

       init_DIRFILESEP	Abstract

	 my $dirfilesep	= $MM->{DIRFILESEP};

       Initializes the DIRFILESEP macro	which is the separator between the
       directory and filename in a filepath.  ie. / on Unix, \ on Win32	and
       nothing on VMS.

       For example:

	   # instead of	$(INST_ARCHAUTODIR)/extralibs.ld

       Something of a hack but it prevents a lot of code duplication between
       MM_* variants.

       Do not use this as a separator between directories.  Some operating
       systems use different separators	between	subdirectories as between
       directories and filenames (for example:	VOLUME:[dir1.dir2]file on

       init_linker  Abstract


       Initialize macros which have to do with linking.

       PERL_ARCHIVE: path to libperl.a equivalent to be	linked to dynamic

       PERL_ARCHIVE_AFTER: path	to a library which should be put on the	linker
       command line after the external libraries to be linked to dynamic
       extensions.  This may be	needed if the linker is	one-pass, and Perl
       includes	some overrides for C RTL functions, such as malloc().

       EXPORT_LIST: name of a file that	is passed to linker to define symbols
       to be exported.

       Some OSes do not	need these in which case leave it blank.



       Initialize any macros which are for platform specific use only.

       A typical one is	the version number of your OS specific module.	(ie.



       Initialize MAKE from either a MAKE environment variable or

       A grab bag of methods to	generate specific macros and commands.


       Defines targets and routines to translate the pods into manpages	and
       put them	into the INST_*	directories.


	 my $pod2man_macro = $self->POD2MAN_macro

       Returns a definition for	the POD2MAN macro.  This is a program which
       emulates	the pod2man utility.  You can add more switches	to the command
       by simply appending them	on the macro.

       Typical usage:

	   $(POD2MAN) --section=3 --perm_rw=$(PERM_RW) podfile1	man_page1 ...


	 my $command = $mm->test_via_harness($perl, $tests);

       Returns a $command line which runs the given set	of $tests with
       Test::Harness and the given $perl.

       Used on the t/*.t files.


	 my $command = $mm->test_via_script($perl, $script);

       Returns a $command line which just runs a single	test without
       Test::Harness.  No checks are done on the results, they're just

       Used for, since they don't always follow	Test::Harness


       Defines a simple	perl call that runs autosplit. May be deprecated by
       pm_to_blib soon.


	   my $arch_ok = $mm->arch_check(
	       File::Spec->catfile($Config{archlibexp},	"")

       A sanity	check that what	Perl thinks the	architecture is	and what
       Config thinks the architecture is are the same.	If they're not it will
       return false and	show a diagnostic message.

       When building Perl it will always return	true, as nothing is installed

       The interface is	a bit odd because this is the result of	a quick
       refactoring.  Don't rely	on it.

   File::Spec wrappers
       ExtUtils::MM_Any	is a subclass of File::Spec.  The methods noted	here
       override	File::Spec.


       File::Spec <= 0.83 has a	bug where the file part	of catfile is not
       canonicalized.  This override fixes that	bug.

       Methods I can't really figure out where they should go yet.


	 my $test = $mm->find_tests;

       Returns a string	suitable for feeding to	the shell to return all	tests
       in t/*.t.


	 my $tests = $mm->find_tests_recursive;

       Returns a string	suitable for feeding to	the shell to return all	tests
       in t/ but recursively. Equivalent to

	 my $tests = $mm->find_tests_recursive_in('t');


	 my $tests = $mm->find_tests_recursive_in($dir);

       Returns a string	suitable for feeding to	the shell to return all	tests
       in $dir recursively.


	   my @files_to_clean =	$MM->extra_clean_files;

       Returns a list of OS specific files to be removed in the	clean target
       in addition to the usual	set.


	   my @installvars = $mm->installvars;

       A list of all the INSTALL* variables without the	INSTALL	prefix.
       Useful for iteration or building	related	variable sets.


	 my $wanted = $self->libscan($path);

       Takes a path to a file or dir and returns an empty string if we don't
       want to include this file in the	library.  Otherwise it returns the the
       $path unchanged.

       Mainly used to exclude version control administrative directories and
       base-level README.pod from installation.


	   my $make_frag = $mm->platform_constants

       Returns a make fragment defining	all the	macros initialized in
       init_platform() rather than put them in constants().

       post_constants (o)

       Returns an empty	string per default. Dedicated to overrides from	within
       Makefile.PL after all constants have been defined.

       post_initialize (o)

       Returns an empty	string per default. Used in Makefile.PLs to add	some
       chunk of	text to	the Makefile after the object is initialized.

       postamble (o)

       Returns an empty	string.	Can be used in Makefile.PLs to write some text
       to the Makefile at the end.

       Michael G Schwern <> and the denizens of with code from ExtUtils::MM_Unix and

perl v5.35.5			  2021-11-05		   ExtUtils::MM_Any(3)


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