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Encode::Locale(3)     User Contributed Perl Documentation    Encode::Locale(3)

       Encode::Locale -	Determine the locale encoding

	 use Encode::Locale;
	 use Encode;

	 $string = decode(locale => $bytes);
	 $bytes	= encode(locale	=> $string);

	 if (-t) {
	     binmode(STDIN, ":encoding(console_in)");
	     binmode(STDOUT, ":encoding(console_out)");
	     binmode(STDERR, ":encoding(console_out)");

	 # Processing file names passed	in as arguments
	 my $uni_filename = decode(locale => $ARGV[0]);
	 open(my $fh, "<", encode(locale_fs => $uni_filename))
	    || die "Can't open '$uni_filename':	$!";
	 binmode($fh, ":encoding(locale)");

       In many applications it's wise to let Perl use Unicode for the strings
       it processes.  Most of the interfaces Perl has to the outside world are
       still byte based.  Programs therefore need to decode byte strings that
       enter the program from the outside and encode them again	on the way

       The POSIX locale	system is used to specify both the language
       conventions requested by	the user and the preferred character set to
       consume and output.  The	"Encode::Locale" module	looks up the charset
       and encoding (called a CODESET in the locale jargon) and	arranges for
       the Encode module to know this encoding under the name "locale".	 It
       means bytes obtained from the environment can be	converted to Unicode
       strings by calling "Encode::encode(locale => $bytes)" and converted
       back again with "Encode::decode(locale => $string)".

       Where file systems interfaces pass file names in	and out	of the program
       we also need care.  The trend is	for operating systems to use a fixed
       file encoding that don't	actually depend	on the locale; and this	module
       determines the most appropriate encoding	for file names.	The Encode
       module will know	this encoding under the	name "locale_fs".  For
       traditional Unix	systems	this will be an	alias to the same encoding as

       For programs running in a terminal window (called a "Console" on	some
       systems)	the "locale" encoding is usually a good	choice for what	to
       expect as input and output.  Some systems allows	us to query the
       encoding	set for	the terminal and "Encode::Locale" will do that if
       available and make these	encodings known	under the "Encode" aliases
       "console_in" and	"console_out".	For systems where we can't determine
       the terminal encoding these will	be aliased as the same encoding	as
       "locale".  The advice is	to use "console_in" for	input known to come
       from the	terminal and "console_out" for output to the terminal.

       In addition to arranging	for various Encode aliases the following
       functions and variables are provided:

       decode_argv( )
       decode_argv( Encode::FB_CROAK )
	   This	will decode the	command	line arguments to perl (the @ARGV
	   array) in-place.

	   The function	will by	default	replace	characters that	can't be
	   decoded by "\x{FFFD}", the Unicode replacement character.

	   Any argument	provided is passed as CHECK to underlying
	   Encode::decode() call.  Pass	the value "Encode::FB_CROAK" to	have
	   the decoding	croak if not all the command line arguments can	be
	   decoded.  See "Handling Malformed Data" in Encode for details on
	   other options for CHECK.

       env( $uni_key )
       env( $uni_key =>	$uni_value )
	   Interface to	get/set	environment variables.	Returns	the current
	   value as a Unicode string. The $uni_key and $uni_value arguments
	   are expected	to be Unicode strings as well.	Passing	"undef"	as
	   $uni_value deletes the environment variable named $uni_key.

	   The returned	value will have	the characters that can't be decoded
	   replaced by "\x{FFFD}", the Unicode replacement character.

	   There is no interface to request alternative	CHECK behavior as for
	   decode_argv().  If you need that you	need to	call encode/decode
	   yourself.  For example:

	       my $key = Encode::encode(locale => $uni_key, Encode::FB_CROAK);
	       my $uni_value = Encode::decode(locale =>	$ENV{$key}, Encode::FB_CROAK);

       reinit( )
       reinit( $encoding )
	   Reinitialize	the encodings from the locale.	You want to call this
	   function if you changed anything in the environment that might
	   influence the locale.

	   This	function will croak if the determined encoding isn't
	   recognized by the Encode module.

	   With	argument force $ENCODING_... variables to set to the given

	   The encoding	name determined	to be suitable for the current locale.
	   Encode know this encoding as	"locale".

	   The encoding	name determined	to be suitable for file	system
	   interfaces involving	file names.  Encode know this encoding as

	   The encodings to be used for	reading	and writing output to the a
	   console.  Encode know these encodings as "console_in" and

       This table summarizes the mapping of the	encodings set up by the
       "Encode::Locale"	module:

	 Encode	     |	       |	      |
	 Alias	     | Windows | Mac OS	X     |	POSIX
	 locale	     | ANSI    | nl_langinfo  |	nl_langinfo
	 locale_fs   | ANSI    | UTF-8	      |	nl_langinfo
	 console_in  | OEM     | nl_langinfo  |	nl_langinfo
	 console_out | OEM     | nl_langinfo  |	nl_langinfo

       Windows has basically 2 sets of APIs.  A	wide API (based	on passing
       UTF-16 strings) and a byte based	API based a character set called ANSI.
       The regular Perl	interfaces to the OS currently only uses the ANSI
       APIs.  Unfortunately ANSI is not	a single character set.

       The encoding that corresponds to	ANSI varies between different editions
       of Windows.  For	many western editions of Windows ANSI corresponds to
       CP-1252 which is	a character set	similar	to ISO-8859-1.	Conceptually
       the ANSI	character set is a similar concept to the POSIX	locale CODESET
       so this module figures out what the ANSI	code page is and make this
       available as $ENCODING_LOCALE and the "locale" Encoding alias.

       Windows systems also operate with another byte based character set.
       It's called the OEM code	page.  This is the encoding that the Console
       takes as	input and output.  It's	common for the OEM code	page to	differ
       from the	ANSI code page.

   Mac OS X
       On Mac OS X the file system encoding is always UTF-8 while the locale
       can otherwise be	set up as normal for POSIX systems.

       File names on Mac OS X will at the OS-level be converted	to NFD-form.
       A file created by passing a NFC-filename	will come in NFD-form from
       readdir().  See Unicode::Normalize for details of NFD/NFC.

       Actually, Apple does not	follow the Unicode NFD standard	since not all
       character ranges	are decomposed.	 The claim is that this	avoids
       problems	with round trip	conversions from old Mac text encodings.  See
       Encode::UTF8Mac for details.

   POSIX (Linux	and other Unixes)
       File systems might vary in what encoding	is to be used for filenames.
       Since this module has no	way to actually	figure out what	the is correct
       it goes with the	best guess which is to assume filenames	are encoding
       according to the	current	locale.	 Users are advised to always specify
       UTF-8 as	the locale charset.

       I18N::Langinfo, Encode, Term::Encoding

       Copyright 2010 Gisle Aas	<>.

       This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the same terms as Perl itself.

perl v5.32.1			  2015-06-09		     Encode::Locale(3)


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