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Devel::NYTProf::Core(3User Contributed Perl DocumentatiDevel::NYTProf::Core(3)

       Devel::NYTProf::Core - load internals of	Devel::NYTProf

       This module is not meant	to be used directly.  See Devel::NYTProf,
       Devel::NYTProf::Data, and Devel::NYTProf::Reader.

       While it's not meant to be used directly, it is a handy place to
       document	some internals.

       The subroutine profiler intercepts the "entersub" opcode	which perl
       uses to invoke a	subroutine, both XS subs (henceforth xsubs) and	pure
       perl subs.

       The following sections outline the way the subroutine profiler works:

   Before the subroutine call
       The profiler records the	current	time, the current value	of
       cumulative_subr_secs (as	initial_subr_secs), and	the current
       cumulative_overhead_ticks (as initial_overhead_ticks).

       The statement profiler measures time at the start and end of processing
       for each	statement (so time spent in the	profiler, writing to the file
       for example, is excluded.) It accumulates the measured overhead into
       the cumulative_overhead_ticks variable.

       In a similar way, the subroutine	profiler measures the exclusive	time
       spent in	subroutines and	accumulates it into the	cumulative_subr_secs

   Make	the subroutine call
       The call	is made	by executing the original perl internal	code for the
       "entersub" opcode.

       Calling a perl subroutine

       If the sub being	called is a perl sub then when the entersub opcode
       returns,	back into the subroutine profiler, the subroutine has been
       'entered' but the first opcode of the subroutine	hasn't been executed
       yet.  Crucially though, a new scope has been entered by the entersub

       The subroutine profiler then pushes a destructor	onto the context
       stack.  The destructor is effectively just inside the sub, like a
       "local",	and so will be triggered when the subroutine exits by any
       means. Also, because it was the first thing push	onto the context
       stack, it will be triggered after any activity caused by	the
       subroutines scope exiting.

       When the	destructor is invoked it calls a function which	completes the
       measurement of the time spent in	the sub	(see below).

       In this way the profiling of perl subroutines is	very accurate and

       Calling an xsub

       If the sub being	called is an xsub, then	control	doesn't	return from
       the entersub opcode until the xsub has returned.	The profiler detects
       this and	calls the function which completes the measurement of the time
       spent in	the xsub.

       So far so good, but there's a problem. What if the xsub doesn't return
       normally	but throws an exception	instead?

       In that case (currently)	the profiler acts as if	the xsub was never
       called.	Time spent inside the xsub will	be allocated to	the calling

   Completing the measurement
       The function which completes the	timing of a subroutine call does the

       It calculates the time spent in the statement profiler:

	   overhead_ticks  = cumulative_overhead_ticks - initial_overhead_ticks

       and subtracts that from the total time spent 'inside' the subroutine:

	   incl_subr_sec = (time now - time call was made) - overhead_ticks

       That gives us an	accurate inclusive time. To get	the exclusive time it
       calculates the time spent in subroutines	called from the	subroutine
       call we're measuring:

	   called_sub_secs = cumulative_subr_secs - initial_subr_secs

       and subtracts that from the incl_subr_sec:

	   excl_subr_sec = incl_subr_sec - called_sub_secs

       To make that easier to follow, consider a call to a sub that calls no
       others.	In that	case cumulative_subr_secs remains unchanged during the
       call, so	called_sub_secs	is zero, and excl_subr_sec is the same as

       Finally,	it adds	the exclusive time to the cumulative exclusive time:

	   cumulative_subr_secs	+= excl_subr_sec

       Tim Bunce, <> and <>

	 Copyright (C) 2008, 2009 by Tim Bunce.

       This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the same terms as Perl itself, either Perl	version	5.8.8 or, at
       your option, any	later version of Perl 5	you may	have available.

perl v5.32.0			  2018-06-04	       Devel::NYTProf::Core(3)


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