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Cwd(3)		       Perl Programmers	Reference Guide			Cwd(3)

       Cwd - get pathname of current working directory

	   use Cwd;
	   my $dir = getcwd;

	   use Cwd 'abs_path';
	   my $abs_path	= abs_path($file);

       This module provides functions for determining the pathname of the
       current working directory.  It is recommended that getcwd (or another
       *cwd() function)	be used	in all code to ensure portability.

       By default, it exports the functions cwd(), getcwd(), fastcwd(),	and
       fastgetcwd() (and, on Win32, getdcwd()) into the	caller's namespace.

   getcwd and friends
       Each of these functions are called without arguments and	return the
       absolute	path of	the current working directory.

	       my $cwd = getcwd();

	   Returns the current working directory.

	   Exposes the POSIX function getcwd(3)	or re-implements it if it's
	   not available.

	       my $cwd = cwd();

	   The cwd() is	the most natural form for the current architecture.
	   For most systems it is identical to `pwd` (but without the trailing
	   line	terminator).

	       my $cwd = fastcwd();

	   A more dangerous version of getcwd(), but potentially faster.

	   It might conceivably	chdir()	you out	of a directory that it can't
	   chdir() you back into.  If fastcwd encounters a problem it will
	   return undef	but will probably leave	you in a different directory.
	   For a measure of extra security, if everything appears to have
	   worked, the fastcwd() function will check that it leaves you	in the
	   same	directory that it started in.  If it has changed it will "die"
	   with	the message "Unstable directory	path, current directory
	   changed unexpectedly".  That	should never happen.

	     my	$cwd = fastgetcwd();

	   The fastgetcwd() function is	provided as a synonym for cwd().

	       my $cwd = getdcwd();
	       my $cwd = getdcwd('C:');

	   The getdcwd() function is also provided on Win32 to get the current
	   working directory on	the specified drive, since Windows maintains a
	   separate current working directory for each drive.  If no drive is
	   specified then the current drive is assumed.

	   This	function simply	calls the Microsoft C library _getdcwd()

   abs_path and	friends
       These functions are exported only on request.  They each	take a single
       argument	and return the absolute	pathname for it.  If no	argument is
       given they'll use the current working directory.

	     my	$abs_path = abs_path($file);

	   Uses	the same algorithm as getcwd().	 Symbolic links	and relative-
	   path	components ("."	and "..") are resolved to return the canonical
	   pathname, just like realpath(3).

	     my	$abs_path = realpath($file);

	   A synonym for abs_path().

	     my	$abs_path = fast_abs_path($file);

	   A more dangerous, but potentially faster version of abs_path.

       If you ask to override your chdir() built-in function,

	 use Cwd qw(chdir);

       then your PWD environment variable will be kept up to date.  Note that
       it will only be kept up to date if all packages which use chdir import
       it from Cwd.

       o   Since the path separators are different on some operating systems
	   ('/'	on Unix, ':' on	MacPerl, etc...) we recommend you use the
	   File::Spec modules wherever portability is a	concern.

       o   Actually, on	Mac OS,	the "getcwd()",	"fastgetcwd()" and "fastcwd()"
	   functions are all aliases for the "cwd()" function, which, on Mac
	   OS, calls `pwd`.  Likewise, the "abs_path()"	function is an alias
	   for "fast_abs_path()".

       Originally by the perl5-porters.

       Maintained by Ken Williams <>

       Copyright (c) 2004 by the Perl 5	Porters.  All rights reserved.

       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the same terms as Perl itself.

       Portions	of the C code in this library are copyright (c)	1994 by	the
       Regents of the University of California.	 All rights reserved.  The
       license on this code is compatible with the licensing of	the rest of
       the distribution	- please see the source	code in	Cwd.xs for the


perl v5.26.0			  2017-04-19				Cwd(3)


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