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Class::Accessor(3)    User Contributed Perl Documentation   Class::Accessor(3)

	 Class::Accessor - Automated accessor generation

	 package Foo;
	 use base qw(Class::Accessor);
	 Foo->mk_accessors(qw(name role	salary));

	 # or if you prefer a Moose-like interface...

	 package Foo;
	 use Class::Accessor "antlers";
	 has name => ( is => "rw", isa => "Str"	);
	 has role => ( is => "rw", isa => "Str"	);
	 has salary => ( is => "rw", isa => "Num" );

	 # Meanwhile, in a nearby piece	of code!
	 # Class::Accessor provides new().
	 my $mp	= Foo->new({ name => "Marty", role => "JAPH" });

	 my $job = $mp->role;  # gets $mp->{role}
	 $mp->salary(400000);  # sets $mp->{salary} = 400000 # I wish

	 # like	my @info = @{$mp}{qw(name role)}
	 my @info = $mp->get(qw(name role));

	 # $mp->{salary} = 400000
	 $mp->set('salary', 400000);

       This module automagically generates accessors/mutators for your class.

       Most of the time, writing accessors is an exercise in cutting and
       pasting.	 You usually wind up with a series of methods like this:

	   sub name {
	       my $self	= shift;
	       if(@_) {
		   $self->{name} = $_[0];
	       return $self->{name};

	   sub salary {
	       my $self	= shift;
	       if(@_) {
		   $self->{salary} = $_[0];
	       return $self->{salary};

	 # etc...

       One for each piece of data in your object.  While some will be unique,
       doing value checks and special storage tricks, most will	simply be
       exercises in repetition.	 Not only is it	Bad Style to have a bunch of
       repetitious code, but it's also simply not lazy,	which is the real

       If you make your	module a subclass of Class::Accessor and declare your
       accessor	fields with mk_accessors() then	you'll find yourself with a
       set of automatically generated accessors	which can even be customized!

       The basic set up	is very	simple:

	   package Foo;
	   use base qw(Class::Accessor);
	   Foo->mk_accessors( qw(far bar car) );

       Done.  Foo now has simple far(),	bar() and car()	accessors defined.

       Alternatively, if you want to follow Damian's best practice guidelines
       you can use:

	   package Foo;
	   use base qw(Class::Accessor);
	   Foo->mk_accessors( qw(far bar car) );

       Note: you must call "follow_best_practice" before calling

       By popular demand we now	have a simple Moose-like interface.  You can
       now do:

	   package Foo;
	   use Class::Accessor "antlers";
	   has far => (	is => "rw" );
	   has bar => (	is => "rw" );
	   has car => (	is => "rw" );

       Currently only the "is" attribute is supported.

       Class::Accessor provides	a basic	constructor, "new".  It	generates a
       hash-based object and can be called as either a class method or an
       object method.

	   my $obj = Foo->new;
	   my $obj = $other_obj->new;

	   my $obj = Foo->new(\%fields);
	   my $obj = $other_obj->new(\%fields);

       It takes	an optional %fields hash which is used to initialize the
       object (handy if	you use	read-only accessors).  The fields of the hash
       correspond to the names of your accessors, so...

	   package Foo;
	   use base qw(Class::Accessor);

	   my $obj = Foo->new({	foo => 42 });
	   print $obj->foo;    # 42

       however %fields can contain anything, new() will	shove them all into
       your object.

       In Damian's Perl	Best Practices book he recommends separate get and set
       methods with the	prefix set_ and	get_ to	make it	explicit what you
       intend to do.  If you want to create those accessor methods instead of
       the default ones, call:


       before you call any of the accessor-making methods.

   accessor_name_for / mutator_name_for
       You may have your own crazy ideas for the names of the accessors, so
       you can make those happen by overriding "accessor_name_for" and
       "mutator_name_for" in your subclass.  (I	copied that idea from


       This creates accessor/mutator methods for each named field given	in
       @fields.	 Foreach field in @fields it will generate two accessors.  One
       called "field()"	and the	other called "_field_accessor()".  For

	   # Generates foo(), _foo_accessor(), bar() and _bar_accessor().
	   __PACKAGE__->mk_accessors(qw(foo bar));

       See "Overriding autogenerated accessors"	in CAVEATS AND TRICKS for


       Same as mk_accessors() except it	will generate read-only	accessors (ie.
       true accessors).	 If you	attempt	to set a value with these accessors it
       will throw an exception.	 It only uses get() and	not set().

	   package Foo;
	   use base qw(Class::Accessor);
	   Foo->mk_ro_accessors(qw(foo bar));

	   # Let's assume we have an object $foo of class Foo...
	   print $foo->foo;  # ok, prints whatever the value of	$foo->{foo} is
	   $foo->foo(42);    # BOOM!  Naughty you.


       Same as mk_accessors() except it	will generate write-only accessors
       (ie. mutators).	If you attempt to read a value with these accessors it
       will throw an exception.	 It only uses set() and	not get().

       NOTE I'm	not entirely sure why this is useful, but I'm sure someone
       will need it.  If you've	found a	use, let me know.  Right now it's here
       for orthogonality and because it's easy to implement.

	   package Foo;
	   use base qw(Class::Accessor);
	   Foo->mk_wo_accessors(qw(foo bar));

	   # Let's assume we have an object $foo of class Foo...
	   $foo->foo(42);      # OK.  Sets $self->{foo}	= 42
	   print $foo->foo;    # BOOM!	Can't read from	this accessor.

       If you prefer a Moose-like interface to create accessors, you can use
       "has" by	importing this module like this:

	 use Class::Accessor "antlers";


	 use Class::Accessor "moose-like";

       Then you	can declare accessors like this:

	 has alpha => (	is => "rw", isa	=> "Str" );
	 has beta  => (	is => "ro", isa	=> "Str" );
	 has gamma => (	is => "wo", isa	=> "Str" );

       Currently only the "is" attribute is supported.	And our	"is" also
       supports	the "wo" value to make a write-only accessor.

       If you are using	the Moose-like interface then you should use the
       "extends" rather	than tweaking your @ISA	directly.  Basically, replace

	 @ISA =	qw/Foo Bar/;


	 extends(qw/Foo	Bar/);

       An accessor generated by	Class::Accessor	looks something	like this:

	   # Your foo may vary.
	   sub foo {
	       my($self) = shift;
	       if(@_) {	   # set
		   return $self->set('foo', @_);
	       else {
		   return $self->get('foo');

       Very simple.  All it does is determine if you're	wanting	to set a value
       or get a	value and calls	the appropriate	method.	 Class::Accessor
       provides	default	get() and set()	methods	which your class can override.
       They're detailed	later.

   Modifying the behavior of the accessor
       Rather than actually modifying the accessor itself, it is much more
       sensible	to simply override the two key methods which the accessor
       calls.  Namely set() and	get().

       If you -really- want to,	you can	override make_accessor().

	   $obj->set($key, $value);
	   $obj->set($key, @values);

       set() defines how generally one stores data in the object.

       override	this method to change how data is stored by your accessors.

	   $value  = $obj->get($key);
	   @values = $obj->get(@keys);

       get() defines how data is retrieved from	your objects.

       override	this method to change how it is	retrieved.

	   $accessor = __PACKAGE__->make_accessor($field);

       Generates a subroutine reference	which acts as an accessor for the
       given $field.  It calls get() and set().

       If you wish to change the behavior of your accessors, try overriding
       get() and set() before you start	mucking	with make_accessor().

	   $read_only_accessor = __PACKAGE__->make_ro_accessor($field);

       Generates a subroutine reference	which acts as a	read-only accessor for
       the given $field.  It only calls	get().

       Override	get() to change	the behavior of	your accessors.

	   $write_only_accessor	= __PACKAGE__->make_wo_accessor($field);

       Generates a subroutine reference	which acts as a	write-only accessor
       (mutator) for the given $field.	It only	calls set().

       Override	set() to change	the behavior of	your accessors.

       If something goes wrong Class::Accessor will warn or die	by calling
       Carp::carp or Carp::croak.  If you don't	like this you can override
       _carp() and _croak() in your subclass and do whatever else you want.

       Class::Accessor does not	employ an autoloader, thus it is much faster
       than you'd think.  Its generated	methods	incur no special penalty over
       ones you'd write	yourself.

		     Rate  Basic   Fast	Faster Direct
	 Basic	 367589/s     --   -51%	  -55%	 -89%
	 Fast	 747964/s   103%     --	   -9%	 -77%
	 Faster	 819199/s   123%    10%	    --	 -75%
	 Direct	3245887/s   783%   334%	  296%	   --

		     Rate    Acc   Fast	Faster Direct
	 Acc	 265564/s     --   -54%	  -63%	 -91%
	 Fast	 573439/s   116%     --	  -21%	 -80%
	 Faster	 724710/s   173%    26%	    --	 -75%
	 Direct	2860979/s   977%   399%	  295%	   --

       Class::Accessor::Fast is	faster than methods written by an average
       programmer (where "average" is based on Schwern's example code).

       Class::Accessor is slower than average, but more	flexible.

       Class::Accessor::Faster is even faster than Class::Accessor::Fast.  It
       uses an array internally, not a hash.  This could be a good or bad
       feature depending on your point of view.

       Direct hash access is, of course, much faster than all of these,	but it
       provides	no encapsulation.

       Of course, it's not as simple as	saying "Class::Accessor	is slower than
       average".  These	are benchmarks for a simple accessor.  If your
       accessors do any	sort of	complicated work (such as talking to a
       database	or writing to a	file) the time spent doing that	work will
       quickly swamp the time spend just calling the accessor.	In that	case,
       Class::Accessor and the ones you	write will be roughly the same speed.

       Here's an example of generating an accessor for every public field of
       your class.

	   package Altoids;

	   use base qw(Class::Accessor Class::Fields);
	   use fields qw(curiously strong mints);
	   Altoids->mk_accessors( Altoids->show_fields('Public') );

	   sub new {
	       my $proto = shift;
	       my $class = ref $proto || $proto;
	       return fields::new($class);

	   my Altoids $tin = Altoids->new;

	   $tin->curiously('Curiouser and curiouser');
	   print $tin->{curiously};    # prints	'Curiouser and curiouser'

	   # Subclassing works,	too.
	   package Mint::Snuff;
	   use base qw(Altoids);

	   my Mint::Snuff $pouch = Mint::Snuff->new;
	   $pouch->strong('Blow	your head off!');
	   print $pouch->{strong};     # prints	'Blow your head	off!'

       Here's a	simple example of altering the behavior	of your	accessors.

	   package Foo;
	   use base qw(Class::Accessor);
	   Foo->mk_accessors(qw(this that up down));

	   sub get {
	       my $self	= shift;

	       # Note every time someone gets some data.
	       print STDERR "Getting @_\n";


	   sub set {
	       my ($self, $key)	= splice(@_, 0,	2);

	       # Note every time someone sets some data.
	       print STDERR "Setting $key to @_\n";

	       $self->SUPER::set($key, @_);

       Class::Accessor has to do some internal wackiness to get	its job	done
       quickly and efficiently.	 Because of this, there's a few	tricks and
       traps one must know about.

       Hey, nothing's perfect.

   Don't make a	field called DESTROY
       This is bad.  Since DESTROY is a	magical	method it would	be bad for us
       to define an accessor using that	name.  Class::Accessor will carp if
       you try to use it with a	field named "DESTROY".

   Overriding autogenerated accessors
       You may want to override	the autogenerated accessor with	your own, yet
       have your custom	accessor call the default one.	For instance, maybe
       you want	to have	an accessor which checks its input.  Normally, one
       would expect this to work:

	   package Foo;
	   use base qw(Class::Accessor);
	   Foo->mk_accessors(qw(email this that	whatever));

	   # Only accept addresses which look valid.
	   sub email {
	       my($self) = shift;
	       my($email) = @_;

	       if( @_ )	{  # Setting
		   require Email::Valid;
		   unless( Email::Valid->address($email) ) {
		       carp("$email doesn't look like a	valid address.");

	       return $self->SUPER::email(@_);

       There's a subtle	problem	in the last example, and it's in this line:

	   return $self->SUPER::email(@_);

       If we look at how Foo was defined, it called mk_accessors() which stuck
       email() right into Foo's	namespace.  There *is* no SUPER::email() to
       delegate	to!  Two ways around this... first is to make a	"pure" base
       class for Foo.  This pure class will generate the accessors and provide
       the necessary super class for Foo to use:

	   package Pure::Organic::Foo;
	   use base qw(Class::Accessor);
	   Pure::Organic::Foo->mk_accessors(qw(email this that whatever));

	   package Foo;
	   use base qw(Pure::Organic::Foo);

       And now Foo::email() can	override the generated
       Pure::Organic::Foo::email() and use it as SUPER::email().

       This is probably	the most obvious solution to everyone but me.
       Instead,	what first made	sense to me was	for mk_accessors() to define
       an alias	of email(), _email_accessor().	Using this solution,
       Foo::email() would be written with:

	   return $self->_email_accessor(@_);

       instead of the expected SUPER::email().

       Copyright 2017 Marty Pauley <>

       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the same terms as Perl itself.  That means	either (a) the GNU
       General Public License or (b) the Artistic License.

       Michael G Schwern <>

       Liz and RUZ for performance tweaks.

       Tels, for his big feature request/bug report.

       Various presenters at YAPC::Asia	2009 for criticising the non-Moose

       See Class::Accessor::Fast and Class::Accessor::Faster if	speed is more
       important than flexibility.

       These are some modules which do similar things in different ways
       Class::Struct, Class::Methodmaker, Class::Generate, Class::Class,
       Class::Contract,	Moose, Mouse

       See Class::DBI for an example of	this module in use.

perl v5.32.1			  2017-10-22		    Class::Accessor(3)


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