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```CARTCONVERT(1)		    GeographicLib Utilities		CARTCONVERT(1)

NAME
CartConvert -- convert geodetic coordinates to geocentric or local
cartesian

SYNOPSIS
CartConvert [ -r	] [ -l lat0 lon0 h0 ] [	-e a f ] [ -w ]	[ -p prec ] [
--comment-delimiter commentdelim	] [ --version |	-h | --help ] [
--input-file infile | --input-string instring ] [ --line-separator
linesep ] [ --output-file outfile ]

DESCRIPTION
Convert geodetic	coordinates to either geocentric or local cartesian
coordinates.  Geocentric	coordinates have the origin at the center of
the earth, with the z axis going	thru the north pole, and the x axis
thru latitude = 0, longitude = 0.  By default, the conversion is	to
geocentric coordinates.	Specifying -l lat0 lon0	h0 causes a local
coordinate system to be used with the origin at latitude	= lat0,
longitude = lon0, height	= h0, z	normal to the ellipsoid	and y due
north.

Geodetic	coordinates are	provided on standard input as a	set of lines
containing (blank separated) latitude, longitude	(decimal degrees or
degrees,	minutes	and seconds), and height above the ellipsoid (meters);
for details on the allowed formats for latitude and longitude, see the
"GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATES"	section	of GeoConvert(1).  For each set	of
geodetic	coordinates, the corresponding cartesian coordinates x,	y, z
(meters)	are printed on standard	output.

OPTIONS
-r  perform the reverse projection.  x, y, z are	given on standard
input and each line of standard output gives	latitude, longitude,
height.  In general there are multiple solutions and	the result
which minimizes the absolute	value of height	is returned, i.e.,
(latitude, longitude) corresponds to	the closest point on the
ellipsoid.

-l lat0 lon0 h0
specifies conversions to and	from a local cartesion coordinate
systems with	origin lat0 lon0 h0, instead of	a geocentric
coordinate system.  The -w flag can be used to swap the default
order of the	2 geographic coordinates, provided that	it appears
before -l.

-e a f
specify the ellipsoid via the equatorial radius, a and the
flattening, f.  Setting f = 0 results in a sphere.  Specify f < 0
for a prolate ellipsoid.  A simple fraction,	e.g., 1/297, is
allowed for f.  By default, the WGS84 ellipsoid is used, a =
6378137 m, f	= 1/298.257223563.

-w  toggle the longitude	first flag (it starts off); if the flag	is on,
then	on input and output, longitude precedes	latitude (except that,
on input, this can be overridden by a hemisphere designator,	N, S,
E, W).

-p prec
set the output precision to prec (default 6).  prec is the number
of digits after the decimal point for geocentric and	local
cartesion coordinates and for the height (in	meters).  For
latitudes and longitudes (in	degrees), the number of	digits after
the decimal point is	prec + 5.

--comment-delimiter commentdelim
set the comment delimiter to	commentdelim (e.g., "#"	or "//").  If
set,	the input lines	will be	scanned	for this delimiter and,	if
found, the delimiter	and the	rest of	the line will be removed prior
to processing and subsequently appended to the output line
(separated by a space).

--version
print version and exit.

-h  print usage and exit.

--help
print full documentation and	exit.

--input-file infile
read	input from the file infile instead of from standard input; a
file	name of	"-" stands for standard	input.

--input-string instring
All occurrences of the line separator character (default is a
semicolon) in instring are converted	to newlines before the reading
begins.

--line-separator	linesep
set the line	separator character to linesep.	 By default this is a
semicolon.

--output-file outfile
write output	to the file outfile instead of to standard output; a
file	name of	"-" stands for standard	output.

EXAMPLES
echo 33.3 44.4 6000 |	CartConvert
=> 3816209.60	3737108.55 3485109.57
echo 33.3 44.4 6000 |	CartConvert -l 33 44 20
=> 37288.97 33374.29 5783.64
echo 30000 30000 0 | CartConvert -r
=> 6.483 45 -6335709.73

ERRORS
An illegal line of input	will print an error message to standard	output
beginning with "ERROR:" and causes CartConvert to return	an exit	code
of 1.  However, an error	does not cause CartConvert to terminate;
following lines will be converted.

The algorithm for converting geocentric to geodetic coordinates is
given in	Appendix B of C. F. F. Karney, Geodesics on an ellipsoid of
revolution, Feb.	2011; preprint <https://arxiv.org/abs/1102.1215>.

AUTHOR
CartConvert was written by Charles Karney.

HISTORY