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CREATE VIEW(7)		PostgreSQL 9.6.19 Documentation		CREATE VIEW(7)

       CREATE_VIEW - define a new view

       CREATE [	OR REPLACE ] [ TEMP | TEMPORARY	] [ RECURSIVE ]	VIEW name [ ( column_name [, ...] ) ]
	   [ WITH ( view_option_name [=	view_option_value] [, ... ] ) ]
	   AS query

       CREATE VIEW defines a view of a query. The view is not physically
       materialized. Instead, the query	is run every time the view is
       referenced in a query.

       CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW is similar, but if a view	of the same name
       already exists, it is replaced. The new query must generate the same
       columns that were generated by the existing view	query (that is,	the
       same column names in the	same order and with the	same data types), but
       it may add additional columns to	the end	of the list. The calculations
       giving rise to the output columns may be	completely different.

       If a schema name	is given (for example, CREATE VIEW myschema.myview
       ...) then the view is created in	the specified schema. Otherwise	it is
       created in the current schema. Temporary	views exist in a special
       schema, so a schema name	cannot be given	when creating a	temporary
       view. The name of the view must be distinct from	the name of any	other
       view, table, sequence, index or foreign table in	the same schema.

	   If specified, the view is created as	a temporary view. Temporary
	   views are automatically dropped at the end of the current session.
	   Existing permanent relations	with the same name are not visible to
	   the current session while the temporary view	exists,	unless they
	   are referenced with schema-qualified	names.

	   If any of the tables	referenced by the view are temporary, the view
	   is created as a temporary view (whether TEMPORARY is	specified or

	   Creates a recursive view. The syntax

	       CREATE RECURSIVE	VIEW [ schema .	] view_name (column_names) AS SELECT ...;

	   is equivalent to

	       CREATE VIEW [ schema . ]	view_name AS WITH RECURSIVE view_name (column_names) AS	(SELECT	...) SELECT column_names FROM view_name;

	   A view column name list must	be specified for a recursive view.

	   The name (optionally	schema-qualified) of a view to be created.

	   An optional list of names to	be used	for columns of the view. If
	   not given, the column names are deduced from	the query.

       WITH ( view_option_name [= view_option_value] [,	... ] )
	   This	clause specifies optional parameters for a view; the following
	   parameters are supported:

	   check_option	(string)
	       This parameter may be either local or cascaded, and is
	       equivalent to specifying	WITH [ CASCADED	| LOCAL	] CHECK	OPTION
	       (see below). This option	can be changed on existing views using

	   security_barrier (boolean)
	       This should be used if the view is intended to provide
	       row-level security. See Section 39.5, "Rules and	Privileges",
	       in the documentation for	full details.

	   A SELECT(7) or VALUES(7) command which will provide the columns and
	   rows	of the view.

	   This	option controls	the behavior of	automatically updatable	views.
	   When	this option is specified, INSERT and UPDATE commands on	the
	   view	will be	checked	to ensure that new rows	satisfy	the
	   view-defining condition (that is, the new rows are checked to
	   ensure that they are	visible	through	the view). If they are not,
	   the update will be rejected.	If the CHECK OPTION is not specified,
	   INSERT and UPDATE commands on the view are allowed to create	rows
	   that	are not	visible	through	the view. The following	check options
	   are supported:

	       New rows	are only checked against the conditions	defined
	       directly	in the view itself. Any	conditions defined on
	       underlying base views are not checked (unless they also specify
	       the CHECK OPTION).

	       New rows	are checked against the	conditions of the view and all
	       underlying base views. If the CHECK OPTION is specified,	and
	       neither LOCAL nor CASCADED is specified,	then CASCADED is

	   The CHECK OPTION may	not be used with RECURSIVE views.

	   Note	that the CHECK OPTION is only supported	on views that are
	   automatically updatable, and	do not have INSTEAD OF triggers	or
	   INSTEAD rules. If an	automatically updatable	view is	defined	on top
	   of a	base view that has INSTEAD OF triggers,	then the LOCAL CHECK
	   OPTION may be used to check the conditions on the automatically
	   updatable view, but the conditions on the base view with INSTEAD OF
	   triggers will not be	checked	(a cascaded check option will not
	   cascade down	to a trigger-updatable view, and any check options
	   defined directly on a trigger-updatable view	will be	ignored). If
	   the view or any of its base relations has an	INSTEAD	rule that
	   causes the INSERT or	UPDATE command to be rewritten,	then all check
	   options will	be ignored in the rewritten query, including any
	   checks from automatically updatable views defined on	top of the
	   relation with the INSTEAD rule.

       Use the DROP VIEW (DROP_VIEW(7))	statement to drop views.

       Be careful that the names and types of the view's columns will be
       assigned	the way	you want. For example:

	   CREATE VIEW vista AS	SELECT 'Hello World';

       is bad form in two ways:	the column name	defaults to ?column?, and the
       column data type	defaults to unknown. If	you want a string literal in a
       view's result, use something like:

	   CREATE VIEW vista AS	SELECT text 'Hello World' AS hello;

       Access to tables	referenced in the view is determined by	permissions of
       the view	owner. In some cases, this can be used to provide secure but
       restricted access to the	underlying tables. However, not	all views are
       secure against tampering; see Section 39.5, "Rules and Privileges", in
       the documentation for details. Functions	called in the view are treated
       the same	as if they had been called directly from the query using the
       view. Therefore the user	of a view must have permissions	to call	all
       functions used by the view.

       When CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW is used on an existing view,	only the
       view's defining SELECT rule is changed. Other view properties,
       including ownership, permissions, and non-SELECT	rules, remain
       unchanged. You must own the view	to replace it (this includes being a
       member of the owning role).

   Updatable Views
       Simple views are	automatically updatable: the system will allow INSERT,
       UPDATE and DELETE statements to be used on the view in the same way as
       on a regular table. A view is automatically updatable if	it satisfies
       all of the following conditions:

       o   The view must have exactly one entry	in its FROM list, which	must
	   be a	table or another updatable view.

       o   The view definition must not	contain	WITH, DISTINCT,	GROUP BY,
	   HAVING, LIMIT, or OFFSET clauses at the top level.

       o   The view definition must not	contain	set operations (UNION,
	   INTERSECT or	EXCEPT)	at the top level.

       o   The view's select list must not contain any aggregates, window
	   functions or	set-returning functions.

       An automatically	updatable view may contain a mix of updatable and
       non-updatable columns. A	column is updatable if it is a simple
       reference to an updatable column	of the underlying base relation;
       otherwise the column is read-only, and an error will be raised if an
       INSERT or UPDATE	statement attempts to assign a value to	it.

       If the view is automatically updatable the system will convert any
       INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE	statement on the view into the corresponding
       statement on the	underlying base	relation.  INSERT statements that have
       an ON CONFLICT UPDATE clause are	fully supported.

       If an automatically updatable view contains a WHERE condition, the
       condition restricts which rows of the base relation are available to be
       modified	by UPDATE and DELETE statements	on the view. However, an
       UPDATE is allowed to change a row so that it no longer satisfies	the
       WHERE condition,	and thus is no longer visible through the view.
       Similarly, an INSERT command can	potentially insert base-relation rows
       that do not satisfy the WHERE condition and thus	are not	visible
       through the view	(ON CONFLICT UPDATE may	similarly affect an existing
       row not visible through the view). The CHECK OPTION may be used to
       prevent INSERT and UPDATE commands from creating	such rows that are not
       visible through the view.

       If an automatically updatable view is marked with the security_barrier
       property	then all the view's WHERE conditions (and any conditions using
       operators which are marked as LEAKPROOF)	will always be evaluated
       before any conditions that a user of the	view has added.	See Section
       39.5, "Rules and	Privileges", in	the documentation for full details.
       Note that, due to this, rows which are not ultimately returned (because
       they do not pass	the user's WHERE conditions) may still end up being
       locked.	EXPLAIN	can be used to see which conditions are	applied	at the
       relation	level (and therefore do	not lock rows) and which are not.

       A more complex view that	does not satisfy all these conditions is
       read-only by default: the system	will not allow an insert, update, or
       delete on the view. You can get the effect of an	updatable view by
       creating	INSTEAD	OF triggers on the view, which must convert attempted
       inserts,	etc. on	the view into appropriate actions on other tables. For
       more information	see CREATE TRIGGER (CREATE_TRIGGER(7)).	Another
       possibility is to create	rules (see CREATE RULE (CREATE_RULE(7))), but
       in practice triggers are	easier to understand and use correctly.

       Note that the user performing the insert, update	or delete on the view
       must have the corresponding insert, update or delete privilege on the
       view. In	addition the view's owner must have the	relevant privileges on
       the underlying base relations, but the user performing the update does
       not need	any permissions	on the underlying base relations (see Section
       39.5, "Rules and	Privileges", in	the documentation).

       Create a	view consisting	of all comedy films:

	   CREATE VIEW comedies	AS
	       SELECT *
	       FROM films
	       WHERE kind = 'Comedy';

       This will create	a view containing the columns that are in the film
       table at	the time of view creation. Though * was	used to	create the
       view, columns added later to the	table will not be part of the view.

       Create a	view with LOCAL	CHECK OPTION:

	   CREATE VIEW universal_comedies AS
	       SELECT *
	       FROM comedies
	       WHERE classification = 'U'

       This will create	a view based on	the comedies view, showing only	films
       with kind = 'Comedy' and	classification = 'U'. Any attempt to INSERT or
       UPDATE a	row in the view	will be	rejected if the	new row	doesn't	have
       classification =	'U', but the film kind will not	be checked.

       Create a	view with CASCADED CHECK OPTION:

	   CREATE VIEW pg_comedies AS
	       SELECT *
	       FROM comedies
	       WHERE classification = 'PG'

       This will create	a view that checks both	the kind and classification of
       new rows.

       Create a	view with a mix	of updatable and non-updatable columns:

	   CREATE VIEW comedies	AS
	       SELECT f.*,
		      country_code_to_name(f.country_code) AS country,
		      (SELECT avg(r.rating)
		       FROM user_ratings r
		       WHERE r.film_id = AS avg_rating
	       FROM films f
	       WHERE f.kind = 'Comedy';

       This view will support INSERT, UPDATE and DELETE. All the columns from
       the films table will be updatable, whereas the computed columns country
       and avg_rating will be read-only.

       Create a	recursive view consisting of the numbers from 1	to 100:

	   CREATE RECURSIVE VIEW public.nums_1_100 (n) AS
	       VALUES (1)
	       SELECT n+1 FROM nums_1_100 WHERE	n < 100;

       Notice that although the	recursive view's name is schema-qualified in
       this CREATE, its	internal self-reference	is not schema-qualified. This
       is because the implicitly-created CTE's name cannot be

       CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW is a PostgreSQL language extension. So is	the
       concept of a temporary view. The	WITH ( ... ) clause is an extension as


PostgreSQL 9.6.19		     2020			CREATE VIEW(7)


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