Skip site navigation (1)Skip section navigation (2)

FreeBSD Manual Pages

  
 
  

home | help
CREATE ROLE(7)		PostgreSQL 9.6.3 Documentation		CREATE ROLE(7)

NAME
       CREATE_ROLE - define a new database role

SYNOPSIS
       CREATE ROLE name	[ [ WITH ] option [ ...	] ]

       where option can	be:

	     SUPERUSER | NOSUPERUSER
	   | CREATEDB |	NOCREATEDB
	   | CREATEROLE	| NOCREATEROLE
	   | INHERIT | NOINHERIT
	   | LOGIN | NOLOGIN
	   | REPLICATION | NOREPLICATION
	   | BYPASSRLS | NOBYPASSRLS
	   | CONNECTION	LIMIT connlimit
	   | [ ENCRYPTED | UNENCRYPTED ] PASSWORD 'password'
	   | VALID UNTIL 'timestamp'
	   | IN	ROLE role_name [, ...]
	   | IN	GROUP role_name	[, ...]
	   | ROLE role_name [, ...]
	   | ADMIN role_name [,	...]
	   | USER role_name [, ...]
	   | SYSID uid

DESCRIPTION
       CREATE ROLE adds	a new role to a	PostgreSQL database cluster. A role is
       an entity that can own database objects and have	database privileges; a
       role can	be considered a	"user",	a "group", or both depending on	how it
       is used.	Refer to Chapter 21, Database Roles, in	the documentation and
       Chapter 20, Client Authentication, in the documentation for information
       about managing users and	authentication.	You must have CREATEROLE
       privilege or be a database superuser to use this	command.

       Note that roles are defined at the database cluster level, and so are
       valid in	all databases in the cluster.

PARAMETERS
       name
	   The name of the new role.

       SUPERUSER
       NOSUPERUSER
	   These clauses determine whether the new role	is a "superuser", who
	   can override	all access restrictions	within the database. Superuser
	   status is dangerous and should be used only when really needed. You
	   must	yourself be a superuser	to create a new	superuser. If not
	   specified, NOSUPERUSER is the default.

       CREATEDB
       NOCREATEDB
	   These clauses define	a role's ability to create databases. If
	   CREATEDB is specified, the role being defined will be allowed to
	   create new databases. Specifying NOCREATEDB will deny a role	the
	   ability to create databases.	If not specified, NOCREATEDB is	the
	   default.

       CREATEROLE
       NOCREATEROLE
	   These clauses determine whether a role will be permitted to create
	   new roles (that is, execute CREATE ROLE). A role with CREATEROLE
	   privilege can also alter and	drop other roles. If not specified,
	   NOCREATEROLE	is the default.

       INHERIT
       NOINHERIT
	   These clauses determine whether a role "inherits" the privileges of
	   roles it is a member	of. A role with	the INHERIT attribute can
	   automatically use whatever database privileges have been granted to
	   all roles it	is directly or indirectly a member of. Without
	   INHERIT, membership in another role only grants the ability to SET
	   ROLE	to that	other role; the	privileges of the other	role are only
	   available after having done so. If not specified, INHERIT is	the
	   default.

       LOGIN
       NOLOGIN
	   These clauses determine whether a role is allowed to	log in;	that
	   is, whether the role	can be given as	the initial session
	   authorization name during client connection.	A role having the
	   LOGIN attribute can be thought of as	a user.	Roles without this
	   attribute are useful	for managing database privileges, but are not
	   users in the	usual sense of the word. If not	specified, NOLOGIN is
	   the default,	except when CREATE ROLE	is invoked through its
	   alternative spelling	CREATE USER (CREATE_USER(7)).

       REPLICATION
       NOREPLICATION
	   These clauses determine whether a role is allowed to	initiate
	   streaming replication or put	the system in and out of backup	mode.
	   A role having the REPLICATION attribute is a	very highly privileged
	   role, and should only be used on roles actually used	for
	   replication.	If not specified, NOREPLICATION	is the default.

       BYPASSRLS
       NOBYPASSRLS
	   These clauses determine whether a role bypasses every row-level
	   security (RLS) policy.  NOBYPASSRLS is the default. Note that
	   pg_dump will	set row_security to OFF	by default, to ensure all
	   contents of a table are dumped out. If the user running pg_dump
	   does	not have appropriate permissions, an error will	be returned.
	   The superuser and owner of the table	being dumped always bypass
	   RLS.

       CONNECTION LIMIT	connlimit
	   If role can log in, this specifies how many concurrent connections
	   the role can	make. -1 (the default) means no	limit. Note that only
	   normal connections are counted towards this limit. Neither prepared
	   transactions	nor background worker connections are counted towards
	   this	limit.

       PASSWORD	password
	   Sets	the role's password. (A	password is only of use	for roles
	   having the LOGIN attribute, but you can nonetheless define one for
	   roles without it.) If you do	not plan to use	password
	   authentication you can omit this option. If no password is
	   specified, the password will	be set to null and password
	   authentication will always fail for that user. A null password can
	   optionally be written explicitly as PASSWORD	NULL.

       ENCRYPTED
       UNENCRYPTED
	   These key words control whether the password	is stored encrypted in
	   the system catalogs.	(If neither is specified, the default behavior
	   is determined by the	configuration parameter	password_encryption.)
	   If the presented password string is already in MD5-encrypted
	   format, then	it is stored encrypted as-is, regardless of whether
	   ENCRYPTED or	UNENCRYPTED is specified (since	the system cannot
	   decrypt the specified encrypted password string). This allows
	   reloading of	encrypted passwords during dump/restore.

       VALID UNTIL 'timestamp'
	   The VALID UNTIL clause sets a date and time after which the role's
	   password is no longer valid.	If this	clause is omitted the password
	   will	be valid for all time.

       IN ROLE role_name
	   The IN ROLE clause lists one	or more	existing roles to which	the
	   new role will be immediately	added as a new member. (Note that
	   there is no option to add the new role as an	administrator; use a
	   separate GRANT command to do	that.)

       IN GROUP	role_name
	   IN GROUP is an obsolete spelling of IN ROLE.

       ROLE role_name
	   The ROLE clause lists one or	more existing roles which are
	   automatically added as members of the new role. (This in effect
	   makes the new role a	"group".)

       ADMIN role_name
	   The ADMIN clause is like ROLE, but the named	roles are added	to the
	   new role WITH ADMIN OPTION, giving them the right to	grant
	   membership in this role to others.

       USER role_name
	   The USER clause is an obsolete spelling of the ROLE clause.

       SYSID uid
	   The SYSID clause is ignored,	but is accepted	for backwards
	   compatibility.

NOTES
       Use ALTER ROLE (ALTER_ROLE(7)) to change	the attributes of a role, and
       DROP ROLE (DROP_ROLE(7))	to remove a role. All the attributes specified
       by CREATE ROLE can be modified by later ALTER ROLE commands.

       The preferred way to add	and remove members of roles that are being
       used as groups is to use	GRANT(7) and REVOKE(7).

       The VALID UNTIL clause defines an expiration time for a password	only,
       not for the role	per se.	In particular, the expiration time is not
       enforced	when logging in	using a	non-password-based authentication
       method.

       The INHERIT attribute governs inheritance of grantable privileges (that
       is, access privileges for database objects and role memberships). It
       does not	apply to the special role attributes set by CREATE ROLE	and
       ALTER ROLE. For example,	being a	member of a role with CREATEDB
       privilege does not immediately grant the	ability	to create databases,
       even if INHERIT is set; it would	be necessary to	become that role via
       SET ROLE	(SET_ROLE(7)) before creating a	database.

       The INHERIT attribute is	the default for	reasons	of backwards
       compatibility: in prior releases	of PostgreSQL, users always had	access
       to all privileges of groups they	were members of. However, NOINHERIT
       provides	a closer match to the semantics	specified in the SQL standard.

       Be careful with the CREATEROLE privilege. There is no concept of
       inheritance for the privileges of a CREATEROLE-role. That means that
       even if a role does not have a certain privilege	but is allowed to
       create other roles, it can easily create	another	role with different
       privileges than its own (except for creating roles with superuser
       privileges). For	example, if the	role "user" has	the CREATEROLE
       privilege but not the CREATEDB privilege, nonetheless it	can create a
       new role	with the CREATEDB privilege. Therefore,	regard roles that have
       the CREATEROLE privilege	as almost-superuser-roles.

       PostgreSQL includes a program createuser(1) that	has the	same
       functionality as	CREATE ROLE (in	fact, it calls this command) but can
       be run from the command shell.

       The CONNECTION LIMIT option is only enforced approximately; if two new
       sessions	start at about the same	time when just one connection "slot"
       remains for the role, it	is possible that both will fail. Also, the
       limit is	never enforced for superusers.

       Caution must be exercised when specifying an unencrypted	password with
       this command. The password will be transmitted to the server in
       cleartext, and it might also be logged in the client's command history
       or the server log. The command createuser(1), however, transmits	the
       password	encrypted. Also, psql(1) contains a command \password that can
       be used to safely change	the password later.

EXAMPLES
       Create a	role that can log in, but don't	give it	a password:

	   CREATE ROLE jonathan	LOGIN;

       Create a	role with a password:

	   CREATE USER davide WITH PASSWORD 'jw8s0F4';

       (CREATE USER is the same	as CREATE ROLE except that it implies LOGIN.)

       Create a	role with a password that is valid until the end of 2004.
       After one second	has ticked in 2005, the	password is no longer valid.

	   CREATE ROLE miriam WITH LOGIN PASSWORD 'jw8s0F4' VALID UNTIL	'2005-01-01';

       Create a	role that can create databases and manage roles:

	   CREATE ROLE admin WITH CREATEDB CREATEROLE;

COMPATIBILITY
       The CREATE ROLE statement is in the SQL standard, but the standard only
       requires	the syntax

	   CREATE ROLE name [ WITH ADMIN role_name ]

       Multiple	initial	administrators,	and all	the other options of CREATE
       ROLE, are PostgreSQL extensions.

       The SQL standard	defines	the concepts of	users and roles, but it
       regards them as distinct	concepts and leaves all	commands defining
       users to	be specified by	each database implementation. In PostgreSQL we
       have chosen to unify users and roles into a single kind of entity.
       Roles therefore have many more optional attributes than they do in the
       standard.

       The behavior specified by the SQL standard is most closely approximated
       by giving users the NOINHERIT attribute,	while roles are	given the
       INHERIT attribute.

SEE ALSO
       SET ROLE	(SET_ROLE(7)), ALTER ROLE (ALTER_ROLE(7)), DROP	ROLE
       (DROP_ROLE(7)), GRANT(7), REVOKE(7), createuser(1)

PostgreSQL 9.6.3		     2017			CREATE ROLE(7)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | PARAMETERS | NOTES | EXAMPLES | COMPATIBILITY | SEE ALSO

Want to link to this manual page? Use this URL:
<https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=CREATE_ROLE&sektion=7&manpath=FreeBSD+12.0-RELEASE+and+Ports>

home | help