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CREATE LANGUAGE(7)	PostgreSQL 9.6.19 Documentation	    CREATE LANGUAGE(7)

       CREATE_LANGUAGE - define	a new procedural language

	   HANDLER call_handler	[ INLINE inline_handler	] [ VALIDATOR valfunction ]

       CREATE LANGUAGE registers a new procedural language with	a PostgreSQL
       database. Subsequently, functions and trigger procedures	can be defined
       in this new language.

	   As of PostgreSQL 9.1, most procedural languages have	been made into
	   "extensions", and should therefore be installed with	CREATE
	   CREATE LANGUAGE should now be confined to extension installation
	   scripts. If you have	a "bare" language in your database, perhaps as
	   a result of an upgrade, you can convert it to an extension using
	   CREATE EXTENSION langname FROM unpackaged.

       CREATE LANGUAGE effectively associates the language name	with handler
       function(s) that	are responsible	for executing functions	written	in the
       language. Refer to Chapter 54, Writing A	Procedural Language Handler,
       in the documentation for	more information about language	handlers.

       There are two forms of the CREATE LANGUAGE command. In the first	form,
       the user	supplies just the name of the desired language,	and the
       PostgreSQL server consults the pg_pltemplate system catalog to
       determine the correct parameters. In the	second form, the user supplies
       the language parameters along with the language name. The second	form
       can be used to create a language	that is	not defined in pg_pltemplate,
       but this	approach is considered obsolescent.

       When the	server finds an	entry in the pg_pltemplate catalog for the
       given language name, it will use	the catalog data even if the command
       includes	language parameters. This behavior simplifies loading of old
       dump files, which are likely to contain out-of-date information about
       language	support	functions.

       Ordinarily, the user must have the PostgreSQL superuser privilege to
       register	a new language.	However, the owner of a	database can register
       a new language within that database if the language is listed in	the
       pg_pltemplate catalog and is marked as allowed to be created by
       database	owners (tmpldbacreate is true).	The default is that trusted
       languages can be	created	by database owners, but	this can be adjusted
       by superusers by	modifying the contents of pg_pltemplate. The creator
       of a language becomes its owner and can later drop it, rename it, or
       assign it to a new owner.

       CREATE OR REPLACE LANGUAGE will either create a new language, or
       replace an existing definition. If the language already exists, its
       parameters are updated according	to the values specified	or taken from
       pg_pltemplate, but the language's ownership and permissions settings do
       not change, and any existing functions written in the language are
       assumed to still	be valid. In addition to the normal privilege
       requirements for	creating a language, the user must be superuser	or
       owner of	the existing language. The REPLACE case	is mainly meant	to be
       used to ensure that the language	exists.	If the language	has a
       pg_pltemplate entry then	REPLACE	will not actually change anything
       about an	existing definition, except in the unusual case	where the
       pg_pltemplate entry has been modified since the language	was created.

	   TRUSTED specifies that the language does not	grant access to	data
	   that	the user would not otherwise have. If this key word is omitted
	   when	registering the	language, only users with the PostgreSQL
	   superuser privilege can use this language to	create new functions.

	   This	is a noise word.

	   The name of the new procedural language. The	name must be unique
	   among the languages in the database.

	   For backward	compatibility, the name	can be enclosed	by single

       HANDLER call_handler
	   call_handler	is the name of a previously registered function	that
	   will	be called to execute the procedural language's functions. The
	   call	handler	for a procedural language must be written in a
	   compiled language such as C with version 1 call convention and
	   registered with PostgreSQL as a function taking no arguments	and
	   returning the language_handler type,	a placeholder type that	is
	   simply used to identify the function	as a call handler.

       INLINE inline_handler
	   inline_handler is the name of a previously registered function that
	   will	be called to execute an	anonymous code block (DO(7) command)
	   in this language. If	no inline_handler function is specified, the
	   language does not support anonymous code blocks. The	handler
	   function must take one argument of type internal, which will	be the
	   DO command's	internal representation, and it	will typically return
	   void. The return value of the handler is ignored.

       VALIDATOR valfunction
	   valfunction is the name of a	previously registered function that
	   will	be called when a new function in the language is created, to
	   validate the	new function. If no validator function is specified,
	   then	a new function will not	be checked when	it is created. The
	   validator function must take	one argument of	type oid, which	will
	   be the OID of the to-be-created function, and will typically	return

	   A validator function	would typically	inspect	the function body for
	   syntactical correctness, but	it can also look at other properties
	   of the function, for	example	if the language	cannot handle certain
	   argument types. To signal an	error, the validator function should
	   use the ereport() function. The return value	of the function	is

       The TRUSTED option and the support function name(s) are ignored if the
       server has an entry for the specified language name in pg_pltemplate.

       The createlang(1) program is a simple wrapper around the	CREATE
       LANGUAGE	command. It eases installation of procedural languages from
       the shell command line.

       Use DROP	LANGUAGE (DROP_LANGUAGE(7)), or	better yet the droplang(1)
       program,	to drop	procedural languages.

       The system catalog pg_language (see Section 50.29, "pg_language", in
       the documentation) records information about the	currently installed
       languages. Also,	createlang has an option to list the installed

       To create functions in a	procedural language, a user must have the
       USAGE privilege for the language. By default, USAGE is granted to
       PUBLIC (i.e., everyone) for trusted languages. This can be revoked if

       Procedural languages are	local to individual databases. However,	a
       language	can be installed into the template1 database, which will cause
       it to be	available automatically	in all subsequently-created databases.

       The call	handler	function, the inline handler function (if any),	and
       the validator function (if any) must already exist if the server	does
       not have	an entry for the language in pg_pltemplate. But	when there is
       an entry, the functions need not	already	exist; they will be
       automatically defined if	not present in the database. (This might
       result in CREATE	LANGUAGE failing, if the shared	library	that
       implements the language is not available	in the installation.)

       In PostgreSQL versions before 7.3, it was necessary to declare handler
       functions as returning the placeholder type opaque, rather than
       language_handler. To support loading of old dump	files, CREATE LANGUAGE
       will accept a function declared as returning opaque, but	it will	issue
       a notice	and change the function's declared return type to

       The preferred way of creating any of the	standard procedural languages
       is just:


       For a language not known	in the pg_pltemplate catalog, a	sequence such
       as this is needed:

	   CREATE FUNCTION plsample_call_handler() RETURNS language_handler
	       AS '$libdir/plsample'
	       LANGUAGE	C;
	   CREATE LANGUAGE plsample
	       HANDLER plsample_call_handler;

       CREATE LANGUAGE is a PostgreSQL extension.

       REVOKE(7), createlang(1), droplang(1)

PostgreSQL 9.6.19		     2020		    CREATE LANGUAGE(7)


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