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Bigtop::Docs::CookbookUser Contributed Perl DocumentaBigtop::Docs::Cookbook(3)

       Bigtop::Docs::Cookbook -	Bigtop syntax by example

       This document is	meant to be like the Perl Cookbook with	short wishes
       you might long for, together with syntax	to type	in your	bigtop file
       and what	that produces.	In addition, many sections start with a	simple
       question	about what gets	built by the backend in	question.

       This document assumes you will be editing your bigtop file with a text
       editor (it was written before tentmaker).  You may also choose to
       maintain	your bigtop file with tentmaker.  Generally, the advice	here
       governs what values you put in the boxes	at the far right side of the
       Backends	tab in tentmaker.  Some	of the other advice must be applied on
       the App Body tab.  See Bigtop::Docs::TentTut to get started with
       tentmaker or Bigtop::Docs::TentRef for full details on using it.

       For full	syntax consult Bigtop::Docs::AutoKeywords and/or
       Bigtop::Docs::Syntax along with	Bigtop::Docs::AutoBackends.  You could
       also run	tentmaker which	displays the same things as the	Auto Docs, but
       in an organized way in a	browser.

       The questions are in sections.  Here is a complete list of sections and

       o   Quick Starts	for the	Lazy

	   o   "I'm lazy, what's the quickest way to get started?"

	   o   "How can	I just as easily add to	an existing bigtop file?"

       o   Init

	   o   "What does Init::Std build?"

	   o   "How can	I regenerate some of those files but not others?"

	   o   "I don't	like the bigtop	defaults how can I change them before

       o   Stand Alone Server

	   o   "How do I make a	stand alone server for my app?"

	   o   "How do I change	databases with the generated stand alone

       o   SQL

	   o   "What do	SQL backends make?"

	   o   "How do I make a	table?"

	   o   "How do I make a	primary	key column?"

	   o   "What all can I put in a	table block?"

	   o   "How can	I include data for initial population into a table?"

	   o   "How do I put extra things into schema.*?"

	   o   "How do I make a	sequence"


	   o   "What do	CGI backends make?"

	   o   "How do I specify configuration values?"

	   o   "How do I specify Gantry::Conf configuration values?"

	   o   "How do I control CGI locations?"

       o   httpd.conf

	   o   "What do	HttpdConf backends make?"

	   o   "How do I specify PerlSetVar values for mod_perl?"

	   o   "How do I use Gantry::Conf for mod_perl?"

	   o   "How do I put extra statements into my Apache Perl block?"

	   o   "How do I put extra directives into httpd.conf?"

       o   Gantry conrollers

	   o   "What does the Gantry Control backend make?"

	   o   "How do I associate a controller	with a table?"

	   o   "How do I get a stub method in my controller?"

	   o   "How do I use Gantry's AutoCRUD?"

	   o   "How do I use Gantry's CRUD?"

       o   Using Gantry's ORM Help

	   o   "What does the GantryDBIxClass Model backend make?"

	   o   "What does the GantryCDBI Model backend make?"

	   o   "How do I specify a primary key for my model?"

	   o   "How can	I make my model	inherit	from a class of	my choice?"

	   o   "How can	I alter	the generated models behavior?"

       o   Gantry's home made models

	   o   "What does the Gantry Model backend make?"

	   o   "How do I specify a primary key for my model?"

	   o   "How can	I make my model	inherit	from a class of	my choice?"

	   o   "How can	I alter	the generated models behavior?"

       o   Other

	   o   "How can	I change what a	backend	generates?"

	   o   "What if	the backend isn't giving enough	data to	the template?"

Quick Starts for the Lazy
   I'm lazy, what's the	quickest way to	get started?
       The two main paths to laziness are tentmaker (see
       Bigtop::Docs::TentTut) and the bigtop script itself -- with the proper
       command line parameters.

       Suppose you have	a little data model:

	   +--------+	   +--------+	   +-------------+
	   | child  |----->| family |<-----| anniversary |
	   +--------+	   +--------+	   +-------------+

       You could start your app	like this:

	   bigtop --new	Contacts \

       The string in single quotes is a	'kickstart' description	of the data
       model.  Column names go in parentheses.	Types default to strings, if
       you need	something else use a colon as for "birth_day" in the child
       table.  Indicate	optional fields	with a leading plus sign.  Specify
       literal defaults	with an	equal sign as for anniversary

       In addition to the columns listed, each table will have an integer
       primary key called id and two dates fields: created and modified.  You
       may remove those	after initial generation is you	like, but eliminating
       the integer id makes using an Object Relational Mapper (ORM) harder.

       For slightly different discussion and instructions for on building an
       app directly from an existing PostgreSQL	8 database, see

   How can I just as easily add	to an existing bigtop file?
       Suppose that you	want to	add some tables	to the app from	the previous
       question, here's	all you	need to	do (from the Contacts directory):

	   bigtop --add	docs/contacts.bigtop 'family<->job(title,description)'

       So, you can use a 'kickstart' even if you have already started.	Then
       it will kick start the addition of tables.

       This will add a new table for jobs and a	many-to-many relationship
       between it and the existing family table.  It will also rebuild the
       app.  Specify columns for new table as in the previous question.
       Existing	tables will get	new foreign keys, but can't be changed in any
       other way from the command line.	 Note that you will need to alter your
       database	before restarting the application.  Use	the new	table(s) and
       foreign key(s) in docs/schema.YOUR_DB_NAME to make the additions.

   I don't like	the bigtop defaults how	can I change them before building?
       This question could talk	about two things.  If you are using bigtop
       with the	--new (-n) or --add (-a) flags,	you might want to provide
       table names and their relationships while listing table columns and
       their SQL types.	 To control these defaults use the kickstart syntax
       described in Bigtop::ScriptHelp::Style::Kickstart.

       To control defaults like	author names or	copyright statements, keep
       reading here.

       In normal use, I	invoke the bigtop script to build new applications
       with the	-n flag:

	   bigtop -n NewApp file.kickstart

       Again, see Bigtop::ScriptHelp::Style::Kickstart for what	to put in the
       kickstart file.

       When bigtop builds an application like this, it uses a default bigtop
       stub so that the	result will run	once the SQLite	database is in place.
       You may replace the default stub	with one of your own.  Simply put a
       file called ".bigtopdef"	in your	home directory.	 Your .bigtopdef file
       must be a valid bigtop file, but	you may	put any	valid bigtop commands
       in it.  This allows you to control defaults like	authors	and copyright
       statements.  You	can use	it to specify "mod_perl	2" as the default
       engine.	You could even include a default table in every	app.

       Bigtop will use .bigtopdef if it	is present in your home	directory.
       Then, it	will augent it based on	the command line request given to -n
       flags.  The same	.bigtopdef is used when	you start tentmaker with the
       -n flag.

   What	does Init::Std build?
       If your config includes:

	   config {
	       Init Std	{}

       bigtop will generate the	following regular files:


       It also makes the following directories:


       It will try to put the bigtop file into the docs	directory (but it
       won't overwrite it, if its already there).  Note	that Init doesn't put
       things into the lib or t	directories.

       Everything Init::Std builds is a	stub (and will never be	overwritten),
       except the MANIFEST.

   How can I regenerate	some of	those files but	not others?
       Once upon a time, Init Std was kind of stupid.  It would	rewrite	all of
       its files everytime, unless you asked it	not to.	 Now, it thinks	of all
       of its files, except the	MANIFEST, as stubs.  That means, it will no
       longer write README, Changes, Build.PL, or MANIFEST.SKIP, unless	they
       are missing from	the disk.

       Because of history, there are now two ways to turn off MANIFEST
       updating.  As with all backends,	you can	prevent	all regeneration:

	   Init	Std { no_gen 1;	}

       But you may also	be explicit:

	   Init	Std { MANIFEST no_gen; }

       When the	MANIFEST is regenerated, Init Std uses the same	method as both
       MakeMaker and Module::Build.  So, you could do it yourself with:

	   ./Build manifest

       That is independent of whether bigtop updates MANIFEST.

Stand Alone Server
       There is	no special backend for making stand alone servers, but there
       is a way	to generate them for Gantry:

   How do I make a stand alone server for my app?
       To get a	stand alone server, do just what you would for a CGI app, but
       add the with_server statement to	the CGI	backend	block in the config

	   config {
	       engine	 CGI;
	       Init	 Std	{}
	       CGI	 Gantry	{ with_server 1; }
	   app Name {
	       config {
		   variable_1 value;
		   variable_2 `multi-word value`;
		   overriden  global;
	       controller SubPage {
		   rel_location	subpage;

       This yields a CGI script	as normal and app.server which can be executed
       directly	(it requires HTTP::Server::Simple).  Here is a simplified
       version of what you get:

	   use strict;

	   use CGI::Carp qw( fatalsToBrowser );

	   use Name qw{	-Engine=CGI -TemplateEngine= };

	   use Gantry::Server;

	   use Gantry::Engine::CGI;

	   my $cgi = Gantry::Engine::CGI->new( {
	       config => {
		   variable_1 => 'value',
		   variable_2 => 'multi-word value',
		   overriden =>	'global',
	       locations => {
		   '/' => 'Name',
		   '/subpage' => 'Name::SubPage',
	   } );

	   my $port = shift || 8080;

	   my $server =	Gantry::Server->new( $port );
	   $server->set_engine_object( $cgi );

       The actual version includes option handling to allow command line
       control of which	DBD, database user, and	database password.

       This server binds to port 8080 by default.  To change the port, add the
       server_port statement:

	       CGI	 Gantry	{ with_server 1;
				  server_port 9999; }

       This will change	the script in only one place:

	   my $port = shift || 9999;

       As you can see, users can supply	a port on the command line when	they
       start it.

   How do I change databases with the generated	stand alone server?
       While you could edit your stand alone server, that removes the fun of
       letting bigtop keep it up to date.  Here's how to switch	databases.
       There are really	two approaches:	(1) specify the	database connection
       info with command line flags or (2) put the database connection info
       into a named config block and choose that with command line flags.

       The first approach is for those with more impatience than laziness.
       But, remember that laziness is the chief	virtue.	 If you	have a
       database	built, you can specify it (even	if Bigtop wouldn't support SQL
       generation for it):

	   ./app.server	-d DBDName -n dbname -u	username -p password

       To make that specific, suppose I	have a PostgreSQL database called
       'littledb' which	a user called 'bobby' is allowed to access with
       password	'valentine':

	   ./app.server	-d Pg -n littledb -u bobby -p valentine

       Yes, that is a lot of typing.  Usually, you do it once and use up arrow
       to find the command again every time you	need a restart.	 Still,	the
       other way is cheaper on the keystrokes.	It just	requires a bit of up
       front work.

       In Bigtop files,	you may	have as	many config blocks as you like.	 Among
       other things, these include database connection information.  To
       specify the last	example	database add a config block like this:

	   config littledb {
	       dbconn dbi:Pg:dbname=littledb
	       dbuser bobby
	       dbpass valentine

       Note that the name of the config	block is arbitrary, except that	'base'
       is reserved as the internal name	for the	(normally) unnamed block.
       With that config	block in place,	you may	regen:

	   bigtop docs/yourapp.bigtop all

       and then	start the app server, asking it	to use the new config block:

	   ./app.server	-t littledb

       The main	idea behind the	named config blocks is to allow	this sort of
       quick shift.  It	also works well	for dev	vs. qual vs. prod.

   What	do SQL backends	make?
       SQL backends make docs/schema.* (where *	is for your database engine,
       like postgres) in the build directory.  It should be ready for direct
       use to create your database.

       Note that unlike	other backend types, you can build with	all of the SQL
       backends	concurrently.  They write different files.  They also do a bit
       of interpretation to handle differences in their	SQL syntax.

   How do I make a table?
       Tables are made with blocks:

	   table name {

       Inside the braces you need may specify the table's sequence and its

	   table name {
	       sequence	name_seq;
	       field id	  { is int4, primary_key, auto;	}
	       field name { is varchar;	}

   How do I make a primary key column?
       Include "primary_key" as	one of the attributes of the is	statement for
       the field (see above or below).	This will add "PRIMARY KEY" in the
       schema.*, but will also show Model backends that	the field is primary.

   What	all can	I put in a table block?
       Here is a table with several types of fields:

	   table invoices {
	       sequence	       invoices_seq;
	       foreign_display `%number`;

	       field id	{ is int4, primary_key,	assign_by_sequence; }
	       field number {
		   is int4;
		   label		`Number	(example: COM-12)`;
		   html_form_type	text;
		   html_form_constraint	`qr{^\w\w\w-\d+$}`;
	       field status_id {
		   is		      int4;
		   label	      Status;
		   refers_to	      status;
		   html_form_type     select;
	       field paid {
		   is		      date;
		   label	      `Paid On`;
		   date_select_text   `Popup Calendar`;
		   html_form_type     text;
		   html_form_optional 1;
	       field customer_id {
		   is		      int4;
		   label	      Customer;
		   refers_to	      customers;
		   html_form_type     select;
	       field has_good_default {
		   is			    varchar;
		   label		    `Replace as	Desired`;
		   html_form_type	    text;
		   html_form_default_value `avalue`;
	       field notes {
		   is		      text;
		   label	      `Notes to	Customer`;
		   html_form_type     textarea;
		   html_form_optional 1;
		   html_form_rows     4;
		   html_form_cols     50;

       Note that int4 will be converted	into a reasonable integer type for
       your database, even if it doesn't use that as a keyword.

       The foreign_display statement controls how rows from this table appear
       when other tables refer to them.	 This is available through the model's
       foreign_display method:

	   my $show_to_user = $invoice_row_object->foreign_display();

       Each field that might appear on the screen should have a	label which
       the user	will see above or next to the values.  It becomes the column
       label when the field appears in a table.	 It appears next to the	entry
       field when the user is entering or updating it.

       Including the refers_to statement implies that the field	is a foreign
       key.  Whether this generates SQL	indicating that	is up to the backend.
       None of the current backends (Bigtop::SQL::Postgres,
       Bigtop::SQL::MySQL, or Bigtop::SQL::SQLite) generate foreign key	SQL.
       But, using refers_to always affects the model.  For instance,
       Bigtop::Model::DBIxClass	generates a belongs_to call for	each field
       with a refers_to	statement.  Other Model	backends do the	analogous

       The date_select_text is shown by	Gantry templates as the	text for a
       popup calendar link.  See the discussion	of the LineItem	controller in
       Bigtop::Docs::Tutorial for details.  You	might also want	to check 'How
       can I let my users pick dates easily?' in Gantry::Docs::FAQ to see what
       bigtop generates.

       All of the statements which begin with html_form_ are passed through to
       the template (with html_form_ stripped).	 Consult your template for
       details.	 The Gantry template is  Note that
       html_form_constraint is actually	used by	Gantry plugins which rely on
       Gantry::Utils::CRUDHelp.	 This includes at least
       Gantry::Plugins::AutoCRUD and Gantry::Plugins::CRUD.  These constraints
       are enforced by Data::FormValidator.

       Use html_form_default_value if you want a default when the user and the
       database	row haven't provided one.

   How can I include initial data in a table?
       Sometimes it's useful to	put some data into the database	during
       creation.  Two types that spring	to mind	are test data and standard
       constants.  To include such data	add data statements to the table

	   table status_code {
	       data name => `Begun`,  descr => `work in	progress`;
	       data name => `Billed`, descr => `invoice	sent to	customer`;
	       data name => `Paid`,   descr => `payment	received`;

       Notes: (1) you should not set the id if your table has a	sequence or is
       auto-incrementing the primary key (and it should	one do or the other).
       (2) remember to surround	the values with	backquotes if they have	any
       characters Perl wouldn't	like in	a variable name	(it's always safe to
       have backquotes around values, even if they aren't strictly needed,
       think of	them like the comma after the last item	in a Perl list). (3)
       you can use as many data	statments as you like, each one	makes an SQL

	   INSERT INTO status_code ( name, descr )
	       VALUES (	'begun', 'work in progress' );

       Note that tentmaker cannot insert, update, or delete data statements.
       But, if you have	them in	your file, it will not harm them.  To get
       around this tentmaker limitation, you need to create literal SQL	blocks
       with INSERT statements in them.	See the	next question, for a
       discussion of literal SQL blocks.

   How do I put	extra things into schema.*?
       At any point in the app section,	you may	include	a literal SQL

	   literl SQL `CREATE INDEX name_ind ON	some_table ( some_field	);`;

       There are a couple of things to notice here.  First, enclose all	of
       your literal content in backquotes.  It will only be modified in	one
       way.  If	it doesn't end in whitespace, one new line will	be added to
       it.  Otherwise, you are on your own.

       Second, there are two semi-colons here.	The one	inside the backquotes
       is for SQL, the one outside is for Bigtop.  The later semi-colon	is
       always required.	 It's up to you	to make	sure the syntax	of your
       literal SQL code	is correct (including determining whether it needs a

       If you want a trailing empty line, do this:

	   literl SQL `CREATE INDEX name_ind ON	some_table ( some_field	);


       All trailing whitespace is taken	literally.  If you include any,	no
       extra new line will be added.

       The order of SQL	generation is the same as the order in your Bigtop
       file.  For example, since the index creation above must come after
       some_table is defined, put the literal statement	after some_table's

       You may use literal SQL statements as a way to work around tentmaker's
       inability to handle table level data statements.	 Simply	put your
       INSERT statements into a	literal	SQL statement after the	table's	block.

   How do I make a sequence?
       Use a sequence block:

	   sequence name_seq {}

       This will generate:

	   CREATE SEQUENCE name_seq;

       in schema.*.  Note that blocks for sequences must currently be empty.
       Eventually they should support min and max values, etc.

       Most databases don't use	sequences.  Of the databases supported by
       bigtop, only Postgres has them.	Even for Postgres, we don't typically
       use them	any more.

   What	do CGI backends	make?
       CGI backends make a single CGI based dispatching	script called app.cgi
       directly	in the build directory.	 You will have to copy it to your cgi-
       bin directory and make sure the copy there is executable.  If you use
       the with_server statement in the	CGI backend block, they	will also make
       app.server.  You	may run	it as a	stand alone web	server,	which is
       especially useful during	testing.

   How do I specify configuration values?
       This question does not represent	best practice any more.	 See the next
       question	which explains you to use Gantry::Conf.

       Specify CGI configuration values	with config blocks as you would	for
       mod_perl	apps:

	   app SomeApp {
	       config {
		   dbconn `dbi:Pg:dbname=appdb`	=> no_accessor;
		   dbuser `someone`		=> no_accessor;
		   dbpass `not_tellin`		=> no_accessor;
		   page_size 15;

       These become config hash	members:

	   my $cgi = Gantry::Engine::CGI->new(
	       config => {
		   dbconn => 'dbi:Pg:dbname=appdb',
		   dbuser => 'someone',
		   dbpass => 'not_tellin',
		   page_size =>	15,

       Note: if	you don't use Gantry::Conf, all	config parameters for your CGI
       script must be at the app level and they	will only appear in the	config
       hash of the Gantry::Engine::CGI object.

   How do I specify Gantry::Conf configuration values?
       To use Gantry::Conf with	CGI scripts, do	two things.  First, use	the
       Conf Gantry backend, telling it the instance name of your app.  Second,
       set gantry_conf in the CGI backend block:

	   config {
	       Conf Gantry { instacne `your_name`; }
	       CGI  Gantry { gantry_conf 1; }

       The instance will be the	name of	the app's instance in your
       /etc/gantry.conf.  If your master conf lives in a different file, use a
       block like this instead:

	   config {
	       Conf Gantry {
		   instance `your_name`;
		   conffile `/etc/my_hidden_conf/master.conf`;
		   gen_root 1;
	       CGI  Gantry {
		   gantry_conf 1;

       If you use a SiteLook backend, you probably want	to set "gen_root" in
       the Conf	Gantry backend,	so it will manufacture a path to your wrapper
       and other templates.

       Many times config info varies depending on environment.	For instance,
       in production you may need to connect to	a different database.  Named
       config blocks help with that.  Example:

	   config {
	       # all common config here
	       rows_per_page 25;
	   config dev {
	       dbconn `dbi:SQLite:dbname=app.db`;
	   config prod {
	       dbconn `dbi:Pg:dbname=proddb;`;
	       dbuser someuser;
	       dbpass `$ecr3t`;

       With the	Conf Gantry backend, this will lead to a single	config file
       with three instances.  Each will	begin with the instance	prefix from
       the Conf	Gantry backend config block ('your_name' in the	example
       above).	The unnamed block will have that instance name.	 The others
       will have it as a prefix	with their config block	name (a.k.a. their
       config type) as a suffix.  So the instance names	will be	'your_name',
       'your_name_dev',	and 'your_name_prod'.

       How you access these depends on how you deploy the app.	In the stand
       alone server (as	we saw in a previous question),	you can	use the	-t

	   ./app.server	-t dev

       In CGI, the script uses the config block	named CGI or cgi without
       additional help,	though you might want to edit the generated CGI	script
       to alter	where it looks for the master conf file.  For mod_perl,	see

   How do I control CGI	locations?
       The locations your CGI script can manage	will come from your
       controllers.  Each controller should have either	a location or a
       rel_location directive.	locations are used as is, rel_locations	have
       the location for	the app	prepended.  Note that the app location is
       optional	and defaults to	'/'.  Do not start or end locations or
       rel_locations with / (except that the app level location	can be '/').

	   app MyAppName {
	       location	`/mysubsite`;
	       #... table definitions here
	       controller SomeTable {
		   rel_location	`sometable`;
	       controller Odd {
		   location `/pretends/to_be/part_of/other/app/odd`;

       For the Gantry CGI backend, this	leads to the following excerpt in

	   my $cgi = Gantry::Endgin::CGI->new(
	       locations => {
		   '/mysubsite'	=> 'MyAppName',
		   '/mysubsite/sometable' => 'MyAppName::SomeTable',
		   '/pretends/to_be/part_of/other/app/odd' => 'MyAppName::Odd',

   What	do HttpdConf backends make?
       HttpdConf backends make docs/httpd.conf suitable	for use	in a mod_perl
       apache conf file	or as the value	of an Include statement	there.

   How do I specify PerlSetVar values for mod_perl?
       The answer to this question no longer represents	best practices.	 See
       the next	question for how to use	Gantry::Conf instead.

       Use config blocks to specify PerlSetVars:

	   config {
	       engine MP13;
	       # You could use MP20 instead of MP13.
	       Init	 Std	{}
	       HttpdConf Gantry	{}
	   app Name {
	       config {
		   variable_1 value;
		   variable_2 `multi-word value`;
		   overriden  global;
	       controller SubPage {
		   rel_location	subpage;
		   config {
		       overriden subpage;

       Note that the SubPage controller	includes its own value for the
       overriden variable.  This results in a PerlSetVar statement in the
       location	block for this controller.  The	app level config block results
       in three	PerlSetVars appearing in the root location block.  Output in


	       use Name;
	       use Name::SubPage;

	   <Location />
	       PerlSetVar variable_1 value
	       PerlSetVar variable_2 multi-word	value
	       PerlSetVar overriden global

	   <Location /subpage>
	       SetHandler  perl-script
	       PerlHandler Name::SubPage
	       PerlSetVar overriden subpage


       The Control backend will	include	these in site object initialization
       (in the init method) and	make accessors for them.  Marking them
       no_accessor prevents both of those things (see Controllers below).

   How do I use	Gantry::Conf for mod_perl?
       Gantry::Conf allows for all sorts of applications to be configured in
       all sorts of ways in one	place.	It allows multiple apps	to share
       configuration information, even if they run on different	servers.  It
       allows multiple instances of the	same app to use	different
       configuration information, even if they run in the same apache server.
       See the docs on Gantry::Conf for	details	on its use.

	   config {
	       engine MP13;
	       Init	 Std	 {}
	       Conf	 Gantry	 { instance `your_instance`; }
	       HttpdConf Gantry	 { skip_config 1; gantry_conf 1; }
	   app Name {
	       config {
		   variable_1 value;
		   variable_2 `multi-word value`;
		   overriden  global;
	       controller SubPage {
		   rel_location	subpage;
		   config {
		       overriden subpage;

       The process is very similar for Gantry::Conf as for PerlSetVars.	 There
       are a couple of key differences.	 First,	you should add the Conf	Gantry
       backend.	 Second, you should mark the HttpdConf Gantry backend with
       gantry_conf, so it won't	write PerlSetVars.  Finally, you should
       include the instance statement in the Conf Gantry backend, whose	value
       is the name of your instance in /etc/gantry.conf.  If your master
       config file lives somewhere else, also include conffile in the Conf
       Gantry backend block:

	   config {
	       Conf	 Gantry	 {
		   instance `your_instance`;
		   conffile `/etc/exotic/location/master.conf`;
	       HttpdConf Gantry	 {
		   gantry_conf 1;

       This yields two output files: a shorter httpd.conf and a	new Name.conf.
       Here's docs/httpd.conf:


	       use Name;
	       use Name::SubPage;

	   <Location />
	       PerlSetVar GantryConfInstance your_instance

	   <Location /subpage>
	       SetHandler  perl-script
	       PerlHandler Name::SubPage

       Here's docs/Name.gantry.conf:

	   <instance your_instance>
	       variable_1 value
	       variable_2 multi-word value
	       overriden global

	       <GantryLocation /subpage>
		   overriden subpage

       You may need to have a variety of different config setups.  For
       instance, you might need	one for	dev and	a different one	for prod.  As
       explained in "How do I specify Gantry::Conf configuration values?", you
       can have	one config block for each deployment.  One of them is unnamed
       (but is called 'base' internally).  The others have names you choose.
       Each becomes and	instance.  The unnamed one has the instance you	chose
       in the Conf Gantry backend block.  The others have that as a prefix and
       the config block	name as	a suffix.

       You will	need to	edit the generated httpd.conf to switch	configs.  Just
       change the GantryConfInstance PerlSetVar	to match the name of the
       proper instance in the generated	docs/App-Name.conf.

   How do I put	extra statements into my Apache	Perl block?
       There are two ways to put extra things into the generated Perl block,
       depending on where things should	appear.	 If you	need something to come
       immediately after the #!/usr/bin/perl line (like	a use lib), do this:

	   literal PerlTop `	use lib	'/home/myuser/src/lib';`;

       As with all literals, you must enclose your content in backquotes and
       mind your own syntax inside those quotes.  You are responsible for
       whitespace management, except that one new line will be added at	the
       end, if your literal text does NOT have trailing	whitespace.  So	the
       above will get one new line added to it.

       PerlTop blocks always appear in the generated httpd.conf	in the order
       they appear in the Bigtop file and start	immediately after the shebang

       Note that PerlTop may not be soon enough, for statments like "use
       Apache::DBI", if	your httpd.conf	has an earlier Perl block.  In that
       case, you must work manually.

       If you don't care where the statements fall, you	can use	a literal
       PerlBlock statement:

	   literal PerlBlock `use SomeModule;`;

       These and your controller blocks	produce	output in the order they
       appear in the bigtop file.

   How do I put	extra directives into httpd.conf?
       You may include arbitrary things	outside	of the generated blocks	like

	   literal HttpdConf `Include /some/file.conf`;

       These appear intermixed with location blocks in the same	order as in
       the bigtop file.	 All of	these come after the <Perl> block.

       You may include additional directives in	the base location for the app
       with literal Location statements:

	   literal Location
	   `	AuthType Basic
	       AuthName	"Your Realm"
	       PerlAuthenHandler Gantry::Control::C::Authen
	       PerlAuthzHandler	 Gantry::Control::C::Authz
	       require valid-user`;

       These appear literally immediately below	any PerlSetVar statements.

       You may include directives in other location blocks by putting literal
       Location	statments inside your controller's block:

	   controller SecureSubLocation	{
	       # ...
	       literal Location	`    require group SecretAgent`;

Gantry conrollers
   What	does the Gantry	Control	backend	make?
       Gantry controllers usually make two pieces: a stub and a	GEN module
       (but the	GEN module will	not be made if there are no methods to put in
       it).  The GEN module is designed	to be regenerated as changes to	the
       app arise.  For this reason, you	should not edit	the GEN	module.
       Rather, put your	code in	the stub.

	   app Apps::Name {
	       controller SomeModule {

       This will make Apps/Name/ and Apps/Name/GEN/
       You shouldn't need to edit the GEN module.  If it is wrong, update your
       Bigtop file and regenerate.

   How do I associate a	controller with	a table?
       Use a controls_table statment to	associate your controller with a

	   controller SomeTableController {
	       controls_table sometable;

       This has	one basic effect: it includes a	use statement for the table's
       model module in your stub and GEN modules.  That	use statement will
       import the abbreviated model name.  In the example the table has	a name

	   package Apps::Name::Model::sometable;

       But, it exports $SOMETABLE as an	abbreviation for that package name.
       So, the generated statement (repeated in	the stub and GEN modules) is:

	   use Apps::Name::Model::sometable qw(	$SOMETABLE );

       In addition to the basic	effect of controls_table, it is	also used by
       methods of type AutoCRUD_form and CRUD_form to make sure	the requested
       fields are available in the controlled table and	to find	their labels,

       Note, that a controller will only control one table as generated.  If
       you need	to work	with other tables, you'll have to write	some code.

   How do I get	a stub method in my controller?
       If you need a method stubbed in without useful code, you	can say:

	   controller Name {
	       method empty is stub {
		   extra_args `$id`;

       This will make:

	   # $self->empty( $id )
	   sub empty {
	       my ( $self, $id ) = @_;

       (Note that extra_args is	optional.)

       You then	fill in	the operative bits.

       Note that adding	stub methods to	your Bigtop file once your stub	module
       exists will have	no effect, since regeneration never alters existing
       stubs.  To force	generation rename or delete the	stub module.

   How do I use	Gantry's AutoCRUD?
       Gantry's	AutoCRUD supplies do_add, do_edit, and do_delete for simple
       tables.	To use it say

	   controller Simple is	AutoCRUD {
	       method form is AutoCRUD_form {
		   form_name simple
		   fields    name, address;
		       legend => `$self->path_info =~ /edit/i ?	'Edit' : 'Add'`;

       This makes the following	stub:

	   package Apps::AppName::Simple;

	   use strict;

	   use base 'Apps::AppName';
	   use Apps::AppName::GEN::Simple qw(

	   use Gantry::Plugins::AutoCRUD qw(

	   # $self->form( $row )
	   # This method supplied by Apps::Checkbook::GEN::Trans

       Bigtop makes a note in the stub for each	method it is mixing in from
       the GEN module.

       Note that both the GEN module and Gantry::Plugins::AutoCRUD are mixins
       (they export methods).  If you don't want their standard	methods, don't
       include them in the import lists.  But, if you don't want the ones from
       Gantry::Plugins::AutoCRUD, you probably want real CRUD (see below).

   How do I use	Gantry's CRUD?
       Gantry's	AutoCRUD has quite a bit of flexibility	(e.g. it has pre and
       post callbacks for add, edit, and delete), but sometimes	it isn't
       enough.	Even when it is	enough,	some people prefer explicit schemes to
       implicit	ones.  CRUD is more explicit.  To use it do this:

	   controller NotSoSimple is CRUD {
	       text_description	`Not So	Simple Item`;
	       method my_crud_form is CRUD_form	{
		   form_name simple
		   fields    name, address;
		       legend => `$self->path_info =~ /edit/i ?	'Edit' : 'Add'`;

       There are only a	couple of differences from the AutoCRUD	version	above.
       The controller type is just CRUD; the form method is called
       my_crud_form and	has type CRUD_form.

       Note that it is important to use	a method name that ends	in _form, but
       don't use just _form.  The backend says:

	   my (	$crud_name = $method_name ) =~ s/_form$//;

       So using	_form as the name (which is required for AutoCRUD) will	make
       Bad Things happen for CRUD.

       The above produces a lot	of code.  I'll show it a piece at a time with
       running commentary interspersed.	 It makes a CRUD object:

	   my $my_crud = Gantry::Plugins::CRUD->new(
	       add_action      => \&my_crud_add,
	       edit_action     => \&my_crud_edit,
	       delete_action   => \&my_crud_delete,
	       form	       => \&my_crud_form,
	       redirect	       => \&my_crud_redirect,
	       text_descr      => 'Not So Simple Item',

       It makes	do_add,	do_edit, and do_delete.	 For example:

	   # $self->do_add( )
	   sub do_add {
	       my $self	= shift;

	       $my_crud->add( $self, { data => \@_ } );

       (do_edit	and do_delete are similar.)

       Finally,	it provides the	callbacks.  For	example:

	   # $self->my_crud_add( $id )
	   sub my_crud_add {
	       my ( $self, $params, $data ) = @_;

	       # make a	new row	in the $YOUR_TABLE table using data from $params
	       # remember to commit

       It also makes my_crud_edit, my_crud_delete, and my_crud_redirect.  Note
       that you	don't get actual code for updating your	database, just
       comments	telling	you what normal	people do.  Of course, abnormality is
       one of the main reasons for using CRUD instead of AutoCRUD, so take the
       comments	with a grain of	salt.

       Note that if you	have more than one method of type CRUD_form, the
       bigtop backend will make	multiple crud objects (each named for its
       form) and the callbacks for those objects.  But it will also make
       multiple	do_add,	do_edit, and do_delete methods.	 They will make	their
       calls through the proper	crud object, but their names will be
       duplicated.  In that case, you are on your own to change	them to
       reasonable (i.e.	non-clashing) names.

Using Gantry's ORM Help
   What	does the GantryDBIxClass Model backend make?
       The Model GantryDBIxClass backend makes a pair of modules for each
       table.  One is the stub module, the other is the	GEN module.  Once
       made, the stub is never regenerated, so put your	code in	it.  The GEN
       module will be regenerated when you run bigtop.

	   config {
	       Model GantryDBIxClass {}
	   app Apps::Name {
	       table some_table	{

       This makes Apps::Name::Model::some_table	(the stub) and
       Apps::Name::Model::GEN::some_table (the GEN module).  Note that the
       names are exactly the same as the table name.  If you want capital
       letters,	use them to name the table.

       Due to the way that DBIx::Class binds the methods it makes on the fly,
       the GEN module mixes in to the stub by using this to start its file:

	   package Apps::Name::Model::some_table;

       So, the disk file is named Apps/Name/Model/GEN/, but the
       package statement is the	same as	the one	in the stub.  This will	cause
       sub redefinition	warnings, if you put a sub in the stub with the	same
       name as one in the GEN module.  Models generated	by Model Gantry
       inherit from Gantry::Utils::Model, which	allows inheritence instead of
       mixing in.  These are the native	models.

       In addition to regular tables, the Model	GantryDBIxClass	backend
       understands the join_table block	(which became available	in version
       0.15).  Join tables are needed to support many-to-many relationships
       like this:

	   +-----+	     +-------+
	   | job |<-+	  +->| skill |
	   +-----+  |	  |  +-------+
		    |	  |
		 | job_skill |

       To express this,	add:

	   join_table job_skill	{
	       joins job => skill;

       This will have serveral effects.	 First,	all SQL	backends will make the
       job_skill table with three fiels: id and	columns	to hold	ids for	the
       job and skill tables.  Second, the Model	GantryDBIxClass	backend	will
       make has_many relationships in both the job and skill model modules and
       put belongs_to relationships for	the job	and skill tables into the
       model module for	the job_skill table.

   What	does the GantryCDBI Model backend make?
       The Model GantryCDBI backend makes modules exactly analogous to the
       Model GantryDBIxClass backend, but for use with Class::DBI.  All	of the
       same caveats apply.

       We now prefer DBIx::Class over Class::DBI, since	the later has
       difficultly sharing database handles with our older apps, which don't
       use ORMs.

   How do I specify a primary key for my model?
       Each table should have a	single column primary key:

	   table name {
	       sequence	name_seq;
	       field id	{ is int4, primary_key,	auto; }

       This will put PRIMARY KEY in the	sql for	the column and tell the	Model
       backend to make the column primary.  This generates:

	   Apps::Name::Model::name->set_primary_key( 'id' );

       or the appropriate analog for your ORM.

   How can I make my model inherit from	a class	of my choice?
       Normally	Model modules inherit from a Gantry::Utils:: module
       appropriate for their ORM.  You can change that with the
       model_base_class	statement:

	   table name {
	       model_base_class	Gantry::Utils::AuthCDBI;

       The generated output will be the	same, except for the base class.  The
       model_base_class	need not be in the Gantry::Utils:: namespace.

       If most or all your tables need to inherit from a single	base class,
       put it in the backend block:

	   config {
	       Model GantryDBIxClass { model_base_class	Exotic::Base; }

       Individual tables can still use the model_base_class statement to
       override	this replacement global	default.

   How can I alter the generated model's behavior?
       To change the behavior of the generated model, put code in the stub or
       use model_base_class to change what it inherits from.

Gantry's home made models
   What	does the Gantry	Model backend make?
       The Gantry Model	backend	is simlar to the GantryDBIxClass Model
       backend.	 It makes two modules for each table.  For example:

	   table name {

       will yield App::Name::Model::name and App::Name::Model::GEN::name.
       Since these inherit from	Gantry::Utils::Model, they don't have problems
       with binding run	time generated methods to the proper package.  This
       leaves them free	to use inheritence instead of mixing in.  The stub
       inherits	from the GEN module which inherits from	Gantry::Utils::Model,
       so the GEN module begins:

	   package Apps::Name::Model::GEN::name;

	   use base 'Gantry::Utils::Model;

       while the stub begins:

	   package Apps::Name::Model::name;

	   use base 'Apps::Name::Model::GEN::name';

       (actually the stub is also an exporter so it can	provide	an abbreviated

       This means that you can safely override methods in the GEN module by
       simply writing a	sub of the same	name in	the stub.

       Summary of inheritence


   How do I specify a primary key for my model?
       As for the other	Model backends,	include	primary_key in the is
       statement for the primary column:

	   table name {
	       field id	{ is int4, primary_key,	auto; }

       This will make an implicit sequence for the id field.

       You could use a sequence	with the table:

	   table name {
	       sequence	name_seq;
	       field id	{ is int4, primary_key,	auto; }

       Then the	auto-increment values will be drawn from the explicit sequence

   How can I make my model inherit from	a class	of my choice?
       To change what the GEN model inherits from use the model_base_class

	   table name {
	       model_base_class	Gantry::Utils::Model::Auth;

       The base	class you specify should respond to the	same api as
       Gantry::Utils::Model (which is a	subset of Class::DBI).

       You can put this	in the backend block if	you want to make it the

	   config {
	       Model Gantry { model_base_class Exotic::Base; }

       Even if you do that, individual tables can still	requset	a special base
       class by	supplying the model_base_class statement.

   How can I alter the generated models	behavior?
       To alter	the generated behavior,	override the offending method in your

   How can I change what a backend generates?
       Most backends use TT to generate	their output.  Those that do default
       to Inline::TT.  That means there	is a hard coded	template inside	their
       module.	To change what these generate, copy the	template out of	the
       module.	Change whatever	you want, except the names of the blocks.
       Save the	result.	 Then add a template statement to the backend's	config
       block, with its value set to a path to your newly saved template.

   What	if the backend isn't giving enough data	to the template?
       If you code your	own template and it needs addtional information	from
       the backend, you'll have	to modify the backend or write your own.  It
       is not easy to inherit from backends.  Rather, you need to copy the
       backend and rename it.  Keep in mind that all backends are sharing the
       syntax tree package namespaces.	This means that	your methods need to
       be uniquely named to avoid redefining methods supplied by other

       See Bigtop::Docs::Modules for advice on writing your own	backends.

perl v5.32.0			  2020-08-29	     Bigtop::Docs::Cookbook(3)

Name | Intro | Quick Starts for the Lazy | Init | Stand Alone Server | SQL | CGI | httpd.conf | Gantry conrollers | Using Gantry's ORM Help | Gantry's home made models | Other

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