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B::Concise(3)	       Perl Programmers	Reference Guide		 B::Concise(3)

NAME
       B::Concise - Walk Perl syntax tree, printing concise info about ops

SYNOPSIS
	   perl	-MO=Concise[,OPTIONS] foo.pl

	   use B::Concise qw(set_style add_callback);

DESCRIPTION
       This compiler backend prints the	internal OPs of	a Perl program's
       syntax tree in one of several space-efficient text formats suitable for
       debugging the inner workings of perl or other compiler backends.	It can
       print OPs in the	order they appear in the OP tree, in the order they
       will execute, or	in a text approximation	to their tree structure, and
       the format of the information displayed is customizable.	Its function
       is similar to that of perl's -Dx	debugging flag or the B::Terse module,
       but it is more sophisticated and	flexible.

EXAMPLE
       Here's two outputs (or 'renderings'), using the -exec and -basic	(i.e.
       default)	formatting conventions on the same code	snippet.

	   % perl -MO=Concise,-exec -e '$a = $b	+ 42'
	   1  <0> enter
	   2  <;> nextstate(main 1 -e:1) v
	   3  <#> gvsv[*b] s
	   4  <$> const[IV 42] s
	*  5  <2> add[t3] sK/2
	   6  <#> gvsv[*a] s
	   7  <2> sassign vKS/2
	   8  <@> leave[1 ref] vKP/REFC

       In this -exec rendering,	each opcode is executed	in the order shown.
       The add opcode, marked with '*',	is discussed in	more detail.

       The 1st column is the op's sequence number, starting at 1, and is
       displayed in base 36 by default.	 Here they're purely linear; the
       sequences are very helpful when looking at code with loops and
       branches.

       The symbol between angle	brackets indicates the op's type, for example;
       <2> is a	BINOP, <@> a LISTOP, and <#> is	a PADOP, which is used in
       threaded	perls. (see "OP	class abbreviations").

       The opname, as in 'add[t1]', may	be followed by op-specific information
       in parentheses or brackets (ex '[t1]').

       The op-flags (ex	'sK/2')	are described in ("OP flags abbreviations").

	   % perl -MO=Concise -e '$a = $b + 42'
	   8  <@> leave[1 ref] vKP/REFC	->(end)
	   1	 <0> enter ->2
	   2	 <;> nextstate(main 1 -e:1) v ->3
	   7	 <2> sassign vKS/2 ->8
	*  5	    <2>	add[t1]	sK/2 ->6
	   -	       <1> ex-rv2sv sK/1 ->4
	   3		  <$> gvsv(*b) s ->4
	   4	       <$> const(IV 42)	s ->5
	   -	    <1>	ex-rv2sv sKRM*/1 ->7
	   6	       <$> gvsv(*a) s ->7

       The default rendering is	top-down, so they're not in execution order.
       This form reflects the way the stack is used to parse and evaluate
       expressions; the	add operates on	the two	terms below it in the tree.

       Nullops appear as "ex-opname", where opname is an op that has been
       optimized away by perl.	They're	displayed with a sequence-number of
       '-', because they are not executed (they	don't appear in	previous
       example), they're printed here because they reflect the parse.

       The arrow points	to the sequence	number of the next op; they're not
       displayed in -exec mode,	for obvious reasons.

       Note that because this rendering	was done on a non-threaded perl, the
       PADOPs in the previous examples are now SVOPs, and some (but not	all)
       of the square brackets have been	replaced by round ones.	 This is a
       subtle feature to provide some visual distinction between renderings on
       threaded	and un-threaded	perls.

OPTIONS
       Arguments that don't start with a hyphen	are taken to be	the names of
       subroutines or formats to render; if no such functions are specified,
       the main	body of	the program (outside any subroutines, and not
       including use'd or require'd files) is rendered.	 Passing "BEGIN",
       "UNITCHECK", "CHECK", "INIT", or	"END" will cause all of	the
       corresponding special blocks to be printed.  Arguments must follow
       options.

       Options affect how things are rendered (ie printed).  They're presented
       here by their visual effect, 1st	being strongest.  They're grouped
       according to how	they interrelate; within each group the	options	are
       mutually	exclusive (unless otherwise stated).

   Options for Opcode Ordering
       These options control the 'vertical display' of opcodes.	 The display
       'order' is also called 'mode' elsewhere in this document.

       -basic
	   Print OPs in	the order they appear in the OP	tree (a	preorder
	   traversal, starting at the root). The indentation of	each OP	shows
	   its level in	the tree, and the '->' at the end of the line
	   indicates the next opcode in	execution order.  This mode is the
	   default, so the flag	is included simply for completeness.

       -exec
	   Print OPs in	the order they would normally execute (for the
	   majority of constructs this is a postorder traversal	of the tree,
	   ending at the root).	In most	cases the OP that usually follows a
	   given OP will appear	directly below it; alternate paths are shown
	   by indentation. In cases like loops when control jumps out of a
	   linear path,	a 'goto' line is generated.

       -tree
	   Print OPs in	a text approximation of	a tree,	with the root of the
	   tree	at the left and	'left-to-right'	order of children transformed
	   into	'top-to-bottom'. Because this mode grows both to the right and
	   down, it isn't suitable for large programs (unless you have a very
	   wide	terminal).

   Options for Line-Style
       These options select the	line-style (or just style) used	to render each
       opcode, and dictates what info is actually printed into each line.

       -concise
	   Use the author's favorite set of formatting conventions. This is
	   the default,	of course.

       -terse
	   Use formatting conventions that emulate the output of B::Terse. The
	   basic mode is almost	indistinguishable from the real	B::Terse, and
	   the exec mode looks very similar, but is in a more logical order
	   and lacks curly brackets. B::Terse doesn't have a tree mode,	so the
	   tree	mode is	only vaguely reminiscent of B::Terse.

       -linenoise
	   Use formatting conventions in which the name	of each	OP, rather
	   than	being written out in full, is represented by a one- or two-
	   character abbreviation.  This is mainly a joke.

       -debug
	   Use formatting conventions reminiscent of B::Debug; these aren't
	   very	concise	at all.

       -env
	   Use formatting conventions read from	the environment	variables
	   "B_CONCISE_FORMAT", "B_CONCISE_GOTO_FORMAT",	and
	   "B_CONCISE_TREE_FORMAT".

   Options for tree-specific formatting
       -compact
	   Use a tree format in	which the minimum amount of space is used for
	   the lines connecting	nodes (one character in	most cases). This
	   squeezes out	a few precious columns of screen real estate.

       -loose
	   Use a tree format that uses longer edges to separate	OP nodes. This
	   format tends	to look	better than the	compact	one, especially	in
	   ASCII, and is the default.

       -vt Use tree connecting characters drawn	from the VT100 line-drawing
	   set.	 This looks better if your terminal supports it.

       -ascii
	   Draw	the tree with standard ASCII characters	like "+" and "|".
	   These don't look as clean as	the VT100 characters, but they'll work
	   with	almost any terminal (or	the horizontal scrolling mode of
	   less(1)) and	are suitable for text documentation or email. This is
	   the default.

       These are pairwise exclusive, i.e. compact or loose, vt or ascii.

   Options controlling sequence	numbering
       -basen
	   Print OP sequence numbers in	base n.	If n is	greater	than 10, the
	   digit for 11	will be	'a', and so on.	If n is	greater	than 36, the
	   digit for 37	will be	'A', and so on until 62. Values	greater	than
	   62 are not currently	supported. The default is 36.

       -bigendian
	   Print sequence numbers with the most	significant digit first. This
	   is the usual	convention for Arabic numerals,	and the	default.

       -littleendian
	   Print sequence numbers with the least significant digit first.
	   This	is obviously mutually exclusive	with bigendian.

   Other options
       -src
	   With	this option, the rendering of each statement (starting with
	   the nextstate OP) will be preceded by the 1st line of source	code
	   that	generates it.  For example:

	       1  <0> enter
	       # 1: my $i;
	       2  <;> nextstate(main 1 junk.pl:1) v:{
	       3  <0> padsv[$i:1,10] vM/LVINTRO
	       # 3: for	$i (0..9) {
	       4  <;> nextstate(main 3 junk.pl:3) v:{
	       5  <0> pushmark s
	       6  <$> const[IV 0] s
	       7  <$> const[IV 9] s
	       8  <{> enteriter(next->j	last->m	redo->9)[$i:1,10] lKS
	       k  <0> iter s
	       l  <|> and(other->9) vK/1
	       # 4:	print "line ";
	       9      <;> nextstate(main 2 junk.pl:4) v
	       a      <0> pushmark s
	       b      <$> const[PV "line "] s
	       c      <@> print	vK
	       # 5:	print "$i\n";
	       ...

       -stash="somepackage"
	   With	this, "somepackage" will be required, then the stash is
	   inspected, and each function	is rendered.

       The following options are pairwise exclusive.

       -main
	   Include the main program in the output, even	if subroutines were
	   also	specified.  This rendering is normally suppressed when a
	   subroutine name or reference	is given.

       -nomain
	   This	restores the default behavior after you've changed it with
	   '-main' (it's not normally needed).	If no subroutine name/ref is
	   given, main is rendered, regardless of this flag.

       -nobanner
	   Renderings usually include a	banner line identifying	the function
	   name	or stringified subref.	This suppresses	the printing of	the
	   banner.

	   TBC:	Remove the stringified coderef;	while it provides a 'cookie'
	   for each function rendered, the cookies used	should be 1,2,3.. not
	   a random hex-address.  It also complicates string comparison	of two
	   different trees.

       -banner
	   restores default banner behavior.

       -banneris => subref
	   TBC:	a hookpoint (and an option to set it) for a user-supplied
	   function to produce a banner	appropriate for	users needs.  It's not
	   ideal, because the rendering-state variables, which are a natural
	   candidate for use in	concise.t, are unavailable to the user.

   Option Stickiness
       If you invoke Concise more than once in a program, you should know that
       the options are 'sticky'.  This means that the options you provide in
       the first call will be remembered for the 2nd call, unless you re-
       specify or change them.

ABBREVIATIONS
       The concise style uses symbols to convey	maximum	info with minimal
       clutter (like hex addresses).  With just	a little practice, you can
       start to	see the	flowers, not just the branches,	in the trees.

   OP class abbreviations
       These symbols appear before the op-name,	and indicate the B:: namespace
       that represents the ops in your Perl code.

	   0	  OP (aka BASEOP)  An OP with no children
	   1	  UNOP		   An OP with one child
	   +	  UNOP_AUX	   A UNOP with auxillary fields
	   2	  BINOP		   An OP with two children
	   |	  LOGOP		   A control branch OP
	   @	  LISTOP	   An OP that could have lots of children
	   /	  PMOP		   An OP with a	regular	expression
	   $	  SVOP		   An OP with an SV
	   "	  PVOP		   An OP with a	string
	   {	  LOOP		   An OP that holds pointers for a loop
	   ;	  COP		   An OP that marks the	start of a statement
	   #	  PADOP		   An OP with a	GV on the pad
	   .	  METHOP	   An OP with method call info

   OP flags abbreviations
       OP flags	are either public or private.  The public flags	alter the
       behavior	of each	opcode in consistent ways, and are represented by 0 or
       more single characters.

	   v	  OPf_WANT_VOID	   Want	nothing	(void context)
	   s	  OPf_WANT_SCALAR  Want	single value (scalar context)
	   l	  OPf_WANT_LIST	   Want	list of	any length (list context)
				   Want	is unknown
	   K	  OPf_KIDS	   There is a firstborn	child.
	   P	  OPf_PARENS	   This	operator was parenthesized.
				    (Or	block needs explicit scope entry.)
	   R	  OPf_REF	   Certified reference.
				    (Return container, not containee).
	   M	  OPf_MOD	   Will	modify (lvalue).
	   S	  OPf_STACKED	   Some	arg is arriving	on the stack.
	   *	  OPf_SPECIAL	   Do something	weird for this op (see op.h)

       Private flags, if any are set for an opcode, are	displayed after	a '/'

	   8  <@> leave[1 ref] vKP/REFC	->(end)
	   7	 <2> sassign vKS/2 ->8

       They're opcode specific,	and occur less often than the public ones, so
       they're represented by short mnemonics instead of single-chars; see
       B::Op_private and regen/op_private for more details.

FORMATTING SPECIFICATIONS
       For each	line-style ('concise', 'terse',	'linenoise', etc.) there are 3
       format-specs which control how OPs are rendered.

       The first is the	'default' format, which	is used	in both	basic and exec
       modes to	print all opcodes.  The	2nd, goto-format, is used in exec mode
       when branches are encountered.  They're not real	opcodes, and are
       inserted	to look	like a closing curly brace.  The tree-format is	tree
       specific.

       When a line is rendered,	the correct format-spec	is copied and scanned
       for the following items;	data is	substituted in,	and other
       manipulations like basic	indenting are done, for	each opcode rendered.

       There are 3 kinds of items that may be populated; special patterns,
       #vars, and literal text,	which is copied	verbatim.  (Yes, it's a	set of
       s///g steps.)

   Special Patterns
       These items are the primitives used to perform indenting, and to	select
       text from amongst alternatives.

       (x(exec_text;basic_text)x)
	   Generates exec_text in exec mode, or	basic_text in basic mode.

       (*(text)*)
	   Generates one copy of text for each indentation level.

       (*(text1;text2)*)
	   Generates one fewer copies of text1 than the	indentation level,
	   followed by one copy	of text2 if the	indentation level is more than
	   0.

       (?(text1#varText2)?)
	   If the value	of var is true (not empty or zero), generates the
	   value of var	surrounded by text1 and	Text2, otherwise nothing.

       ~   Any number of tildes	and surrounding	whitespace will	be collapsed
	   to a	single space.

   # Variables
       These #vars represent opcode properties that you	may want as part of
       your rendering.	The '#'	is intended as a private sigil;	a #var's value
       is interpolated into the	style-line, much like "read $this".

       These vars take 3 forms:

       #var
	   A property named 'var' is assumed to	exist for the opcodes, and is
	   interpolated	into the rendering.

       #varN
	   Generates the value of var, left justified to fill N	spaces.	 Note
	   that	this means while you can have properties 'foo' and 'foo2', you
	   cannot render 'foo2', but you could with 'foo2a'.  You would	be
	   wise	not to rely on this behavior going forward ;-)

       #Var
	   This	ucfirst	form of	#var generates a tag-value form	of itself for
	   display; it converts	'#Var' into a 'Var => #var' style, which is
	   then	handled	as described above.  (Imp-note:	#Vars cannot be	used
	   for conditional-fills, because the => #var transform	is done	after
	   the check for #Var's	value).

       The following variables are 'defined' by	B::Concise; when they are used
       in a style, their respective values are plugged into the	rendering of
       each opcode.

       Only some of these are used by the standard styles, the others are
       provided	for you	to delve into optree mechanics,	should you wish	to add
       a new style (see	"add_style" below) that	uses them.  You	can also add
       new ones	using "add_callback".

       #addr
	   The address of the OP, in hexadecimal.

       #arg
	   The OP-specific information of the OP (such as the SV for an	SVOP,
	   the non-local exit pointers for a LOOP, etc.) enclosed in
	   parentheses.

       #class
	   The B-determined class of the OP, in	all caps.

       #classsym
	   A single symbol abbreviating	the class of the OP.

       #coplabel
	   The label of	the statement or block the OP is the start of, if any.

       #exname
	   The name of the OP, or 'ex-foo' if the OP is	a null that used to be
	   a foo.

       #extarg
	   The target of the OP, or nothing for	a nulled OP.

       #firstaddr
	   The address of the OP's first child,	in hexadecimal.

       #flags
	   The OP's flags, abbreviated as a series of symbols.

       #flagval
	   The numeric value of	the OP's flags.

       #hints
	   The COP's hint flags, rendered with abbreviated names if possible.
	   An empty string if this is not a COP. Here are the symbols used:

	       $ strict	refs
	       & strict	subs
	       * strict	vars
	      x$ explicit use/no strict	refs
	      x& explicit use/no strict	subs
	      x* explicit use/no strict	vars
	       i integers
	       l locale
	       b bytes
	       { block scope
	       % localise %^H
	       < open in
	       > open out
	       I overload int
	       F overload float
	       B overload binary
	       S overload string
	       R overload re
	       T taint
	       E eval
	       X filetest access
	       U utf-8

	       us      use feature 'unicode_strings'
	       fea=NNN feature bundle number

       #hintsval
	   The numeric value of	the COP's hint flags, or an empty string if
	   this	is not a COP.

       #hyphseq
	   The sequence	number of the OP, or a hyphen if it doesn't have one.

       #label
	   'NEXT', 'LAST', or 'REDO' if	the OP is a target of one of those in
	   exec	mode, or empty otherwise.

       #lastaddr
	   The address of the OP's last	child, in hexadecimal.

       #name
	   The OP's name.

       #NAME
	   The OP's name, in all caps.

       #next
	   The sequence	number of the OP's next	OP.

       #nextaddr
	   The address of the OP's next	OP, in hexadecimal.

       #noise
	   A one- or two-character abbreviation	for the	OP's name.

       #private
	   The OP's private flags, rendered with abbreviated names if
	   possible.

       #privval
	   The numeric value of	the OP's private flags.

       #seq
	   The sequence	number of the OP. Note that this is a sequence number
	   generated by	B::Concise.

       #seqnum
	   5.8.x and earlier only. 5.9 and later do not	provide	this.

	   The real sequence number of the OP, as a regular number and not
	   adjusted to be relative to the start	of the real program. (This
	   will	generally be a fairly large number because all of B::Concise
	   is compiled before your program is).

       #opt
	   Whether or not the op has been optimized by the peephole optimizer.

	   Only	available in 5.9 and later.

       #sibaddr
	   The address of the OP's next	youngest sibling, in hexadecimal.

       #svaddr
	   The address of the OP's SV, if it has an SV,	in hexadecimal.

       #svclass
	   The class of	the OP's SV, if	it has one, in all caps	(e.g., 'IV').

       #svval
	   The value of	the OP's SV, if	it has one, in a short human-readable
	   format.

       #targ
	   The numeric value of	the OP's targ.

       #targarg
	   The name of the variable the	OP's targ refers to, if	any, otherwise
	   the letter t	followed by the	OP's targ in decimal.

       #targarglife
	   Same	as #targarg, but followed by the COP sequence numbers that
	   delimit the variable's lifetime (or 'end' for a variable in an open
	   scope) for a	variable.

       #typenum
	   The numeric value of	the OP's type, in decimal.

One-Liner Command tips
       perl -MO=Concise,bar foo.pl
	   Renders only	bar() from foo.pl.  To see main, drop the ',bar'.  To
	   see both, add ',-main'

       perl -MDigest::MD5=md5 -MO=Concise,md5 -e1
	   Identifies md5 as an	XS function.  The export is needed so that BC
	   can find it in main.

       perl -MPOSIX -MO=Concise,_POSIX_ARG_MAX -e1
	   Identifies _POSIX_ARG_MAX as	a constant sub,	optimized to an	IV.
	   Although POSIX isn't	entirely consistent across platforms, this is
	   likely to be	present	in virtually all of them.

       perl -MPOSIX -MO=Concise,a -e 'print _POSIX_SAVED_IDS'
	   This	renders	a print	statement, which includes a call to the
	   function.  It's identical to	rendering a file with a	use call and
	   that	single statement, except for the filename which	appears	in the
	   nextstate ops.

       perl -MPOSIX -MO=Concise,a -e 'sub a{_POSIX_SAVED_IDS}'
	   This	is very	similar	to previous, only the first two	ops differ.
	   This	subroutine rendering is	more representative, insofar as	a
	   single main program will have many subs.

       perl -MB::Concise -e 'B::Concise::compile("-exec","-src",
       \%B::Concise::)->()'
	   This	renders	all functions in the B::Concise	package	with the
	   source lines.  It eschews the O framework so	that the stashref can
	   be passed directly to B::Concise::compile().	 See -stash option for
	   a more convenient way to render a package.

Using B::Concise outside of the	O framework
       The common (and original) usage of B::Concise was for command-line
       renderings of simple code, as given in EXAMPLE.	But you	can also use
       B::Concise from your code, and call compile() directly, and repeatedly.
       By doing	so, you	can avoid the compile-time only	operation of O.pm, and
       even use	the debugger to	step through B::Concise::compile() itself.

       Once you're doing this, you may alter Concise output by adding new
       rendering styles, and by	optionally adding callback routines which
       populate	new variables, if such were referenced from those (just	added)
       styles.

   Example: Altering Concise Renderings
	   use B::Concise qw(set_style add_callback);
	   add_style($yourStyleName => $defaultfmt, $gotofmt, $treefmt);
	   add_callback
	     ( sub {
		   my ($h, $op,	$format, $level, $stylename) = @_;
		   $h->{variable} = some_func($op);
	       });
	   $walker = B::Concise::compile(@options,@subnames,@subrefs);
	   $walker->();

   set_style()
       set_style accepts 3 arguments, and updates the three format-specs
       comprising a line-style (basic-exec, goto, tree).  It has one minor
       drawback	though;	it doesn't register the	style under a new name.	 This
       can become an issue if you render more than once	and switch styles.
       Thus you	may prefer to use add_style() and/or set_style_standard()
       instead.

   set_style_standard($name)
       This restores one of the	standard line-styles: "terse", "concise",
       "linenoise", "debug", "env", into effect.  It also accepts style	names
       previously defined with add_style().

   add_style ()
       This subroutine accepts a new style name	and three style	arguments as
       above, and creates, registers, and selects the newly named style.  It
       is an error to re-add a style; call set_style_standard()	to switch
       between several styles.

   add_callback	()
       If your newly minted styles refer to any	new #variables,	you'll need to
       define a	callback subroutine that will populate (or modify) those
       variables.  They	are then available for use in the style	you've chosen.

       The callbacks are called	for each opcode	visited	by Concise, in the
       same order as they are added.  Each subroutine is passed	five
       parameters.

	 1. A hashref, containing the variable names and values	which are
	    populated into the report-line for the op
	 2. the	op, as a B<B::OP> object
	 3. a reference	to the format string
	 4. the	formatting (indent) level
	 5. the	selected stylename

       To define your own variables, simply add	them to	the hash, or change
       existing	values if you need to.	The level and format are passed	in as
       references to scalars, but it is	unlikely that they will	need to	be
       changed or even used.

   Running B::Concise::compile()
       compile accepts options as described above in "OPTIONS",	and arguments,
       which are either	coderefs, or subroutine	names.

       It constructs and returns a $treewalker coderef,	which when invoked,
       traverses, or walks, and	renders	the optrees of the given arguments to
       STDOUT.	You can	reuse this, and	can change the rendering style used
       each time; thereafter the coderef renders in the	new style.

       walk_output lets	you change the print destination from STDOUT to
       another open filehandle,	or into	a string passed	as a ref (unless
       you've built perl with -Uuseperlio).

	 my $walker = B::Concise::compile('-terse','aFuncName',	\&aSubRef); # 1
	 walk_output(\my $buf);
	 $walker->();			       # 1 renders -terse
	 set_style_standard('concise');	       # 2
	 $walker->();			       # 2 renders -concise
	 $walker->(@new);		       # 3 renders whatever
	 print "3 different renderings:	terse, concise,	and @new: $buf\n";

       When $walker is called, it traverses the	subroutines supplied when it
       was created, and	renders	them using the current style.  You can change
       the style afterwards in several different ways:

	 1. call C<compile>, altering style or mode/order
	 2. call C<set_style_standard>
	 3. call $walker, passing @new options

       Passing new options to the $walker is the easiest way to	change amongst
       any pre-defined styles (the ones	you add	are automatically recognized
       as options), and	is the only way	to alter rendering order without
       calling compile again.  Note however that rendering state is still
       shared amongst multiple $walker objects,	so they	must still be used in
       a coordinated manner.

   B::Concise::reset_sequence()
       This function (not exported) lets you reset the sequence	numbers	(note
       that they're numbered arbitrarily, their	goal being to be human
       readable).  Its purpose is mostly to support testing, i.e. to compare
       the concise output from two identical anonymous subroutines (but
       different instances).  Without the reset, B::Concise, seeing that
       they're separate	optrees, generates different sequence numbers in the
       output.

   Errors
       Errors in rendering (non-existent function-name,	non-existent coderef)
       are written to the STDOUT, or wherever you've set it via	walk_output().

       Errors using the	various	*style*	calls, and bad args to walk_output(),
       result in die().	 Use an	eval if	you wish to catch these	errors and
       continue	processing.

AUTHOR
       Stephen McCamant, <smcc@CSUA.Berkeley.EDU>.

perl v5.26.0			  2017-04-19			 B::Concise(3)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | EXAMPLE | OPTIONS | ABBREVIATIONS | FORMATTING SPECIFICATIONS | One-Liner Command tips | Using B::Concise outside of the O framework | AUTHOR

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