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HTTP(3)		      User Contributed Perl Documentation	       HTTP(3)

       AnyEvent::HTTP -	simple but non-blocking	HTTP/HTTPS client

	  use AnyEvent::HTTP;

	  http_get "", sub { print $_[1] };

	  # ...	do something else here

       This module is an AnyEvent user,	you need to make sure that you use and
       run a supported event loop.

       This module implements a	simple,	stateless and non-blocking HTTP
       client. It supports GET,	POST and other request methods,	cookies	and
       more, all on a very low level. It can follow redirects, supports
       proxies,	and automatically limits the number of connections to the
       values specified	in the RFC.

       It should generally be a	"good client" that is enough for most HTTP
       tasks. Simple tasks should be simple, but complex tasks should still be
       possible	as the user retains control over request and response headers.

       The caller is responsible for authentication management,	cookies	(if
       the simplistic implementation in	this module doesn't suffice), referer
       and other high-level protocol details for which this module offers only
       limited support.

       http_get	$url, key => value..., $cb->($data, $headers)
	   Executes an HTTP-GET	request. See the http_request function for
	   details on additional parameters and	the return value.

       http_head $url, key => value...,	$cb->($data, $headers)
	   Executes an HTTP-HEAD request. See the http_request function	for
	   details on additional parameters and	the return value.

       http_post $url, $body, key => value..., $cb->($data, $headers)
	   Executes an HTTP-POST request with a	request	body of	$body. See the
	   http_request	function for details on	additional parameters and the
	   return value.

       http_request $method => $url, key => value..., $cb->($data, $headers)
	   Executes a HTTP request of type $method (e.g. "GET",	"POST"). The
	   URL must be an absolute http	or https URL.

	   When	called in void context,	nothing	is returned. In	other
	   contexts, "http_request" returns a "cancellation guard" - you have
	   to keep the object at least alive until the callback	get called. If
	   the object gets destroyed before the	callback is called, the
	   request will	be cancelled.

	   The callback	will be	called with the	response body data as first
	   argument (or	"undef"	if an error occurred), and a hash-ref with
	   response headers (and trailers) as second argument.

	   All the headers in that hash	are lowercased.	In addition to the
	   response headers, the "pseudo-headers" (uppercase to	avoid clashing
	   with	possible response headers) "HTTPVersion", "Status" and
	   "Reason" contain the	three parts of the HTTP	Status-Line of the
	   same	name. If an error occurs during	the body phase of a request,
	   then	the original "Status" and "Reason" values from the header are
	   available as	"OrigStatus" and "OrigReason".

	   The pseudo-header "URL" contains the	actual URL (which can differ
	   from	the requested URL when following redirects - for example, you
	   might get an	error that your	URL scheme is not supported even
	   though your URL is a	valid http URL because it redirected to	an ftp
	   URL,	in which case you can look at the URL pseudo header).

	   The pseudo-header "Redirect"	only exists when the request was a
	   result of an	internal redirect. In that case	it is an array
	   reference with the "($data, $headers)" from the redirect response.
	   Note	that this response could in turn be the	result of a redirect
	   itself, and "$headers->{Redirect}[1]{Redirect}" will	then contain
	   the original	response, and so on.

	   If the server sends a header	multiple times,	then their contents
	   will	be joined together with	a comma	(","), as per the HTTP spec.

	   If an internal error	occurs,	such as	not being able to resolve a
	   hostname, then $data	will be	"undef", "$headers->{Status}" will be
	   590-599 and the "Reason" pseudo-header will contain an error
	   message. Currently the following status codes are used:

	   595 - errors	during connection establishment, proxy handshake.
	   596 - errors	during TLS negotiation,	request	sending	and header
	   597 - errors	during body receiving or processing.
	   598 - user aborted request via "on_header" or "on_body".
	   599 - other,	usually	nonretryable, errors (garbled URL etc.).

	   A typical callback might look like this:

	      sub {
		 my ($body, $hdr) = @_;

		 if ($hdr->{Status} =~ /^2/) {
		    ...	everything should be ok
		 } else	{
		    print "error, $hdr->{Status} $hdr->{Reason}\n";

	   Additional parameters are key-value pairs, and are fully optional.
	   They	include:

	   recurse => $count (default: $MAX_RECURSE)
	       Whether to recurse requests or not, e.g.	on redirects,
	       authentication and other	retries	and so on, and how often to do

	       Only redirects to http and https	URLs are supported. While most
	       common redirection forms	are handled entirely within this
	       module, some require the	use of the optional URI	module.	If it
	       is required but missing,	then the request will fail with	an

	   headers => hashref
	       The request headers to use. Currently, "http_request" may
	       provide its own "Host:",	"Content-Length:", "Connection:" and
	       "Cookie:" headers and will provide defaults at least for	"TE:",
	       "Referer:" and "User-Agent:" (this can be suppressed by using
	       "undef" for these headers in which case they won't be sent at

	       You really should provide your own "User-Agent:"	header value
	       that is appropriate for your program - I	wouldn't be surprised
	       if the default AnyEvent string gets blocked by webservers
	       sooner or later.

	       Also, make sure that your headers names and values do not
	       contain any embedded newlines.

	   timeout => $seconds
	       The time-out to use for various stages -	each connect attempt
	       will reset the timeout, as will read or write activity, i.e.
	       this is not an overall timeout.

	       Default timeout is 5 minutes.

	   proxy => [$host, $port[, $scheme]] or undef
	       Use the given http proxy	for all	requests, or no	proxy if
	       "undef" is used.

	       $scheme must be either missing or must be "http"	for HTTP.

	       If not specified, then the default proxy	is used	(see

	       Currently, if your proxy	requires authorization,	you have to
	       specify an appropriate "Proxy-Authorization" header in every

	   body	=> $string
	       The request body, usually empty.	Will be	sent as-is (future
	       versions	of this	module might offer more	options).

	   cookie_jar => $hash_ref
	       Passing this parameter enables (simplified) cookie-processing,
	       loosely based on	the original netscape specification.

	       The $hash_ref must be an	(initially empty) hash reference which
	       will get	updated	automatically. It is possible to save the
	       cookie jar to persistent	storage	with something like JSON or
	       Storable	- see the "AnyEvent::HTTP::cookie_jar_expire" function
	       if you wish to remove expired or	session-only cookies, and also
	       for documentation on the	format of the cookie jar.

	       Note that this cookie implementation is not meant to be
	       complete. If you	want complete cookie management	you have to do
	       that on your own. "cookie_jar" is meant as a quick fix to get
	       most cookie-using sites working.	Cookies	are a privacy
	       disaster, do not	use them unless	required to.

	       When cookie processing is enabled, the "Cookie:"	and
	       "Set-Cookie:" headers will be set and handled by	this module,
	       otherwise they will be left untouched.

	   tls_ctx => $scheme |	$tls_ctx
	       Specifies the AnyEvent::TLS context to be used for https
	       connections. This parameter follows the same rules as the
	       "tls_ctx" parameter to AnyEvent::Handle,	but additionally, the
	       two strings "low" or "high" can be specified, which give	you a
	       predefined low-security (no verification, highest
	       compatibility) and high-security	(CA and	common-name
	       verification) TLS context.

	       The default for this option is "low", which could be
	       interpreted as "give me the page, no matter what".

	       See also	the "sessionid"	parameter.

	   session => $string
	       The module might	reuse connections to the same host internally.
	       Sometimes (e.g. when using TLS),	you do not want	to reuse
	       connections from	other sessions.	This can be achieved by
	       setting this parameter to some unique ID	(such as the address
	       of an object storing your state data, or	the TLS	context) -
	       only connections	using the same unique ID will be reused.

	   on_prepare => $callback->($fh)
	       In rare cases you need to "tune"	the socket before it is	used
	       to connect (for example,	to bind	it on a	given IP address).
	       This parameter overrides	the prepare callback passed to
	       "AnyEvent::Socket::tcp_connect" and behaves exactly the same
	       way (e.g. it has	to provide a timeout). See the description for
	       the $prepare_cb argument	of "AnyEvent::Socket::tcp_connect" for

	   tcp_connect => $callback->($host, $service, $connect_cb,
	       In even rarer cases you want total control over how
	       AnyEvent::HTTP establishes connections. Normally	it uses
	       AnyEvent::Socket::tcp_connect to	do this, but you can provide
	       your own	"tcp_connect" function - obviously, it has to follow
	       the same	calling	conventions, except that it may	always return
	       a connection guard object.

	       There are probably lots of weird	uses for this function,
	       starting	from tracing the hosts "http_request" actually tries
	       to connect, to (inexact but fast) host => IP address caching or
	       even socks protocol support.

	   on_header =>	$callback->($headers)
	       When specified, this callback will be called with the header
	       hash as soon as headers have been successfully received from
	       the remote server (not on locally-generated errors).

	       It has to return	either true (in	which case AnyEvent::HTTP will
	       continue), or false, in which case AnyEvent::HTTP will cancel
	       the download (and call the finish callback with an error	code
	       of 598).

	       This callback is	useful,	among other things, to quickly reject
	       unwanted	content, which,	if it is supposed to be	rare, can be
	       faster than first doing a "HEAD"	request.

	       The downside is that cancelling the request makes it impossible
	       to re-use the connection. Also, the "on_header" callback	will
	       not receive any trailer (headers	sent after the response	body).

	       Example:	cancel the request unless the content-type is

		  on_header => sub {
		     $_[0]{"content-type"} =~ /^text\/html\s*(?:;|$)/

	   on_body => $callback->($partial_body, $headers)
	       When specified, all body	data will be passed to this callback
	       instead of to the completion callback. The completion callback
	       will get	the empty string instead of the	body data.

	       It has to return	either true (in	which case AnyEvent::HTTP will
	       continue), or false, in which case AnyEvent::HTTP will cancel
	       the download (and call the completion callback with an error
	       code of 598).

	       The downside to cancelling the request is that it makes it
	       impossible to re-use the	connection.

	       This callback is	useful when the	data is	too large to be	held
	       in memory (so the callback writes it to a file) or when only
	       some information	should be extracted, or	when the body should
	       be processed incrementally.

	       It is usually preferred over doing your own body	handling via
	       "want_body_handle", but in case of streaming APIs, where	HTTP
	       is only used to create a	connection, "want_body_handle" is the
	       better alternative, as it allows	you to install your own	event
	       handler,	reducing resource usage.

	   want_body_handle => $enable
	       When enabled (default is	disabled), the behaviour of
	       AnyEvent::HTTP changes considerably: after parsing the headers,
	       and instead of downloading the body (if any), the completion
	       callback	will be	called.	Instead	of the $body argument
	       containing the body data, the callback will receive the
	       AnyEvent::Handle	object associated with the connection. In
	       error cases, "undef" will be passed. When there is no body
	       (e.g. status 304), the empty string will	be passed.

	       The handle object might or might	not be in TLS mode, might be
	       connected to a proxy, be	a persistent connection, use chunked
	       transfer	encoding etc., and configured in unspecified ways. The
	       user is responsible for this handle (it will not	be used	by
	       this module anymore).

	       This is useful with some	push-type services, where, after the
	       initial headers,	an interactive protocol	is used	(typical
	       example would be	the push-style twitter API which starts	a
	       JSON/XML	stream).

	       If you think you	need this, first have a	look at	"on_body", to
	       see if that doesn't solve your problem in a better way.

	   persistent => $boolean
	       Try to create/reuse a persistent	connection. When this flag is
	       set (default: true for idempotent requests, false for all
	       others),	then "http_request" tries to re-use an existing
	       (previously-created) persistent connection to the host and,
	       failing that, tries to create a new one.

	       Requests	failing	in certain ways	will be	automatically retried
	       once, which is dangerous	for non-idempotent requests, which is
	       why it defaults to off for them.	The reason for this is because
	       the bozos who designed HTTP/1.1 made it impossible to
	       distinguish between a fatal error and a normal connection
	       timeout,	so you never know whether there	was a problem with
	       your request or not.

	       When reusing an existent	connection, many parameters (such as
	       TLS context) will be ignored. See the "session" parameter for a

	   keepalive =>	$boolean
	       Only used when "persistent" is also true. This parameter
	       decides whether "http_request" tries to handshake a
	       HTTP/1.0-style keep-alive connection (as	opposed	to only	a
	       HTTP/1.1	persistent connection).

	       The default is true, except when	using a	proxy, in which	case
	       it defaults to false, as	HTTP/1.0 proxies cannot	support	this
	       in a meaningful way.

	   handle_params => { key => value ... }
	       The key-value pairs in this hash	will be	passed to any
	       AnyEvent::Handle	constructor that is called - not all requests
	       will create a handle, and sometimes more	than one is created,
	       so this parameter is only good for setting hints.

	       Example:	set the	maximum	read size to 4096, to potentially
	       conserve	memory at the cost of speed.

		  handle_params	=> {
		     max_read_size => 4096,

	   Example: do a simple	HTTP GET request for
	   and print the response body.

	      http_request GET => "", sub	{
		 my ($body, $hdr) = @_;
		 print "$body\n";

	   Example: do a HTTP HEAD request on, use a
	   timeout of 30 seconds.

		 HEAD	 => "",
		 headers => { "user-agent" => "MySearchClient 1.0" },
		 timeout => 30,
		 sub {
		    my ($body, $hdr) = @_;
		    use	Data::Dumper;
		    print Dumper $hdr;

	   Example: do another simple HTTP GET request,	but immediately	try to
	   cancel it.

	      my $request = http_request GET =>	"", sub {
		 my ($body, $hdr) = @_;
		 print "$body\n";

	      undef $request;

       AnyEvent::HTTP uses the AnyEvent::Socket::tcp_connect function for the
       actual connection, which	in turn	uses AnyEvent::DNS to resolve
       hostnames. The latter is	a simple stub resolver and does	no caching on
       its own.	If you want DNS	caching, you currently have to provide your
       own default resolver (by	storing	a suitable resolver object in
       $AnyEvent::DNS::RESOLVER) or your own "tcp_connect" callback.

       AnyEvent::HTTP::set_proxy "proxy-url"
	   Sets	the default proxy server to use. The proxy-url must begin with
	   a string of the form	"http://host:port", croaks otherwise.

	   To clear an already-set proxy, use "undef".

	   When	AnyEvent::HTTP is loaded for the first time it will query the
	   default proxy from the operating system, currently by looking at

       AnyEvent::HTTP::cookie_jar_expire $jar[,	$session_end]
	   Remove all cookies from the cookie jar that have been expired. If
	   $session_end	is given and true, then	additionally remove all
	   session cookies.

	   You should call this	function (with a true $session_end) before you
	   save	cookies	to disk, and you should	call this function after
	   loading them	again. If you have a long-running program you can
	   additionally	call this function from	time to	time.

	   A cookie jar	is initially an	empty hash-reference that is managed
	   by this module. Its format is subject to change, but	currently it
	   is as follows:

	   The key "version" has to contain 1, otherwise the hash gets
	   emptied. All	other keys are hostnames or IP addresses pointing to
	   hash-references. The	key for	these inner hash references is the
	   server path for which this cookie is	meant, and the values are
	   again hash-references. Each key of those hash-references is a
	   cookie name,	and the	value, you guessed it, is another hash-
	   reference, this time	with the key-value pairs from the cookie,
	   except for "expires"	and "max-age", which have been replaced	by a
	   "_expires" key that contains	the cookie expiry timestamp. Session
	   cookies are indicated by not	having an "_expires" key.

	   Here	is an example of a cookie jar with a single cookie, so you
	   have	a chance of understanding the above paragraph:

		 version    => 1,
		 "" => {
		    "/"	=> {
		       "mythweb_id" => {
			 _expires => 1293917923,
			 value	  => "ooRung9dThee3ooyXooM1Ohm",

       $date = AnyEvent::HTTP::format_date $timestamp
	   Takes a POSIX timestamp (seconds since the epoch) and formats it as
	   a HTTP Date (RFC 2616).

       $timestamp = AnyEvent::HTTP::parse_date $date
	   Takes a HTTP	Date (RFC 2616)	or a Cookie date (netscape cookie
	   spec) or a bunch of minor variations	of those, and returns the
	   corresponding POSIX timestamp, or "undef" if	the date cannot	be

	   The default value for the "recurse" request parameter (default:

	   The default timeout for connection operations (default: 300).

	   The default value for the "User-Agent" header (the default is
	   "Mozilla/5.0	(compatible; U;	AnyEvent-HTTP/$VERSION;

	   The maximum number of concurrent connections	to the same host
	   (identified by the hostname). If the	limit is exceeded, then
	   additional requests are queued until	previous connections are
	   closed. Both	persistent and non-persistent connections are counted
	   in this limit.

	   The default value for this is 4, and	it is highly advisable to not
	   increase it much.

	   For comparison: the RFC's recommend 4 non-persistent	or 2
	   persistent connections, older browsers used 2, newer	ones (such as
	   firefox 3) typically	use 6, and Opera uses 8	because	like, they
	   have	the fastest browser and	give a shit for	everybody else on the

	   The time after which	idle persistent	connections get	closed by
	   AnyEvent::HTTP (default: 3).

	   The number of active	connections. This is not the number of
	   currently running requests, but the number of currently open	and
	   non-idle TCP	connections. This number can be	useful for load-

       This section contains some more elaborate "real-world" examples or code

       Downloading files with HTTP can be quite	tricky,	especially when
       something goes wrong and	you want to resume.

       Here is a function that initiates and resumes a download. It uses the
       last modified time to check for file content changes, and works with
       many HTTP/1.0 servers as	well, and usually falls	back to	a complete re-
       download	on older servers.

       It calls	the completion callback	with either "undef", which means a
       nonretryable error occurred, 0 when the download	was partial and	should
       be retried, and 1 if it was successful.

	  use AnyEvent::HTTP;

	  sub download($$$) {
	     my	($url, $file, $cb) = @_;

	     open my $fh, "+<",	$file
		or die "$file: $!";

	     my	%hdr;
	     my	$ofs = 0;

	     warn stat $fh;
	     warn -s _;
	     if	(stat $fh and -s _) {
		$ofs = -s _;
		warn "-s is ", $ofs;
		$hdr{"if-unmodified-since"} = AnyEvent::HTTP::format_date +(stat _)[9];
		$hdr{"range"} =	"bytes=$ofs-";

	     http_get $url,
		headers	  => \%hdr,
		on_header => sub {
		   my ($hdr) = @_;

		   if ($hdr->{Status} == 200 &&	$ofs) {
		      #	resume failed
		      truncate $fh, $ofs = 0;

		   sysseek $fh,	$ofs, 0;

		on_body	  => sub {
		   my ($data, $hdr) = @_;

		   if ($hdr->{Status} =~ /^2/) {
		      length $data == syswrite $fh, $data
			 or return; # abort on write errors

		sub {
		   my (undef, $hdr) = @_;

		   my $status =	$hdr->{Status};

		   if (my $time	= AnyEvent::HTTP::parse_date $hdr->{"last-modified"}) {
		      utime $fh, $time,	$time;

		   if ($status == 200 || $status == 206	|| $status == 416) {
		      #	download ok || resume ok || file already fully downloaded
		      $cb->(1, $hdr);

		   } elsif ($status == 412) {
		      #	file has changed while resuming, delete	and retry
		      unlink $file;
		      $cb->(0, $hdr);

		   } elsif ($status == 500 or $status == 503 or	$status	=~ /^59/) {
		      #	retry later
		      $cb->(0, $hdr);

		   } else {
		      $cb->(undef, $hdr);

	  download "http://server/somelargefile", "/tmp/somelargefile",	sub {
	     if	($_[0])	{
		print "OK!\n";
	     } elsif (defined $_[0]) {
		print "please retry later\n";
	     } else {
		print "ERROR\n";


       Socks proxies are not directly supported	by AnyEvent::HTTP. You can
       compile your perl to support socks, or use an external program such as
       socksify	(dante)	or tsocks to make your program use a socks proxy

       Alternatively, for AnyEvent::HTTP only, you can use your	own
       "tcp_connect" function that does	the proxy handshake - here is an
       example that works with socks4a proxies:

	  use Errno;
	  use AnyEvent::Util;
	  use AnyEvent::Socket;
	  use AnyEvent::Handle;

	  # host, port and username of/for your	socks4a	proxy
	  my $socks_host = "";
	  my $socks_port = 9050;
	  my $socks_user = "";

	  sub socks4a_connect {
	     my	($host,	$port, $connect_cb, $prepare_cb) = @_;

	     my	$hdl = new AnyEvent::Handle
		connect	   => [$socks_host, $socks_port],
		on_prepare => sub { $prepare_cb->($_[0]{fh}) },
		on_error   => sub { $connect_cb->() },

	     $hdl->push_write (pack "CCnNZ*Z*",	4, 1, $port, 1,	$socks_user, $host);

	     $hdl->push_read (chunk => 8, sub {
		my ($hdl, $chunk) = @_;
		my ($status, $port, $ipn) = unpack "xCna4", $chunk;

		if ($status == 0x5a) {
		   $connect_cb->($hdl->{fh}, (format_address $ipn) . ":$port");
		} else {
		   $! =	Errno::ENXIO; $connect_cb->();


       Use "socks4a_connect" instead of	"tcp_connect" when doing
       "http_request"s,	possibly after switching off other proxy types:

	  AnyEvent::HTTP::set_proxy undef; # usually you do not	want other proxies

	  http_get '', tcp_connect	=> \&socks4a_connect, sub {
	     my	($data,	$headers) = @_;


	  Marc Lehmann <>

       With many thanks	to AaAA1/4AA,AaAa~AA,AA^1
       AA"AA<degree>AA>>AA<degree>AEAA3/4AA^2, who provided countless
       testcases and bugreports.

       Hey! The	above document had some	coding errors, which are explained

       Around line 1603:
	   Non-ASCII character seen before =encoding in
	   'AaAA1/4AA,AaAa~AA,AA^1'. Assuming CP1252

perl v5.32.0			  2015-05-14			       HTTP(3)


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