Skip site navigation (1)Skip section navigation (2)

FreeBSD Manual Pages

  
 
  

home | help
MORE(1)			FreeBSD	General	Commands Manual		       MORE(1)

NAME
     more -- file perusal filter for crt viewing

SYNOPSIS
     more [-ceinsu] [-t	tag] [-x tabs] [-/ pattern] [file ...]

DESCRIPTION
     The more command is a filter for paging through text one screenful	at a
     time.  It uses termcap(3) so it can run on	a variety of terminals,	in-
     cluding hardcopy terminals.  On a hardcopy	terminal, lines	which should
     be	printed	at the top of the screen are prefixed with an up-arrow.	 A
     file may be specified as /dev/stdin to view stdin.

OPTIONS
     Command line options are described	below.	Options	are also taken from
     the environment variable MORE (make sure to precede them with a dash
     (``-'')) but command line options will override them.

     -c	   Normally, more will repaint the screen by scrolling from the	bottom
	   of the screen.  If the -c option is set, when more needs to change
	   the entire display, it will paint from the top line down.

     -e	   Normally, if	displaying a single file, more exits as	soon as	it
	   reaches end-of-file.	 The -e	option tells more to exit if it
	   reaches end-of-file twice without an	intervening operation.

     -i	   The -i option causes	searches to ignore case; that is, uppercase
	   and lowercase are considered	identical.

     -n	   The -n flag suppresses line numbers.	 The default (to use line num-
	   bers) may cause more	to run more slowly in some cases, especially
	   with	a very large input file.  Suppressing line numbers with	the -n
	   flag	will avoid this	problem.  Using	line numbers means: the	line
	   number will be displayed in the = command, and the v	command	will
	   pass	the current line number	to the editor.

     -s	   The -s option causes	consecutive blank lines	to be squeezed into a
	   single blank	line.

     -t	   The -t option, followed immediately by a tag, will edit the file
	   containing that tag.	 For more information, see ctags(1) and
	   gtags(1).

     -u	   By default, more treats backspaces and CR-LF	sequences specially.
	   Backspaces which appear adjacent to an underscore character are
	   displayed as	underlined text.  Backspaces which appear between two
	   identical characters	are displayed as emboldened text.  CR-LF se-
	   quences are compressed to a single newline character.  The -u op-
	   tion	causes backspaces to always be displayed as control charac-
	   ters, i.e. as the two character sequence ``^H'', and	CR-LF to be
	   left	alone.

     -x	   The -x option sets tab stops	every N	positions.  The	default	for N
	   is 8.

     -/	   The -/ option specifies a string that will be searched for before
	   each	file is	displayed.

COMMANDS
     Interactive commands for more are based on	vi(1).	Some commands may be
     preceded by a decimal number, called N in the descriptions	below.	In the
     following descriptions, ^X	means control-X.

     h		 Help: display a summary of these commands.  If	you forget all
		 the other commands, remember this one.

     SPACE or f	or ^F
		 Scroll	forward	N lines, default one window.  If N is more
		 than the screen size, only the	final screenful	is displayed.

     b or ^B	 Scroll	backward N lines, default one window (see option -z
		 below).  If N is more than the	screen size, only the final
		 screenful is displayed.

     j or RETURN or DOWN-ARROW
		 Scroll	forward	N lines, default 1.  The entire	N lines	are
		 displayed, even if N is more than the screen size.

     k or UP-ARROW
		 Scroll	backward N lines, default 1.  The entire N lines are
		 displayed, even if N is more than the screen size.

     LEFT-ARROW	 Scroll	leftwards N columns, default 1,	or turn	on line-wrap-
		 ping if the screen is cannot be scrolled leftwards.

     RIGHT-ARROW
		 Turn off line-wrapping	or scroll rightwards N columns,	de-
		 fault 1, if line wrapping is already off.

     TAB	 Turn off line-wrapping	or scroll rightwards N * 8 columns,
		 default 8, if line-wrapping is	already	off.

     HOME	 Toggle	horizontal scrolling and associated line-wrapping on
		 and off.

     d or ^D	 Scroll	forward	N lines, default one half of the screen	size.
		 If N is specified, it becomes the new default for subsequent
		 d and u commands.  The	entire N lines are displayed, even if
		 N is more than	the screen size.

     u or ^U	 Scroll	backward N lines, default one half of the screen size.
		 If N is specified, it becomes the new default for subsequent
		 d and u commands.  The	entire N lines are displayed, even if
		 N is more than	the screen size.

     g		 Go to line N in the file, default 1 (beginning	of file).

     G		 Go to line N in the file, default the end of the file.

     p or %	 Go to a position N percent into the file.  N should be	be-
		 tween 0 and 100.  This	does work if standard input is being
		 read, but only	if more	has already read to the	end of the
		 file.	It is always fast, but not always useful.

     r or ^L	 Repaint the screen.

     R		 Repaint the screen, discarding	any buffered input.  Useful if
		 the file is changing while it is being	viewed.

     m		 Followed by any lowercase letter, marks the current position
		 with that letter.

     '		 (single quote)	Followed by any	lowercase letter, returns to
		 the position which was	previously marked with that letter.
		 Followed by another single quote, returns to the position at
		 which the last	"large"	movement command was executed, or the
		 beginning of the file if no such movements have occurred.

     /pattern	 Search	forward	in the file for	the N-th line containing the
		 pattern.  N defaults to 1.  The pattern is a IEEE Std 1003.2
		 ("POSIX.2") "extended format" regular expression, as de-
		 scribed in re_format(7).  The search starts at	the second
		 line displayed.

     ?pattern	 Search	backward in the	file for the N-th line containing the
		 pattern.  The search starts at	the line immediately before
		 the top line displayed.

     /!pattern	 Like /, but the search	is for the N-th	line which does	NOT
		 contain the pattern.

     ?!pattern	 Like ?, but the search	is for the N-th	line which does	NOT
		 contain the pattern.

     n and N	 Repeat	previous search, in same or opposite direction respec-
		 tively, for N-th line containing the last pattern (or NOT
		 containing the	last pattern, if the previous search was /! or
		 ?!).

     E[filename]
		 Examine a new file.  If the filename is missing, the current
		 file (see the N and P commands	below) from the	list of	files
		 in the	command	line is	re-examined.  If the filename is a
		 pound sign (#), the previously	examined file is re-examined.

     :n		 Examine the next file (from the list of files given in	the
		 command line).	 If a number N is specified (not to be con-
		 fused with the	command	N), the	N-th next file is examined.

     :p		 Examine the previous file.  If	a number N is specified, the
		 N-th previous file is examined.

     :t		 Go to supplied	tag.

     t		 Go forward in tag queue [gtags	only].

     T		 Go backward in	tag queue [gtags only].

     v		 Invokes an editor to edit the current file being viewed.  The
		 editor	is taken from the environment variable EDITOR, or de-
		 faults	to vi(1).

     = or ^G	 These options print out the number of the file	currently be-
		 ing displayed relative	to the total number of files there are
		 to display, the current line number, the current byte number
		 and the total bytes to	display, and what percentage of	the
		 file has been displayed.  If more is reading from stdin, or
		 the file is shorter than a single screen, some	of these items
		 may not be available.	Note, all of these items reference the
		 first byte of the last	line displayed on the screen.

     q or :q or	ZZ
		 Exits more.

ENVIRONMENT
     The following environment variables are used, if they exist:

     MORE	 Specifies default option flags	to more.  Options must be pre-
		 ceeded	by a "-" as if they were specified on the command
		 line.

     EDITOR	 Specifies default editor.

     SHELL	 Specifies current shell in use.  This is normally set by the
		 shell at login	time.

     TERM	 Specifies terminal type.  This	is used	by more	to get the
		 terminal characteristics necessary to manipulate the screen.

SEE ALSO
     ctags(1), global(1), gtags(1), vi(1)

BUGS
     Reading files with	long lines is slow.

     CRLF-terminated 80	character lines	are proceeded by an extraneous blank
     line.

     Immediate transitions from	bold text to underlined	text cause the under-
     lining to be not existing.

     Sometimes searches	match lines that do not	contain	the pattern being
     searched for.

AUTHORS
     This software is derived from software contributed	to Berkeley by Mark
     Nudleman.

HISTORY
     The more command appeared in 3.0BSD.

FreeBSD	13.0			April 18, 1994			  FreeBSD 13.0

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | COMMANDS | ENVIRONMENT | SEE ALSO | BUGS | AUTHORS | HISTORY

Want to link to this manual page? Use this URL:
<https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=44bsd-more&sektion=1&manpath=FreeBSD+12.2-RELEASE+and+Ports>

home | help