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QEMU-IMG(1)							   QEMU-IMG(1)

NAME
       qemu-img	- QEMU disk image utility

SYNOPSIS
       qemu-img	[standard options] command [command options]

DESCRIPTION
       qemu-img	allows you to create, convert and modify images	offline. It
       can handle all image formats supported by QEMU.

       Warning:	Never use qemu-img to modify images in use by a	running
       virtual machine or any other process; this may destroy the image. Also,
       be aware	that querying an image that is being modified by another
       process may encounter inconsistent state.

OPTIONS
       Standard	options:

       -h, --help
	   Display this	help and exit

       -V, --version
	   Display version information and exit

       -T, --trace [[enable=]pattern][,events=file][,file=file]
	   Specify tracing options.

	   [enable=]pattern
	       Immediately enable events matching pattern.  The	file must
	       contain one event name (as listed in the	trace-events-all file)
	       per line; globbing patterns are accepted	too.  This option is
	       only available if QEMU has been compiled	with the simple,
	       stderr or ftrace	tracing	backend.  To specify multiple events
	       or patterns, specify the	-trace option multiple times.

	       Use "-trace help" to print a list of names of trace points.

	   events=file
	       Immediately enable events listed	in file.  The file must
	       contain one event name (as listed in the	trace-events-all file)
	       per line; globbing patterns are accepted	too.  This option is
	       only available if QEMU has been compiled	with the simple,
	       stderr or ftrace	tracing	backend.

	   file=file
	       Log output traces to file.  This	option is only available if
	       QEMU has	been compiled with the simple tracing backend.

       The following commands are supported:

       bench [-c count]	[-d depth] [-f fmt] [--flush-interval=flush_interval]
       [-n] [--no-drain] [-o offset] [--pattern=pattern] [-q] [-s buffer_size]
       [-S step_size] [-t cache] [-w] filename
       check [--object objectdef] [--image-opts] [-q] [-f fmt] [--output=ofmt]
       [-r [leaks | all]] [-T src_cache] filename
       create [--object	objectdef] [--image-opts] [-q] [-f fmt]	[-o options]
       filename	[size]
       commit [--object	objectdef] [--image-opts] [-q] [-f fmt]	[-t cache] [-b
       base] [-d] [-p] filename
       compare [--object objectdef] [--image-opts] [-f fmt] [-F	fmt] [-T
       src_cache] [-p] [-q] [-s] filename1 filename2
       convert [--object objectdef] [--image-opts] [-c]	[-p] [-q] [-n] [-f
       fmt] [-t	cache] [-T src_cache] [-O output_fmt] [-o options] [-s
       snapshot_id_or_name] [-l	snapshot_param]	[-S sparse_size] filename
       [filename2 [...]] output_filename
       dd [--image-opts] [-f fmt] [-O output_fmt] [bs=block_size]
       [count=blocks] [skip=blocks] if=input of=output
       info [--object objectdef] [--image-opts]	[-f fmt] [--output=ofmt]
       [--backing-chain] filename
       map [--object objectdef]	[--image-opts] [-f fmt]	[--output=ofmt]
       filename
       snapshot	[--object objectdef] [--image-opts] [-q] [-l | -a snapshot |
       -c snapshot | -d	snapshot] filename
       rebase [--object	objectdef] [--image-opts] [-q] [-f fmt]	[-t cache] [-T
       src_cache] [-p] [-u] -b backing_file [-F	backing_fmt] filename
       resize [--object	objectdef] [--image-opts] [-q] filename	[+ | -]size
       amend [--object objectdef] [--image-opts] [-p] [-q] [-f fmt] [-t	cache]
       -o options filename

       Command parameters:

       filename
	    is a disk image filename

       --object	objectdef
	   is a	QEMU user creatable object definition. See the qemu(1) manual
	   page	for a description of the object	properties. The	most common
	   object type is a "secret", which is used to supply passwords	and/or
	   encryption keys.

       --image-opts
	   Indicates that the filename parameter is to be interpreted as a
	   full	option string, not a plain filename. This parameter is
	   mutually exclusive with the -f and -F parameters.

       fmt is the disk image format. It	is guessed automatically in most
	   cases. See below for	a description of the supported disk formats.

       --backing-chain
	   will	enumerate information about backing files in a disk image
	   chain. Refer	below for further description.

       size
	   is the disk image size in bytes. Optional suffixes "k" or "K"
	   (kilobyte, 1024) "M"	(megabyte, 1024k) and "G" (gigabyte, 1024M)
	   and T (terabyte, 1024G) are supported.  "b" is ignored.

       output_filename
	   is the destination disk image filename

       output_fmt
	    is the destination format

       options
	   is a	comma separated	list of	format specific	options	in a
	   name=value format. Use "-o ?" for an	overview of the	options
	   supported by	the used format	or see the format descriptions below
	   for details.

       snapshot_param
	   is param used for internal snapshot,	format is
	   'snapshot.id=[ID],snapshot.name=[NAME]' or '[ID_OR_NAME]'

       snapshot_id_or_name
	   is deprecated, use snapshot_param instead

       -c  indicates that target image must be compressed (qcow	format only)

       -h  with	or without a command shows help	and lists the supported
	   formats

       -p  display progress bar	(compare, convert and rebase commands only).
	   If the -p option is not used	for a command that supports it,	the
	   progress is reported	when the process receives a "SIGUSR1" signal.

       -q  Quiet mode -	do not print any output	(except	errors). There's no
	   progress bar	in case	both -q	and -p options are used.

       -S size
	   indicates the consecutive number of bytes that must contain only
	   zeros for qemu-img to create	a sparse image during conversion. This
	   value is rounded down to the	nearest	512 bytes. You may use the
	   common size suffixes	like "k" for kilobytes.

       -t cache
	   specifies the cache mode that should	be used	with the (destination)
	   file. See the documentation of the emulator's "-drive cache=..."
	   option for allowed values.

       -T src_cache
	   specifies the cache mode that should	be used	with the source
	   file(s). See	the documentation of the emulator's "-drive cache=..."
	   option for allowed values.

       Parameters to snapshot subcommand:

       snapshot
	   is the name of the snapshot to create, apply	or delete

       -a  applies a snapshot (revert disk to saved state)

       -c  creates a snapshot

       -d  deletes a snapshot

       -l  lists all snapshots in the given image

       Parameters to compare subcommand:

       -f  First image format

       -F  Second image	format

       -s  Strict mode - fail on different image size or sector	allocation

       Parameters to convert subcommand:

       -n  Skip	the creation of	the target volume

       Parameters to dd	subcommand:

       bs=block_size
	   defines the block size

       count=blocks
	   sets	the number of input blocks to copy

       if=input
	   sets	the input file

       of=output
	   sets	the output file

       skip=blocks
	   sets	the number of input blocks to skip

       Command description:

       bench [-c count]	[-d depth] [-f fmt] [--flush-interval=flush_interval]
       [-n] [--no-drain] [-o offset] [--pattern=pattern] [-q] [-s buffer_size]
       [-S step_size] [-t cache] [-w] filename
	   Run a simple	sequential I/O benchmark on the	specified image. If
	   "-w"	is specified, a	write test is performed, otherwise a read test
	   is performed.

	   A total number of count I/O requests	is performed, each buffer_size
	   bytes in size, and with depth requests in parallel. The first
	   request starts at the position given	by offset, each	following
	   request increases the current position by step_size.	If step_size
	   is not given, buffer_size is	used for its value.

	   If flush_interval is	specified for a	write test, the	request	queue
	   is drained and a flush is issued before new writes are made
	   whenever the	number of remaining requests is	a multiple of
	   flush_interval. If additionally "--no-drain"	is specified, a	flush
	   is issued without draining the request queue	first.

	   If "-n" is specified, the native AIO	backend	is used	if possible.
	   On Linux, this option only works if "-t none" or "-t	directsync" is
	   specified as	well.

	   For write tests, by default a buffer	filled with zeros is written.
	   This	can be overridden with a pattern byte specified	by pattern.

       check [-f fmt] [--output=ofmt] [-r [leaks | all]] [-T src_cache]
       filename
	   Perform a consistency check on the disk image filename. The command
	   can output in the format ofmt which is either "human" or "json".

	   If "-r" is specified, qemu-img tries	to repair any inconsistencies
	   found during	the check. "-r leaks" repairs only cluster leaks,
	   whereas "-r all" fixes all kinds of errors, with a higher risk of
	   choosing the	wrong fix or hiding corruption that has	already
	   occurred.

	   Only	the formats "qcow2", "qed" and "vdi" support consistency
	   checks.

	   In case the image does not have any inconsistencies,	check exits
	   with	0.  Other exit codes indicate the kind of inconsistency	found
	   or if another error occurred. The following table summarizes	all
	   exit	codes of the check subcommand:

	   0   Check completed,	the image is (now) consistent

	   1   Check not completed because of internal errors

	   2   Check completed,	image is corrupted

	   3   Check completed,	image has leaked clusters, but is not
	       corrupted

	   63  Checks are not supported	by the image format

	   If "-r" is specified, exit codes representing the image state refer
	   to the state	after (the attempt at) repairing it. That is, a
	   successful "-r all" will yield the exit code	0, independently of
	   the image state before.

       create [-f fmt] [-o options] filename [size]
	   Create the new disk image filename of size size and format fmt.
	   Depending on	the file format, you can add one or more options that
	   enable additional features of this format.

	   If the option backing_file is specified, then the image will	record
	   only	the differences	from backing_file. No size needs to be
	   specified in	this case. backing_file	will never be modified unless
	   you use the "commit"	monitor	command	(or qemu-img commit).

	   The size can	also be	specified using	the size option	with "-o", it
	   doesn't need	to be specified	separately in this case.

       commit [-q] [-f fmt] [-t	cache] [-b base] [-d] [-p] filename
	   Commit the changes recorded in filename in its base image or
	   backing file.  If the backing file is smaller than the snapshot,
	   then	the backing file will be resized to be the same	size as	the
	   snapshot.  If the snapshot is smaller than the backing file,	the
	   backing file	will not be truncated.	If you want the	backing	file
	   to match the	size of	the smaller snapshot, you can safely truncate
	   it yourself once the	commit operation successfully completes.

	   The image filename is emptied after the operation has succeeded. If
	   you do not need filename afterwards and intend to drop it, you may
	   skip	emptying filename by specifying	the "-d" flag.

	   If the backing chain	of the given image file	filename has more than
	   one layer, the backing file into which the changes will be
	   committed may be specified as base (which has to be part of
	   filename's backing chain). If base is not specified,	the immediate
	   backing file	of the top image (which	is filename) will be used. For
	   reasons of consistency, explicitly specifying base will always
	   imply "-d" (since emptying an image after committing	to an indirect
	   backing file	would lead to different	data being read	from the image
	   due to content in the intermediate backing chain overruling the
	   commit target).

       compare [-f fmt]	[-F fmt] [-T src_cache]	[-p] [-s] [-q] filename1
       filename2
	   Check if two	images have the	same content. You can compare images
	   with	different format or settings.

	   The format is probed	unless you specify it by -f (used for
	   filename1) and/or -F	(used for filename2) option.

	   By default, images with different size are considered identical if
	   the larger image contains only unallocated and/or zeroed sectors in
	   the area after the end of the other image. In addition, if any
	   sector is not allocated in one image	and contains only zero bytes
	   in the second one, it is evaluated as equal.	You can	use Strict
	   mode	by specifying the -s option. When compare runs in Strict mode,
	   it fails in case image size differs or a sector is allocated	in one
	   image and is	not allocated in the second one.

	   By default, compare prints out a result message. This message
	   displays information	that both images are same or the position of
	   the first different byte. In	addition, result message can report
	   different image size	in case	Strict mode is used.

	   Compare exits with 0	in case	the images are equal and with 1	in
	   case	the images differ. Other exit codes mean an error occurred
	   during execution and	standard error output should contain an	error
	   message.  The following table sumarizes all exit codes of the
	   compare subcommand:

	   0   Images are identical

	   1   Images differ

	   2   Error on	opening	an image

	   3   Error on	checking a sector allocation

	   4   Error on	reading	data

       convert [-c] [-p] [-n] [-f fmt] [-t cache] [-T src_cache] [-O
       output_fmt] [-o options]	[-s snapshot_id_or_name] [-l snapshot_param]
       [-S sparse_size]	filename [filename2 [...]] output_filename
	   Convert the disk image filename or a	snapshot
	   snapshot_param(snapshot_id_or_name is deprecated) to	disk image
	   output_filename using format	output_fmt. It can be optionally
	   compressed ("-c" option) or use any format specific options like
	   encryption ("-o" option).

	   Only	the formats "qcow" and "qcow2" support compression. The
	   compression is read-only. It	means that if a	compressed sector is
	   rewritten, then it is rewritten as uncompressed data.

	   Image conversion is also useful to get smaller image	when using a
	   growable format such	as "qcow": the empty sectors are detected and
	   suppressed from the destination image.

	   sparse_size indicates the consecutive number	of bytes (defaults to
	   4k) that must contain only zeros for	qemu-img to create a sparse
	   image during	conversion. If sparse_size is 0, the source will not
	   be scanned for unallocated or zero sectors, and the destination
	   image will always be	fully allocated.

	   You can use the backing_file	option to force	the output image to be
	   created as a	copy on	write image of the specified base image; the
	   backing_file	should have the	same content as	the input's base
	   image, however the path, image format, etc may differ.

	   If the "-n" option is specified, the	target volume creation will be
	   skipped. This is useful for formats such as "rbd" if	the target
	   volume has already been created with	site specific options that
	   cannot be supplied through qemu-img.

       dd [-f fmt] [-O output_fmt] [bs=block_size] [count=blocks]
       [skip=blocks] if=input of=output
	   Dd copies from input	file to	output file converting it from fmt
	   format to output_fmt	format.

	   The data is by default read and written using blocks	of 512 bytes
	   but can be modified by specifying block_size. If count=blocks is
	   specified dd	will stop reading input	after reading blocks input
	   blocks.

	   The size syntax is similar to dd(1)'s size syntax.

       info [-f	fmt] [--output=ofmt] [--backing-chain] filename
	   Give	information about the disk image filename. Use it in
	   particular to know the size reserved	on disk	which can be different
	   from	the displayed size. If VM snapshots are	stored in the disk
	   image, they are displayed too. The command can output in the	format
	   ofmt	which is either	"human"	or "json".

	   If a	disk image has a backing file chain, information about each
	   disk	image in the chain can be recursively enumerated by using the
	   option "--backing-chain".

	   For instance, if you	have an	image chain like:

		   base.qcow2 <- snap1.qcow2 <-	snap2.qcow2

	   To enumerate	information about each disk image in the above chain,
	   starting from top to	base, do:

		   qemu-img info --backing-chain snap2.qcow2

       map [-f fmt] [--output=ofmt] filename
	   Dump	the metadata of	image filename and its backing file chain.  In
	   particular, this commands dumps the allocation state	of every
	   sector of filename, together	with the topmost file that allocates
	   it in the backing file chain.

	   Two option formats are possible.  The default format	("human") only
	   dumps known-nonzero areas of	the file.  Known-zero parts of the
	   file	are omitted altogether,	and likewise for parts that are	not
	   allocated throughout	the chain.  qemu-img output will identify a
	   file	from where the data can	be read, and the offset	in the file.
	   Each	line will include four fields, the first three of which	are
	   hexadecimal numbers.	 For example the first line of:

		   Offset	   Length	   Mapped to	   File
		   0		   0x20000	   0x50000	   /tmp/overlay.qcow2
		   0x100000	   0x10000	   0x95380000	   /tmp/backing.qcow2

	   means that 0x20000 (131072) bytes starting at offset	0 in the image
	   are available in /tmp/overlay.qcow2 (opened in "raw"	format)
	   starting at offset 0x50000 (327680).	 Data that is compressed,
	   encrypted, or otherwise not available in raw	format will cause an
	   error if "human" format is in use.  Note that file names can
	   include newlines, thus it is	not safe to parse this output format
	   in scripts.

	   The alternative format "json" will return an	array of dictionaries
	   in JSON format.  It will include similar information	in the
	   "start", "length", "offset" fields; it will also include other more
	   specific information:

	   -   whether the sectors contain actual data or not (boolean field
	       "data"; if false, the sectors are either	unallocated or stored
	       as optimized all-zero clusters);

	   -   whether the data	is known to read as zero (boolean field
	       "zero");

	   -   in order	to make	the output shorter, the	target file is
	       expressed as a "depth"; for example, a depth of 2 refers	to the
	       backing file of the backing file	of filename.

	   In JSON format, the "offset"	field is optional; it is absent	in
	   cases where "human" format would omit the entry or exit with	an
	   error.  If "data" is	false and the "offset" field is	present, the
	   corresponding sectors in the	file are not yet in use, but they are
	   preallocated.

	   For more information, consult include/block/block.h in QEMU's
	   source code.

       snapshot	[-l | -a snapshot | -c snapshot	| -d snapshot ]	filename
	   List, apply,	create or delete snapshots in image filename.

       rebase [-f fmt] [-t cache] [-T src_cache] [-p] [-u] -b backing_file [-F
       backing_fmt] filename
	   Changes the backing file of an image. Only the formats "qcow2" and
	   "qed" support changing the backing file.

	   The backing file is changed to backing_file and (if the image
	   format of filename supports this) the backing file format is
	   changed to backing_fmt. If backing_file is specified	as "" (the
	   empty string), then the image is rebased onto no backing file (i.e.
	   it will exist independently of any backing file).

	   cache specifies the cache mode to be	used for filename, whereas
	   src_cache specifies the cache mode for reading backing files.

	   There are two different modes in which "rebase" can operate:

	   Safe	mode
	       This is the default mode	and performs a real rebase operation.
	       The new backing file may	differ from the	old one	and qemu-img
	       rebase will take	care of	keeping	the guest-visible content of
	       filename	unchanged.

	       In order	to achieve this, any clusters that differ between
	       backing_file and	the old	backing	file of	filename are merged
	       into filename before actually changing the backing file.

	       Note that the safe mode is an expensive operation, comparable
	       to converting an	image. It only works if	the old	backing	file
	       still exists.

	   Unsafe mode
	       qemu-img	uses the unsafe	mode if	"-u" is	specified. In this
	       mode, only the backing file name	and format of filename is
	       changed without any checks on the file contents.	The user must
	       take care of specifying the correct new backing file, or	the
	       guest-visible content of	the image will be corrupted.

	       This mode is useful for renaming	or moving the backing file to
	       somewhere else.	It can be used without an accessible old
	       backing file, i.e. you can use it to fix	an image whose backing
	       file has	already	been moved/renamed.

	   You can use "rebase"	to perform a "diff" operation on two disk
	   images.  This can be	useful when you	have copied or cloned a	guest,
	   and you want	to get back to a thin image on top of a	template or
	   base	image.

	   Say that "base.img" has been	cloned as "modified.img" by copying
	   it, and that	the "modified.img" guest has run so there are now some
	   changes compared to "base.img".  To construct a thin	image called
	   "diff.qcow2"	that contains just the differences, do:

		   qemu-img create -f qcow2 -b modified.img diff.qcow2
		   qemu-img rebase -b base.img diff.qcow2

	   At this point, "modified.img" can be	discarded, since "base.img +
	   diff.qcow2" contains	the same information.

       resize filename [+ | -]size
	   Change the disk image as if it had been created with	size.

	   Before using	this command to	shrink a disk image, you MUST use file
	   system and partitioning tools inside	the VM to reduce allocated
	   file	systems	and partition sizes accordingly.  Failure to do	so
	   will	result in data loss!

	   After using this command to grow a disk image, you must use file
	   system and partitioning tools inside	the VM to actually begin using
	   the new space on the	device.

       amend [-p] [-f fmt] [-t cache] -o options filename
	   Amends the image format specific options for	the image file
	   filename. Not all file formats support this operation.

NOTES
       Supported image file formats:

       raw Raw disk image format (default). This format	has the	advantage of
	   being simple	and easily exportable to all other emulators. If your
	   file	system supports	holes (for example in ext2 or ext3 on Linux or
	   NTFS	on Windows), then only the written sectors will	reserve	space.
	   Use "qemu-img info" to know the real	size used by the image or "ls
	   -ls"	on Unix/Linux.

	   Supported options:

	   "preallocation"
	       Preallocation mode (allowed values: "off", "falloc", "full").
	       "falloc"	mode preallocates space	for image by calling
	       posix_fallocate().  "full" mode preallocates space for image by
	       writing zeros to	underlying storage.

       qcow2
	   QEMU	image format, the most versatile format. Use it	to have
	   smaller images (useful if your filesystem does not supports holes,
	   for example on Windows), optional AES encryption, zlib based
	   compression and support of multiple VM snapshots.

	   Supported options:

	   "compat"
	       Determines the qcow2 version to use. "compat=0.10" uses the
	       traditional image format	that can be read by any	QEMU since
	       0.10.  "compat=1.1" enables image format	extensions that	only
	       QEMU 1.1	and newer understand (this is the default). Amongst
	       others, this includes zero clusters, which allow	efficient
	       copy-on-read for	sparse images.

	   "backing_file"
	       File name of a base image (see create subcommand)

	   "backing_fmt"
	       Image format of the base	image

	   "encryption"
	       If this option is set to	"on", the image	is encrypted with
	       128-bit AES-CBC.

	       The use of encryption in	qcow and qcow2 images is considered to
	       be flawed by modern cryptography	standards, suffering from a
	       number of design	problems:

	       -<The AES-CBC cipher is used with predictable initialization
	       vectors based>
		   on the sector number. This makes it vulnerable to chosen
		   plaintext attacks which can reveal the existence of
		   encrypted data.

	       -<The user passphrase is	directly used as the encryption	key. A
	       poorly>
		   chosen or short passphrase will compromise the security of
		   the encryption.

	       -<In the	event of the passphrase	being compromised there	is no
	       way to>
		   change the passphrase to protect data in any	qcow images.
		   The files must be cloned, using a different encryption
		   passphrase in the new file. The original file must then be
		   securely erased using a program like	shred, though even
		   this	is ineffective with many modern	storage	technologies.

	       Use of qcow / qcow2 encryption is thus strongly discouraged.
	       Users are recommended to	use an alternative encryption
	       technology such as the Linux dm-crypt / LUKS system.

	   "cluster_size"
	       Changes the qcow2 cluster size (must be between 512 and 2M).
	       Smaller cluster sizes can improve the image file	size whereas
	       larger cluster sizes generally provide better performance.

	   "preallocation"
	       Preallocation mode (allowed values: "off", "metadata",
	       "falloc", "full"). An image with	preallocated metadata is
	       initially larger	but can	improve	performance when the image
	       needs to	grow. "falloc" and "full" preallocations are like the
	       same options of "raw" format, but sets up metadata also.

	   "lazy_refcounts"
	       If this option is set to	"on", reference	count updates are
	       postponed with the goal of avoiding metadata I/O	and improving
	       performance. This is particularly interesting with
	       cache=writethrough which	doesn't	batch metadata updates.	The
	       tradeoff	is that	after a	host crash, the	reference count	tables
	       must be rebuilt,	i.e. on	the next open an (automatic) "qemu-img
	       check -r	all" is	required, which	may take some time.

	       This option can only be enabled if "compat=1.1" is specified.

	   "nocow"
	       If this option is set to	"on", it will turn off COW of the
	       file. It's only valid on	btrfs, no effect on other file
	       systems.

	       Btrfs has low performance when hosting a	VM image file, even
	       more when the guest on the VM also using	btrfs as file system.
	       Turning off COW is a way	to mitigate this bad performance.
	       Generally there are two ways to turn off	COW on btrfs: a)
	       Disable it by mounting with nodatacow, then all newly created
	       files will be NOCOW. b) For an empty file, add the NOCOW	file
	       attribute. That's what this option does.

	       Note: this option is only valid to new or empty files. If there
	       is an existing file which is COW	and has	data blocks already,
	       it couldn't be changed to NOCOW by setting "nocow=on". One can
	       issue "lsattr filename" to check	if the NOCOW flag is set or
	       not (Capital 'C'	is NOCOW flag).

       Other
	   QEMU	also supports various other image file formats for
	   compatibility with older QEMU versions or other hypervisors,
	   including VMDK, VDI,	VHD (vpc), VHDX, qcow1 and QED.	For a full
	   list	of supported formats see "qemu-img --help".  For a more
	   detailed description	of these formats, see the QEMU Emulation User
	   Documentation.

	   The main purpose of the block drivers for these formats is image
	   conversion.	For running VMs, it is recommended to convert the disk
	   images to either raw	or qcow2 in order to achieve good performance.

SEE ALSO
       The HTML	documentation of QEMU for more precise information and Linux
       user mode emulator invocation.

AUTHOR
       Fabrice Bellard

				  2017-07-03			   QEMU-IMG(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | NOTES | SEE ALSO | AUTHOR

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