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VI(1)                   FreeBSD General Commands Manual                  VI(1)

NAME
     ex, vi, view - text editors

SYNOPSIS
     ex [-FRrSsv] [-c cmd] [-t tag] [-w size] [file ...]
     vi  [-eFRrS] [-c cmd] [-t tag] [-w size] [file ...]
     view [-eFrS] [-c cmd] [-t tag] [-w size] [file ...]

DESCRIPTION
     vi is a screen-oriented text editor.  ex is a line-oriented text editor.
     ex and vi are different interfaces to the same program, and it is
     possible to switch back and forth during an edit session.  view is the
     equivalent of using the -R (read-only) option of vi.

     This manual page is the one provided with the nex/nvi versions of the
     ex/vi text editors.  nex/nvi are intended as bug-for-bug compatible
     replacements for the original Fourth Berkeley Software Distribution
     (4BSD) ex and vi programs.  For the rest of this manual page, nex/nvi is
     used only when it's necessary to distinguish it from the historic
     implementations of ex/vi.

     This manual page is intended for users already familiar with ex/vi.
     Anyone else should almost certainly read a good tutorial on the editor
     before this manual page.  If you're in an unfamiliar environment, and you
     absolutely have to get work done immediately, read the section after the
     options description, entitled FAST STARTUP.  It's probably enough to get
     you going.

     The following options are available:

     -c cmd    Execute cmd on the first file loaded.  Particularly useful for
               initial positioning in the file, although cmd is not limited to
               positioning commands.  This is the POSIX 1003.2 interface for
               the historic ``+cmd'' syntax.  nex/nvi supports both the old
               and new syntax.

     -e        Start editing in ex mode, as if the command name were ex.

     -F        Don't copy the entire file when first starting to edit.  (The
               default is to make a copy in case someone else modifies the
               file during your edit session.)

     -R        Start editing in read-only mode, as if the command name was
               view, or the readonly option was set.

     -r        Recover the specified files, or, if no files are specified,
               list the files that could be recovered.  If no recoverable
               files by the specified name exist, the file is edited as if the
               -r option had not been specified.

     -S        Run with the secure edit option set, disallowing all access to
               external programs.

     -s        Enter batch mode; applicable only to ex edit sessions.  Batch
               mode is useful when running ex scripts.  Prompts, informative
               messages and other user oriented messages are turned off, and
               no startup files or environment variables are read.  This is
               the POSIX 1003.2 interface for the historic ``-'' argument.
               nex/nvi supports both the old and new syntax.

     -t tag    Start editing at the specified tag (see ctags(1)).

     -v        Start editing in vi mode, as if the command name was vi.

     -w size   Set the initial window size to the specified number of lines.

     Command input for ex/vi is read from the standard input.  In the vi
     interface, it is an error if standard input is not a terminal.  In the ex
     interface, if standard input is not a terminal, ex will read commands
     from it regardless; however, the session will be a batch mode session,
     exactly as if the -s option had been specified.

FAST STARTUP
     This section will tell you the minimum amount that you need to do simple
     editing tasks using vi.  If you've never used any screen editor before,
     you're likely to have problems even with this simple introduction.  In
     that case you should find someone that already knows vi and have them
     walk you through this section.

     vi is a screen editor.  This means that it takes up almost the entire
     screen, displaying part of the file on each screen line, except for the
     last line of the screen.  The last line of the screen is used for you to
     give commands to vi, and for vi to give information to you.

     The other fact that you need to understand is that vi is a modeful
     editor, i.e., you are either entering text or you are executing commands,
     and you have to be in the right mode to do one or the other.  You will be
     in command mode when you first start editing a file.  There are commands
     that switch you into input mode.  There is only one key that takes you
     out of input mode, and that is the <escape> key.

     Key names are written using less-than and greater-than signs, e.g.,
     <escape> means the ``escape'' key, usually labeled ``Esc'' on your
     terminal's keyboard.  If you're ever confused as to which mode you're in,
     keep entering the <escape> key until vi beeps at you.  Generally, vi will
     beep at you if you try and do something that's not allowed.  It will also
     display error messages.

     To start editing a file, enter the following command:

           $ vi file

     The command you should enter as soon as you start editing is:

           :set verbose showmode

     This will make the editor give you verbose error messages and display the
     current mode at the bottom of the screen.

     The commands to move around the file are:

     h       Move the cursor left one character.

     j       Move the cursor down one line.

     k       Move the cursor up one line.

     l       Move the cursor right one character.

     <cursor-arrows>
             The cursor arrow keys should work, too.

     /text   Search for the string ``text'' in the file, and move the cursor
             to its first character.

     The commands to enter new text are:

     a         Append new text, after the cursor.

     i         Insert new text, before the cursor.

     o         Open a new line below the line the cursor is on, and start
               entering text.

     O         Open a new line above the line the cursor is on, and start
               entering text.

     <escape>  Once you've entered input mode using one of the a, i, o or O
               commands, use <escape> to quit entering text and return to
               command mode.

     The commands to copy text are:

     yy      Copy the line the cursor is on.

     p       Append the copied line after the line the cursor is on.

     The commands to delete text are:

     dd      Delete the line the cursor is on.

     x       Delete the character the cursor is on.

     The commands to write the file are:

     :w      Write the file back to the file with the name that you originally
             used as an argument on the vi command line.

     :w file_name
             Write the file back to the file with the name file_name.

     The commands to quit editing and exit the editor are:

     :q      Quit editing and leave vi (if you've modified the file, but not
             saved your changes, vi will refuse to quit).

     :q!     Quit, discarding any modifications that you may have made.

     One final caution: Unusual characters can take up more than one column on
     the screen, and long lines can take up more than a single screen line.
     The above commands work on ``physical'' characters and lines, i.e., they
     affect the entire line no matter how many screen lines it takes up and
     the entire character no matter how many screen columns it takes up.

REGULAR EXPRESSIONS
     ex/vi supports regular expressions (REs), as documented in re_format(7),
     for line addresses, as the first part of the ex substitute, global and v
     commands, and in search patterns.  Basic regular expressions (BREs) are
     enabled by default; extended regular expressions (EREs) are used if the
     extended option is enabled.  The use of regular expressions can be
     largely disabled using the magic option.

     The following strings have special meanings in the ex/vi version of
     regular expressions:

     +o   An empty regular expression is equivalent to the last regular
         expression used.

     +o   `\<' matches the beginning of the word.

     +o   `\>' matches the end of the word.

     +o   `~' matches the replacement part of the last substitute command.

BUFFERS
     A buffer is an area where commands can save changed or deleted text for
     later use.  vi buffers are named with a single character preceded by a
     double quote, for example "<c>; ex buffers are the same, but without the
     double quote.  nex/nvi permits the use of any character without another
     meaning in the position where a buffer name is expected.

     All buffers are either in line mode or character mode.  Inserting a
     buffer in line mode into the text creates new lines for each of the lines
     it contains, while a buffer in character mode creates new lines for any
     lines other than the first and last lines it contains.  The first and
     last lines are inserted at the current cursor position, becoming part of
     the current line.  If there is more than one line in the buffer, the
     current line itself will be split.  All ex commands which store text into
     buffers do so in line mode.  The behaviour of vi commands depend on their
     associated motion command:

     +o   <control-A>, h, l, ,, 0, B, E, F, T, W, ^, b, e, f and t make the
         destination buffer character-oriented.

     +o   j, <control-M>, k, ', -, G, H, L, M, _ and | make the destination
         buffer line-oriented.

     +o   $, %, `, (, ), /, ?, [[, ]], { and } make the destination buffer
         character-oriented, unless the starting and end positions are the
         first and last characters on a line.  In that case, the buffer is
         line-oriented.

     The ex command display buffers displays the current mode for each buffer.

     Buffers named `a' through `z' may be referred to using their uppercase
     equivalent, in which case new content will be appended to the buffer,
     instead of replacing it.

     Buffers named `1' through `9' are special.  A region of text modified
     using the c (change) or d (delete) commands is placed into the numeric
     buffer `1' if no other buffer is specified and if it meets one of the
     following conditions:

     +o   It includes characters from more than one line.

     +o   It is specified using a line-oriented motion.

     +o   It is specified using one of the following motion commands:
         <control-A>, `<character>, n, N, %, /, {, }, (, ), and ?.

     Before this copy is done, the previous contents of buffer `1' are moved
     into buffer `2', `2' into buffer `3', and so on.  The contents of buffer
     `9' are discarded.  Note that this rotation occurs regardless of the user
     specifying another buffer.  In vi, text may be explicitly stored into the
     numeric buffers.  In this case, the buffer rotation occurs before the
     replacement of the buffer's contents.  The numeric buffers are only
     available in vi mode.

VI COMMANDS
     The following section describes the commands available in the command
     mode of the vi editor.  The following words have a special meaning in the
     commands description:

     bigword  A set of non-whitespace characters.
     buffer   Temporary area where commands may place text.  If not specified,
              the default buffer is used.  See also BUFFERS, above.
     count    A positive number used to specify the desired number of
              iterations of a command.  It defaults to 1 if not specified.
     motion   A cursor movement command which indicates the other end of the
              affected region of text, the first being the current cursor
              position.  Repeating the command character makes it affect the
              whole current line.
     word     A sequence of letters, digits or underscores.

     buffer and count, if both present, may be specified in any order.  motion
     and count, if both present, are effectively multiplied together and
     considered part of the motion.

     <control-A>
             Search forward for the word starting at the cursor position.

     [count] <control-B>
             Page backwards count screens.  Two lines of overlap are
             maintained, if possible.

     [count] <control-D>
             Scroll forward count lines.  If count is not given, scroll
             forward the number of lines specified by the last <control-D> or
             <control-U> command.  If this is the first <control-D> command,
             scroll half the number of lines in the current screen.

     [count] <control-E>
             Scroll forward count lines, leaving the current line and column
             as is, if possible.

     [count] <control-F>
             Page forward count screens.  Two lines of overlap are maintained,
             if possible.

     <control-G>
             Display the following file information: the file name (as given
             to vi); whether the file has been modified since it was last
             written; if the file is read-only; the current line number; the
             total number of lines in the file; and the current line number as
             a percentage of the total lines in the file.

     [count] <control-H>
     [count] h
             Move the cursor back count characters in the current line.

     [count] <control-J>
     [count] <control-N>
     [count] j
             Move the cursor down count lines without changing the current
             column.

     <control-L>
     <control-R>
             Repaint the screen.

     [count] <control-M>
     [count] +
             Move the cursor down count lines to the first non-blank character
             of that line.

     [count] <control-P>
     [count] k
             Move the cursor up count lines, without changing the current
             column.

     <control-T>
             Return to the most recent tag context.

     [count] <control-U>
             Scroll backwards count lines.  If count is not given, scroll
             backwards the number of lines specified by the last <control-D>
             or <control-U> command.  If this is the first <control-U>
             command, scroll half the number of lines in the current screen.

     <control-W>
             Switch to the next lower screen in the window, or to the first
             screen if there are no lower screens in the window.

     [count] <control-Y>
             Scroll backwards count lines, leaving the current line and column
             as is, if possible.

     <control-Z>
             Suspend the current editor session.

     <escape>
             Execute the ex command being entered, or cancel it if it is only
             partial.

     <control-]>
             Push a tag reference onto the tag stack.

     <control-^>
             Switch to the most recently edited file.

     [count] <space>
     [count] l
             Move the cursor forward count characters without changing the
             current line.

     [count] ! motion shell-argument(s) <carriage-return>
             Replace the lines spanned by count and motion with the output
             (standard output and standard error) of the program named by the
             shell option, called with a -c flag followed by the
             shell-argument(s) (bundled into a single argument).  Within
             shell-argument(s), the `%', `#' and `!' characters are expanded
             to the current file name, the previous current file name, and the
             command text of the previous ! or :! commands, respectively.  The
             special meaning of `%', `#' and `!' can be overridden by escaping
             them with a backslash.

     [count] # #|+|-
             Increment (trailing `#' or `+') or decrement (trailing `-') the
             number under the cursor by count, starting at the cursor position
             or at the first non-blank character following it.  Numbers with a
             leading `0x' or `0X' are interpreted as hexadecimal numbers.
             Numbers with a leading `0' are interpreted as octal numbers
             unless they contain a non-octal digit.  Other numbers may be
             prefixed with a `+' or `-' sign.

     [count] $
             Move the cursor to the end of a line.  If count is specified,
             additionally move the cursor down count - 1 lines.

     %       Move to the matchchars character matching the one found at the
             cursor position or the closest to the right of it.

     &       Repeat the previous substitution command on the current line.

     '<character>
     `<character>
             Return to the cursor position marked by the character character,
             or, if character is `'' or ``', to the position of the cursor
             before the last of the following commands: <control-A>,
             <control-T>, <control-]>, %, ', `, (, ), /, ?, G, H, L, [[, ]],
             {, }.  The first form returns to the first non-blank character of
             the line marked by character.  The second form returns to the
             line and column marked by character.

     [count] (
     [count] )
             Move count sentences backward or forward, respectively.  A
             sentence is an area of text that begins with the first nonblank
             character following the previous sentence, paragraph, or section
             boundary and continues until the next period, exclamation point,
             or question mark character, followed by any number of closing
             parentheses, brackets, double or single quote characters,
             followed by either an end-of-line or two whitespace characters.
             Groups of empty lines (or lines containing only whitespace
             characters) are treated as a single sentence.

     [count] ,
             Reverse find character (i.e., the last F, f, T or t command)
             count times.

     [count] -
             Move to the first non-blank character of the previous line, count
             times.

     [count] .
             Repeat the last vi command that modified text.  count replaces
             both the count argument of the repeated command and that of the
             associated motion.  If the . command repeats the u command, the
             change log is rolled forward or backward, depending on the action
             of the u command.

     /RE <carriage-return>
     /RE/ [offset] [z] <carriage-return>
     ?RE <carriage-return>
     ?RE? [offset] [z] <carriage-return>
     N
     n       Search forward (`/') or backward (`?') for a regular expression.
             n and N repeat the last search in the same or opposite
             directions, respectively.  If RE is empty, the last search
             regular expression is used.  If offset is specified, the cursor
             is placed offset lines before or after the matched regular
             expression.  If either n or N commands are used as motion
             components for the ! command, there will be no prompt for the
             text of the command and the previous ! will be executed.
             Multiple search patterns may be grouped together by delimiting
             them with semicolons and zero or more whitespace characters.
             These patterns are evaluated from left to right with the final
             cursor position determined by the last search pattern.  A z
             command may be appended to the closed search expressions to
             reposition the result line.

     0       Move to the first character in the current line.

     :       Execute an ex command.

     [count] ;
             Repeat the last character find (i.e., the last .Cm F, f, T or t
             command) count times.

     [count] < motion
     [count] > motion
             Shift count lines left or right, respectively, by an amount of
             shiftwidth.

     @ buffer
             Execute a named buffer as vi commands.  The buffer may include ex
             commands too, but they must be expressed as a : command.  If
             buffer is `@' or `*', then the last buffer executed shall be
             used.

     [count] A
             Enter input mode, appending the text after the end of the line.
             If a count argument is given, the characters input are repeated
             count - 1 times after input mode is exited.

     [count] B
             Move backwards count bigwords.

     [buffer] C
             Change text from the current position to the end-of-line.  If
             buffer is specified, ``yank'' the deleted text into buffer.

     [buffer] D
             Delete text from the current position to the end-of-line.  If
             buffer is specified, ``yank'' the deleted text into buffer.

     [count] E
             Move forward count end-of-bigwords.

     [count] F <character>
             Search count times backward through the current line for
             <character>.

     [count] G
             Move to line count, or the last line of the file if count is not
             specified.

     [count] H
             Move to the screen line count - 1 lines below the top of the
             screen.

     [count] I
             Enter input mode, inserting the text at the beginning of the
             line.  If a count argument is given, the characters input are
             repeated count - 1 more times.

     [count] J
             Join count lines with the current line.  The spacing between two
             joined lines is set to two whitespace characters if the former
             ends with a question mark, a period or an exclamation point.  It
             is set to one whitespace character otherwise.

     [count] L
             Move to the screen line count - 1 lines above the bottom of the
             screen.

     M       Move to the screen line in the middle of the screen.

     [count] O
             Enter input mode, appending text in a new line above the current
             line.  If a count argument is given, the characters input are
             repeated count - 1 more times.

     [buffer] P
             Insert text from buffer before the current column if buffer is
             character-oriented or before the current line if it is line-
             oriented.

     Q       Exit vi (or visual) mode and switch to ex mode.

     [count] R
             Enter input mode, replacing the characters in the current line.
             If a count argument is given, the characters input are repeated
             count - 1 more times upon exit from insert mode.

     [buffer] [count] S
             Substitute count lines.  If buffer is specified, ``yank'' the
             deleted text into buffer.

     [count] T <character>
             Search backwards, count times, through the current line for the
             character after the specified <character>.

     U       Restore the current line to its state before the cursor last
             moved to it.

     [count] W
             Move forward count bigwords.

     [buffer] [count] X
             Delete count characters before the cursor, on the current line.
             If buffer is specified, ``yank'' the deleted text into buffer.

     [buffer] [count] Y
             Copy (or ``yank'') count lines into buffer.

     ZZ      Write the file and exit vi if there are no more files to edit.
             Entering two ``quit'' commands in a row ignores any remaining
             file to edit.

     [count] [[
             Back up count section boundaries.

     [count] ]]
             Move forward count section boundaries.

     ^       Move to the first non-blank character on the current line.

     [count] _
             Move down count - 1 lines, to the first non-blank character.

     [count] a
             Enter input mode, appending the text after the cursor.  If a
             count argument is given, the characters input are repeated count
             number of times.

     [count] b
             Move backwards count words.

     [buffer] [count] c motion
             Change the region of text described by count and motion.  If
             buffer is specified, ``yank'' the changed text into buffer.

     [buffer] [count] d motion
             Delete the region of text described by count and motion.  If
             buffer is specified, ``yank'' the deleted text into buffer.

     [count] e
             Move forward count end-of-words.

     [count] f <character>
             Search forward, count times, through the rest of the current line
             for <character>.

     [count] i
             Enter input mode, inserting the text before the cursor.  If a
             count argument is given, the characters input are repeated count
             number of times.

     m <character>
             Save the current context (line and column) as <character>.

     [count] o
             Enter input mode, appending text in a new line under the current
             line.  If a count argument is given, the characters input are
             repeated count - 1 more times.

     [buffer] p
             Append text from buffer.  Text is appended after the current
             column if buffer is character oriented, or after the current line
             otherwise.

     [count] r <character>
             Replace count characters with character.

     [buffer] [count] s
             Substitute count characters in the current line starting with the
             current character.  If buffer is specified, ``yank'' the
             substituted text into buffer.

     [count] t <character>
             Search forward, count times, through the current line for the
             character immediately before <character>.

     u       Undo the last change made to the file.  If repeated, the u
             command alternates between these two states.  The . command, when
             used immediately after u, causes the change log to be rolled
             forward or backward, depending on the action of the u command.

     [count] w
             Move forward count words.

     [buffer] [count] x
             Delete count characters at the current cursor position, but no
             more than there are till the end of the line.

     [buffer] [count] y motion
             Copy (or ``yank'') a text region specified by count and motion
             into a buffer.

     [count1] z [count2] type
             Redraw, optionally repositioning and resizing the screen.  If
             count2 is specified, limit the screen size to count2 lines.  The
             following type characters may be used:

             +       If count1 is specified, place the line count1 at the top
                     of the screen.  Otherwise, display the screen after the
                     current screen.

             <carriage-return>
                     Place the line count1 at the top of the screen.

             .       Place the line count1 in the center of the screen.

             -       Place the line count1 at the bottom of the screen.

             ^       If count1 is given, display the screen before the screen
                     before count1 (i.e., 2 screens before).  Otherwise,
                     display the screen before the current screen.

     [count] {
             Move backward count paragraphs.

     [column] |
             Move to a specific column position on the current line.  If
             column is omitted, move to the start of the current line.

     [count] }
             Move forward count paragraphs.

     [count] ~ motion
             If the tildeop option is not set, reverse the case of the next
             count character(s) and no motion can be specified.  Otherwise
             motion is mandatory and ~ reverses the case of the characters in
             a text region specified by the count and motion.

     <interrupt>
             Interrupt the current operation.  The <interrupt> character is
             usually <control-C>.

VI TEXT INPUT COMMANDS
     The following section describes the commands available in the text input
     mode of the vi editor.

     <nul>   Replay the previous input.

     <control-D>
             Erase to the previous shiftwidth column boundary.

     ^<control-D>
             Erase all of the autoindent characters, and reset the autoindent
             level.

     0<control-D>
             Erase all of the autoindent characters.

     <control-T>
             Insert sufficient <tab> and <space> characters to move forward to
             the next shiftwidth column boundary.

     <erase>
     <control-H>
             Erase the last character.

     <literal next>
             Escape the next character from any special meaning.  The
             <literal next> character is usually <control-V>.

     <escape>
             Resolve all text input into the file, and return to command mode.

     <line erase>
             Erase the current line.

     <control-W>
     <word erase>
             Erase the last word.  The definition of word is dependent on the
             altwerase and ttywerase options.

     <control-X>[0-9A-Fa-f]+
             Insert a character with the specified hexadecimal value into the
             text.

     <interrupt>
             Interrupt text input mode, returning to command mode.  The
             <interrupt> character is usually <control-C>.

EX COMMANDS
     The following section describes the commands available in the ex editor.
     In each entry below, the tag line is a usage synopsis for the command.

     <end-of-file>
             Scroll the screen.

     ! argument(s)
     [range] ! argument(s)
             Execute a shell command, or filter lines through a shell command.

     "       A comment.

     [range] nu[mber] [count] [flags]
     [range] # [count] [flags]
             Display the selected lines, each preceded with its line number.

     @ buffer
     * buffer
             Execute a buffer.

     [range] <[< ...] [count] [flags]
             Shift lines left.

     [line] = [flags]
             Display the line number of line.  If line is not specified,
             display the line number of the last line in the file.

     [range] >[> ...] [count] [flags]
             Shift lines right.

     ab[breviate] lhs rhs
             vi only.  Add lhs as an abbreviation for rhs to the abbreviation
             list.

     [line] a[ppend][!]
             The input text is appended after the specified line.

     ar[gs]  Display the argument list.

     bg      vi only.  Background the current screen.

     [range] c[hange][!] [count]
             The input text replaces the specified range.

     chd[ir][!] [directory]
     cd[!] [directory]
             Change the current working directory.

     [range] co[py] line [flags]
     [range] t line [flags]
             Copy the specified lines after the destination line.

     cs[cope] add | find | help | kill | reset
             Execute a Cscope command.

     [range] d[elete] [buffer] [count] [flags]
             Delete the lines from the file.

     di[splay] b[uffers] | c[onnections] | s[creens] | t[ags]
             Display buffers, Cscope connections, screens or tags.

     [Ee][dit][!] [+cmd] [file]
     [Ee]x[!] [+cmd] [file]
             Edit a different file.

     exu[sage] [command]
             Display usage for an ex command.

     f[ile] [file]
             Display and optionally change the file name.

     [Ff]g [name]
             vi mode only.  Foreground the specified screen.

     [range] g[lobal] /pattern/ [commands]
     [range] v /pattern/ [commands]
             Apply commands to lines matching (`global') or not matching (`v')
             a pattern.

     he[lp]  Display a help message.

     [line] i[nsert][!]
             The input text is inserted before the specified line.

     [range] j[oin][!] [count] [flags]
             Join lines of text together.

     [range] l[ist] [count] [flags]
             Display the lines unambiguously.

     map[!] [lhs rhs]
             Define or display maps (for vi only).

     [line] ma[rk] <character>
     [line] k <character>
             Mark the line with the mark <character>.

     [range] m[ove] line
             Move the specified lines after the target line.

     mk[exrc][!] file
             Write the abbreviations, editor options and maps to the specified
             file.

     [Nn][ext][!] [file ...]
             Edit the next file from the argument list.

     pre[serve]
             Save the file in a form that can later be recovered using the ex
             -r option.

     [Pp]rev[ious][!]
             Edit the previous file from the argument list.

     [range] p[rint] [count] [flags]
             Display the specified lines.

     [line] pu[t] [buffer]
             Append buffer contents to the current line.

     q[uit][!]
             End the editing session.

     [line] r[ead][!] [file]
             Read a file.

     rec[over] file
             Recover file if it was previously saved.

     res[ize] [+|-]size
             vi mode only.  Grow or shrink the current screen.

     rew[ind][!]
             Rewind the argument list.

     se[t] [option[=[value]] ...]  [nooption ...] [option? ...] [all]
             Display or set editor options.

     sh[ell]
             Run a shell program.

     so[urce] file
             Read and execute ex commands from a file.

     [range] s[ubstitute] [/pattern/replace/]  [options] [count] [flags]
     [range] & [options] [count] [flags]
     [range] ~ [options] [count] [flags]
             Make substitutions.  The replace field may contain any of the
             following sequences:

             `&'     The text matched by pattern.

             `~'     The replacement part of the previous substitute command.

             `%'     If this is the entire replace pattern, the replacement
                     part of the previous substitute command.

             `\#'    Where `#' is an integer from 1 to 9, the text matched by
                     the #'th subexpression in pattern.

             `\L'    Causes the characters up to the end of the line of the
                     next occurrence of `\E' or `\e' to be converted to
                     lowercase.

             `\l'    Causes the next character to be converted to lowercase.

             `\U'    Causes the characters up to the end of the line of the
                     next occurrence of `\E' or `\e' to be converted to
                     uppercase.

             `\u'    Causes the next character to be converted to uppercase.

     su[spend][!]
     st[op][!]
     <suspend>
             Suspend the edit session.  The <suspend> character is usually
             <control-Z>.

     [Tt]a[g][!] tagstring
             Edit the file containing the specified tag.

     tagn[ext][!]
             Edit the file containing the next context for the current tag.

     tagp[op][!] [file | number]
             Pop to the specified tag in the tags stack.

     tagpr[ev][!]
             Edit the file containing the previous context for the current
             tag.

     tagt[op][!]
             Pop to the least recent tag on the tags stack, clearing the
             stack.

     una[bbreviate] lhs
             vi only.  Delete an abbreviation.

     u[ndo]  Undo the last change made to the file.

     unm[ap][!] lhs
             Unmap a mapped string.

     ve[rsion]
             Display the version of the ex/vi editor.

     [line] vi[sual] [type] [count] [flags]
             ex mode only.  Enter vi.

     [Vi]i[sual][!] [+cmd] [file]
             vi mode only.  Edit a new file.

     viu[sage] [command]
             Display usage for a vi command.

     [range] w[rite][!] [>>] [file]
     [range] w[rite] [!] [file]
     [range] wn[!] [>>] [file]
     [range] wq[!] [>>] [file]
             Write the file.

     [range] x[it][!] [file]
             Exit the editor, writing the file if it has been modified.

     [range] ya[nk] [buffer] [count]
             Copy the specified lines to a buffer.

     [line] z [type] [count] [flags]
             Adjust the window.

SET OPTIONS
     There are a large number of options that may be set (or unset) to change
     the editor's behavior.  This section describes the options, their
     abbreviations and their default values.

     In each entry below, the first part of the tag line is the full name of
     the option, followed by any equivalent abbreviations.  The part in square
     brackets is the default value of the option.  Most of the options are
     boolean, i.e., they are either on or off, and do not have an associated
     value.

     Options apply to both ex and vi modes, unless otherwise specified.

     altwerase [off]
             vi only.  Select an alternate word erase algorithm.

     autoindent, ai [off]
             Automatically indent new lines.

     autoprint, ap [on]
             ex only.  Display the current line automatically.

     autowrite, aw [off]
             Write modified files automatically when changing files or
             suspending the editor session.

     backup [""]
             Back up files before they are overwritten.

     beautify, bf [off]
             Discard control characters.

     cdpath [environment variable CDPATH, or current directory]
             The directory paths used as path prefixes for the cd command.

     cedit [no default]
             Set the character to edit the colon command-line history.

     columns, co [80]
             Set the number of columns in the screen.

     comment [off]
             vi only.  Skip leading comments in shell, C and C++ language
             files.

     directory, dir [environment variable TMPDIR, or /tmp]
             The directory where temporary files are created.

     edcompatible, ed [off]
             Remember the values of the `c' and `g' suffixes to the substitute
             commands, instead of initializing them as unset for each new
             command.

     errorbells, eb [off]
             ex only.  Announce error messages with a bell.

     escapetime [1]
             The tenths of a second ex/vi waits for a subsequent key to
             complete an <escape> key mapping.

     exrc, ex [off]
             Read the startup files in the local directory.

     extended [off]
             Use extended regular expressions (EREs) rather than basic regular
             expressions (BREs).  See re_format(7) for more information on
             regular expressions.

     filec [<tab>]
             Set the character to perform file path completion on the colon
             command line.

     fileencoding, fe [auto detect]
             Set the encoding of the current file.

     flash [on]
             Flash the screen instead of beeping the keyboard on error.

     hardtabs, ht [0]
             Set the spacing between hardware tab settings.  This option
             currently has no effect.

     iclower [off]
             Makes all regular expressions case-insensitive, as long as an
             upper-case letter does not appear in the search string.

     ignorecase, ic [off]
             Ignore case differences in regular expressions.

     inputencoding, ie [locale]
             Set the encoding of your input characters.

     keytime [6]
             The tenths of a second ex/vi waits for a subsequent key to
             complete a key mapping.

     leftright [off]
             vi only.  Do left-right scrolling.

     lines, li [24]
             vi only.  Set the number of lines in the screen.

     lisp [off]
             vi only.  Modify various search commands and options to work with
             Lisp.  This option is not yet implemented.

     list [off]
             Display lines in an unambiguous fashion.

     lock [on]
             Attempt to get an exclusive lock on any file being edited, read
             or written.

     magic [on]
             When turned off, all regular expression characters except for `^'
             and `$' are treated as ordinary characters.  Preceding individual
             characters by `\' re-enables them.

     matchchars [[]{}()]
             Character pairs looked for by the % command.

     matchtime [7]
             vi only.  The tenths of a second ex/vi pauses on the matching
             character when the showmatch option is set.

     mesg [on]
             Permit messages from other users.

     msgcat [/usr/share/vi/catalog/]
             Selects a message catalog to be used to display error and
             informational messages in a specified language.

     modelines, modeline [off]
             Read the first and last few lines of each file for ex commands.
             This option will never be implemented.

     noprint [""]
             Characters that are never handled as printable characters.

     number, nu [off]
             Precede each line displayed with its current line number.

     octal [off]
             Display unknown characters as octal numbers, instead of the
             default hexadecimal.

     open [on]
             ex only.  If this option is not set, the open and visual commands
             are disallowed.

     optimize, opt [on]
             vi only.  Optimize text throughput to dumb terminals.  This
             option is not yet implemented.

     paragraphs, para [IPLPPPQPP LIpplpipbp]
             vi only.  Define additional paragraph boundaries for the { and }
             commands.

     path [""]
             Define additional directories to search for files being edited.

     print [""]
             Characters that are always handled as printable characters.

     prompt [on]
             ex only.  Display a command prompt.

     readonly, ro [off]
             Mark the file and session as read-only.

     recdir [/var/tmp/vi.recover]
             The directory where recovery files are stored.

     redraw, re [off]
             vi only.  Simulate an intelligent terminal on a dumb one.  This
             option is not yet implemented.

     remap [on]
             Remap keys until resolved.

     report [5]
             Set the number of lines about which the editor reports changes or
             yanks.

     ruler [off]
             vi only.  Display a row/column ruler on the colon command line.

     scroll, scr [window size / 2]
             Set the number of lines scrolled.

     searchincr [off]
             Makes the / and ? commands incremental.

     sections, sect [NHSHH HUnhsh]
             vi only.  Define additional section boundaries for the [[ and ]]
             commands.

     secure [off]
             Turns off all access to external programs.

     shell, sh [environment variable SHELL, or /bin/sh]
             Select the shell used by the editor.

     shellmeta [~{[*?$`'"\]
             Set the meta characters checked to determine if file name
             expansion is necessary.

     shiftwidth, sw [8]
             Set the autoindent and shift command indentation width.

     showmatch, sm [off]
             vi only.  Note the left matching characters when the right ones
             are inserted.

     showmode, smd [off]
             vi only.  Display the current editor mode and a ``modified''
             flag.

     sidescroll [16]
             vi only.  Set the amount a left-right scroll will shift.

     slowopen, slow [off]
             Delay display updating during text input.  This option is not yet
             implemented.

     sourceany [off]
             Read startup files not owned by the current user.  This option
             will never be implemented.

     tabstop, ts [8]
             This option sets tab widths for the editor display.

     taglength, tl [0]
             Set the number of significant characters in tag names.

     tags, tag [tags]
             Set the list of tags files.

     term, ttytype, tty [environment variable TERM]
             Set the terminal type.

     terse [off]
             This option has historically made editor messages less verbose.
             It has no effect in this implementation.

     tildeop [off]
             Modify the ~ command to take an associated motion.

     timeout, to [on]
             Time out on keys which may be mapped.

     ttywerase [off]
             vi only.  Select an alternate erase algorithm.

     verbose [off]
             vi only.  Display an error message for every error.

     w300 [no default]
             vi only.  Set the window size if the baud rate is less than 1200
             baud.

     w1200 [no default]
             vi only.  Set the window size if the baud rate is equal to 1200
             baud.

     w9600 [no default]
             vi only.  Set the window size if the baud rate is greater than
             1200 baud.

     warn [on]
             ex only.  This option causes a warning message to be printed on
             the terminal if the file has been modified since it was last
             written, before a ! command.

     window, w, wi [environment variable LINES - 1]
             Set the window size for the screen.

     windowname [off]
             Change the icon/window name to the current file name.

     wraplen, wl [0]
             vi only.  Break lines automatically, the specified number of
             columns from the left-hand margin.  If both the wraplen and
             wrapmargin edit options are set, the wrapmargin value is used.

     wrapmargin, wm [0]
             vi only.  Break lines automatically, the specified number of
             columns from the right-hand margin.  If both the wraplen and
             wrapmargin edit options are set, the wrapmargin value is used.

     wrapscan, ws [on]
             Set searches to wrap around the end or beginning of the file.

     writeany, wa [off]
             Turn off file-overwriting checks.

ENVIRONMENT
     COLUMNS  The number of columns on the screen.  This value overrides any
              system or terminal specific values.  If the COLUMNS environment
              variable is not set when ex/vi runs, or the columns option is
              explicitly reset by the user, ex/vi enters the value into the
              environment.

     EXINIT   A list of ex startup commands, read after /etc/vi.exrc unless
              the variable NEXINIT is also set.

     HOME     The user's home directory, used as the initial directory path
              for the startup $HOME/.nexrc and $HOME/.exrc files.  This value
              is also used as the default directory for the cd command.

     LINES    The number of rows on the screen.  This value overrides any
              system or terminal specific values.  If the LINES environment
              variable is not set when ex/vi runs, or the lines option is
              explicitly reset by the user, ex/vi enters the value into the
              environment.

     NEXINIT  A list of ex startup commands, read after /etc/vi.exrc.

     SHELL    The user's shell of choice (see also the shell option).

     TERM     The user's terminal type.  The default is the type ``unknown''.
              If the TERM environment variable is not set when ex/vi runs, or
              the term option is explicitly reset by the user, ex/vi enters
              the value into the environment.

     TMPDIR   The location used to store temporary files (see also the
              directory edit option).

ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS
     SIGALRM   vi/ex uses this signal for periodic backups of file
               modifications and to display ``busy'' messages when operations
               are likely to take a long time.

     SIGHUP
     SIGTERM   If the current buffer has changed since it was last written in
               its entirety, the editor attempts to save the modified file so
               it can be later recovered.  See the vi/ex reference manual
               section Recovery for more information.

     SIGINT    When an interrupt occurs, the current operation is halted and
               the editor returns to the command level.  If interrupted during
               text input, the text already input is resolved into the file as
               if the text input had been normally terminated.

     SIGWINCH  The screen is resized.  See the vi/ex reference manual section
               Sizing the Screen for more information.

FILES
     /bin/sh              The default user shell.

     /etc/vi.exrc         System-wide vi startup file.  It is read for ex
                          commands first in the startup sequence.  Must be
                          owned by root or the user, and writable only by the
                          owner.

     /tmp                 Temporary file directory.

     /var/tmp/vi.recover  The default recovery file directory.

     $HOME/.nexrc         First choice for user's home directory startup file,
                          read for ex commands right after /etc/vi.exrc unless
                          either NEXINIT or EXINIT are set.  Must be owned by
                          root or the user, and writable only by the owner.

     $HOME/.exrc          Second choice for user's home directory startup
                          file, read for ex commands under the same conditions
                          as $HOME/.nexrc.

     .nexrc               First choice for local directory startup file, read
                          for ex commands at the end of the startup sequence
                          if the exrc option was turned on earlier.  Must be
                          owned by the user and writable only by the owner.

     .exrc                Second choice for local directory startup file, read
                          for ex commands under the same conditions as .nexrc.

EXIT STATUS
     The ex and vi utilities exit 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.

SEE ALSO
     ctags(1), iconv(1), re_format(7)

STANDARDS
     nex/nvi is close to IEEE Std 1003.1-2008 (``POSIX.1'').  That document
     differs from historical ex/vi practice in several places; there are
     changes to be made on both sides.

HISTORY
     The ex editor first appeared in 1BSD.  The nex/nvi replacements for the
     ex/vi editor first appeared in 4.4BSD.

AUTHORS
     Bill Joy wrote the original version of ex in 1977.

FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE        November 2, 2013        FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | FAST STARTUP | REGULAR EXPRESSIONS | BUFFERS | VI COMMANDS | VI TEXT INPUT COMMANDS | EX COMMANDS | SET OPTIONS | ENVIRONMENT | ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS | FILES | EXIT STATUS | SEE ALSO | STANDARDS | HISTORY | AUTHORS

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