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SETKEY(8)               FreeBSD System Manager's Manual              SETKEY(8)

NAME
     setkey - manually manipulate the IPsec SA/SP database

SYNOPSIS
     setkey [-v] -c
     setkey [-v] -f filename
     setkey [-aPlv] -D
     setkey [-Pv] -F
     setkey [-h] -x

DESCRIPTION
     The setkey utility adds, updates, dumps, or flushes Security Association
     Database (SAD) entries as well as Security Policy Database (SPD) entries
     in the kernel.

     The setkey utility takes a series of operations from the standard input
     (if invoked with -c) or the file named filename (if invoked with -f
     filename).

     -D      Dump the SAD entries.  If with -P, the SPD entries are dumped.

     -F      Flush the SAD entries.  If with -P, the SPD entries are flushed.

     -a      The setkey utility usually does not display dead SAD entries with
             -D.  If with -a, the dead SAD entries will be displayed as well.
             A dead SAD entry means that it has been expired but remains in
             the system because it is referenced by some SPD entries.

     -h      Add hexadecimal dump on -x mode.

     -l      Loop forever with short output on -D.

     -v      Be verbose.  The program will dump messages exchanged on PF_KEY
             socket, including messages sent from other processes to the
             kernel.

     -x      Loop forever and dump all the messages transmitted to PF_KEY
             socket.  -xx makes each timestamp unformatted.

   Configuration syntax
     With -c or -f on the command line, setkey accepts the following
     configuration syntax.  Lines starting with hash signs (`#') are treated
     as comment lines.

     add [-46n] src dst protocol spi [extensions] algorithm ... ;
             Add an SAD entry.  add can fail with multiple reasons, including
             when the key length does not match the specified algorithm.

     get [-46n] src dst protocol spi ;
             Show an SAD entry.

     delete [-46n] src dst protocol spi ;
             Remove an SAD entry.

     deleteall [-46n] src dst protocol ;
             Remove all SAD entries that match the specification.

     flush [protocol] ;
             Clear all SAD entries matched by the options.  -F on the command
             line achieves the same functionality.

     dump [protocol] ;
             Dumps all SAD entries matched by the options.  -D on the command
             line achieves the same functionality.

     spdadd [-46n] src_range dst_range upperspec policy ;
             Add an SPD entry.

     spddelete [-46n] src_range dst_range upperspec -P direction ;
             Delete an SPD entry.

     spdflush ;
             Clear all SPD entries.  -FP on the command line achieves the same
             functionality.

     spddump ;
             Dumps all SPD entries.  -DP on the command line achieves the same
             functionality.

     Meta-arguments are as follows:

     src
     dst     Source/destination of the secure communication is specified as
             IPv4/v6 address.  The setkey utility can resolve a FQDN into
             numeric addresses.  If the FQDN resolves into multiple addresses,
             setkey will install multiple SAD/SPD entries into the kernel by
             trying all possible combinations.  -4, -6 and -n restricts the
             address resolution of FQDN in certain ways.  -4 and -6 restrict
             results into IPv4/v6 addresses only, respectively.  -n avoids
             FQDN resolution and requires addresses to be numeric addresses.

     protocol
             protocol is one of following:
             esp         ESP based on rfc2406
             esp-old     ESP based on rfc1827
             ah          AH based on rfc2402
             ah-old      AH based on rfc1826
             ipcomp      IPComp
             tcp         TCP-MD5 based on rfc2385

     spi     Security Parameter Index (SPI) for the SAD and the SPD.  spi must
             be a decimal number, or a hexadecimal number with `0x' prefix.
             SPI values between 0 and 255 are reserved for future use by IANA
             and they cannot be used.  TCP-MD5 associations must use 0x1000
             and therefore only have per-host granularity at this time.

     extensions
             take some of the following:
             -m mode     Specify a security protocol mode for use.  mode is
                         one of following: transport, tunnel or any.  The
                         default value is any.
             -r size     Specify window size of bytes for replay prevention.
                         size must be decimal number in 32-bit word.  If size
                         is zero or not specified, replay check does not take
                         place.
             -u id       Specify the identifier of the policy entry in SPD.
                         See policy.
             -f pad_option
                         defines the content of the ESP padding.  pad_option
                         is one of following:
                         zero-pad    All of the padding are zero.
                         random-pad  A series of randomized values are set.
                         seq-pad     A series of sequential increasing numbers
                                     started from 1 are set.
             -f nocyclic-seq
                         Do not allow cyclic sequence number.
             -lh time
             -ls time    Specify hard/soft life time duration of the SA.

     algorithm
             -E ealgo key
                         Specify an encryption algorithm ealgo for ESP.
             -E ealgo key -A aalgo key
                         Specify a encryption algorithm ealgo, as well as a
                         payload authentication algorithm aalgo, for ESP.
             -A aalgo key
                         Specify an authentication algorithm for AH.
             -C calgo [-R]
                         Specify a compression algorithm for IPComp.  If -R is
                         specified, the spi field value will be used as the
                         IPComp CPI (compression parameter index) on wire as
                         is.  If -R is not specified, the kernel will use
                         well-known CPI on wire, and spi field will be used
                         only as an index for kernel internal usage.

             key must be double-quoted character string, or a series of
             hexadecimal digits preceded by `0x'.

             Possible values for ealgo, aalgo and calgo are specified in
             separate section.

     src_range
     dst_range
             These are selections of the secure communication specified as
             IPv4/v6 address or IPv4/v6 address range, and it may accompany
             TCP/UDP port specification.  This takes the following form:

             address
             address/prefixlen
             address[port]
             address/prefixlen[port]

             prefixlen and port must be a decimal number.  The square brackets
             around port are necessary and are not manpage metacharacters.
             For FQDN resolution, the rules applicable to src and dst apply
             here as well.

     upperspec
             The upper layer protocol to be used.  You can use one of the
             words in /etc/protocols as upperspec, as well as icmp6, ip4, or
             any.  The word any stands for ``any protocol''.  The protocol
             number may also be used to specify the upperspec.  A type and
             code related to ICMPv6 may also be specified as an upperspec.
             The type is specified first, followed by a comma and then the
             relevant code.  The specification must be placed after icmp6.
             The kernel considers a zero to be a wildcard but cannot
             distinguish between a wildcard and an ICMPv6 type which is zero.
             The following example shows a policy where IPSec is not required
             for inbound Neighbor Solicitations:

                   spdadd ::/0 ::/0 icmp6 135,0 -P in none;

             NOTE: upperspec does not work in the forwarding case at this
             moment, as it requires extra reassembly at forwarding node, which
             is not implemented at this moment.  Although there are many
             protocols in /etc/protocols, protocols other than TCP, UDP and
             ICMP may not be suitable to use with IPsec.

     policy  policy is expressed in one of the following three formats:

             -P direction discard
             -P direction none
             -P direction ipsec protocol/mode/src-dst/level [...]

             The direction of a policy must be specified as one of: out, in,
             discard, none, or ipsec.  The discard direction means that
             packets matching the supplied indices will be discarded while
             none means that IPsec operations will not take place on the
             packet and ipsec means that IPsec operation will take place onto
             the packet.  The protocol/mode/src-dst/level statement gives the
             rule for how to process the packet.  The protocol is specified as
             ah, esp or ipcomp.  The mode is either transport or tunnel.  If
             mode is tunnel, you must specify the end-point addresses of the
             SA as src and dst with a dash, `-', between the addresses.  If
             mode is transport, both src and dst can be omitted.  The level is
             one of the following: default, use, require or unique.  If the SA
             is not available in every level, the kernel will request the SA
             from the key exchange daemon.  A value of default tells the
             kernel to use the system wide default protocol e.g., the one from
             the esp_trans_deflev sysctl variable, when the kernel processes
             the packet.  A value of use means that the kernel will use an SA
             if it is available, otherwise the kernel will pass the packet as
             it would normally.  A value of require means that an SA is
             required whenever the kernel sends a packet matched that matches
             the policy.  The unique level is the same as require but, in
             addition, it allows the policy to bind with the unique out-bound
             SA.  For example, if you specify the policy level unique,
             racoon(8) will configure the SA for the policy.  If you configure
             the SA by manual keying for that policy, you can put the decimal
             number as the policy identifier after unique separated by colon
             `:' as in the following example: unique:number.  In order to bind
             this policy to the SA, number must be between 1 and 32767, which
             corresponds to extensions -u of manual SA configuration.

             When you want to use an SA bundle, you can define multiple rules.
             For example, if an IP header was followed by an AH header
             followed by an ESP header followed by an upper layer protocol
             header, the rule would be:

                   esp/transport//require ah/transport//require;

             The rule order is very important.

             Note that ``discard'' and ``none'' are not in the syntax
             described in ipsec_set_policy(3).  There are small, but
             important, differences in the syntax.  See ipsec_set_policy(3)
             for details.

ALGORITHMS
     The following list shows the supported algorithms.  The protocol and
     algorithm are almost completely orthogonal.  The following list of
     authentication algorithms can be used as aalgo in the -A aalgo of the
     protocol parameter:

           algorithm       keylen (bits)   comment
           hmac-md5        128             ah: rfc2403
                           128             ah-old: rfc2085
           hmac-sha1       160             ah: rfc2404
                           160             ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
           keyed-md5       128             ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
                           128             ah-old: rfc1828
           keyed-sha1      160             ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
                           160             ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
           null            0 to 2048       for debugging
           hmac-sha2-256   256             ah: 96bit ICV
                                           (draft-ietf-ipsec-ciph-sha-256-00)
                           256             ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
           hmac-sha2-384   384             ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
                           384             ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
           hmac-sha2-512   512             ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
                           512             ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
           hmac-ripemd160  160             ah: 96bit ICV (RFC2857)
                                           ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
           aes-xcbc-mac    128             ah: 96bit ICV (RFC3566)
                           128             ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
           tcp-md5         8 to 640        tcp: rfc2385

     The following is the list of encryption algorithms that can be used as
     the ealgo in the -E ealgo of the protocol parameter:

           algorithm       keylen (bits)   comment
           des-cbc         64              esp-old: rfc1829, esp: rfc2405
           3des-cbc        192             rfc2451
           null            0 to 2048       rfc2410
           blowfish-cbc    40 to 448       rfc2451
           cast128-cbc     40 to 128       rfc2451
           des-deriv       64              ipsec-ciph-des-derived-01
           3des-deriv      192             no document
           rijndael-cbc    128/192/256     rfc3602
           aes-ctr         160/224/288     draft-ietf-ipsec-ciph-aes-ctr-03
           camellia-cbc    128/192/256     rfc4312

     Note that the first 128/192/256 bits of a key for aes-ctr will be used as
     AES key, and remaining 32 bits will be used as nonce.

     The following are the list of compression algorithms that can be used as
     the calgo in the -C calgo of the protocol parameter:

           algorithm       comment
           deflate         rfc2394

EXIT STATUS
     The setkey utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.

EXAMPLES
     Add an ESP SA between two IPv6 addresses using the des-cbc encryption
     algorithm.

           add 3ffe:501:4819::1 3ffe:501:481d::1 esp 123457
                   -E des-cbc 0x3ffe05014819ffff ;

     Add an authentication SA between two FQDN specified hosts:

           add -6 myhost.example.com yourhost.example.com ah 123456
                   -A hmac-sha1 "AH SA configuration!" ;

     Use both ESP and AH between two numerically specified hosts:

           add 10.0.11.41 10.0.11.33 esp 0x10001
                   -E des-cbc 0x3ffe05014819ffff
                   -A hmac-md5 "authentication!!" ;

     Get the SA information associated with first example above:

           get 3ffe:501:4819::1 3ffe:501:481d::1 ah 123456 ;

     Flush all entries from the database:

           flush ;

     Dump the ESP entries from the database:

           dump esp ;

     Add a security policy between two networks that uses ESP in tunnel mode:

           spdadd 10.0.11.41/32[21] 10.0.11.33/32[any] any
                   -P out ipsec esp/tunnel/192.168.0.1-192.168.1.2/require ;

     Use TCP MD5 between two numerically specified hosts:

           add 10.1.10.34 10.1.10.36 tcp 0x1000 -A tcp-md5 "TCP-MD5 BGP secret" ;

SEE ALSO
     ipsec_set_policy(3), racoon(8), sysctl(8)

     Changed manual key configuration for IPsec,
     http://www.kame.net/newsletter/19991007/, October 1999.

HISTORY
     The setkey utility first appeared in WIDE Hydrangea IPv6 protocol stack
     kit.  The utility was completely re-designed in June 1998.

BUGS
     The setkey utility should report and handle syntax errors better.

     For IPsec gateway configuration, src_range and dst_range with TCP/UDP
     port number do not work, as the gateway does not reassemble packets
     (cannot inspect upper-layer headers).

FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE          July 25, 2014         FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | ALGORITHMS | EXIT STATUS | EXAMPLES | SEE ALSO | HISTORY | BUGS

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