Skip site navigation (1)Skip section navigation (2)

FreeBSD Man Pages

Man Page or Keyword Search:
Man Architecture
Apropos Keyword Search (all sections) Output format
home | help
fuse(1)                            Emulators                           fuse(1)

NAME
       fuse -- Sinclair ZX Spectrum emulator

SYNOPSIS
       fuse [options]

DESCRIPTION
       Fuse is a Sinclair ZX Spectrum emulator. It supports several models
       (including the 128), with quite faithful emulation of the display and
       sound.

       The emulator can load any of the formats supported by libspectrum(3) --
       this includes Z80, SNA and SZX snapshots, and PZX, TAP and TZX virtual-
       tape files. Saving to SZX, Z80 and SNA snapshots and TZX and TAP tape
       files is supported. The SLT extension to the Z80 format is partly
       supported (enough for multi-load games); however, loading of the old
       DAT-file variant is not. DSK, UDI, FDI, TR0, SDF, MGT, IMG, SAD, TRD,
       SCL and OPD disk images are supported when a disk interface is being
       emulated, including the integrated disk drives on +3, Pentagon or
       Scorpion machines as well as the +D, DISCiPLE, Opus Discovery and
       Beta 128 interfaces. DCK cartridge images are supported when emulating
       a Timex 2068 variant. Interface 2 ROM cartridges are also supported.

       Finally, there is also support for reading and writing the RZX input
       recording format.

       See the COMPRESSED FILES section for details on reading files
       compressed with bzip2(3) or gzip(3).

OPTIONS
       --accelerate-loader
              Specify whether Fuse should attempt to accelerate tape loaders
              by "short circuiting" the loading loop. This will in general
              speed up loading, but may cause some loaders to fail. (Enabled
              by default, but you can use `--no-accelerate-loader' to
              disable). The same as the General Options dialog's Accelerate
              loaders option.

       --aspect-hint
              Specify whether the GTK+ and Xlib user interfaces should `hint'
              to the window manager about the preferred aspect ratio for the
              graphics window, thus preventing resizing to non-square sizes
              which lead to Fuse not displaying correctly. This option has
              been observed to cause problems with some window managers when
              using the GTK+ UI which can prevent the window from being
              resized or moved at all. (Enabled by default, but you can use
              `--no-aspect-hint' to disable). See also the
              `--strict-aspect-hint' option.

       --autosave-settings
              Specify whether Fuse's current settings should be automatically
              saved on exit. The same as the General Options dialog's
              Auto-save settings option.

       --auto-load
              Specify whether tape and disk files should be automatically
              loaded when they are opened using the File, Open...  menu
              option. (Enabled by default, but you can use `--no-auto-load' to
              disable). Same as the General Options dialog's Auto-load media
              option.

       --beta128
              Emulate a Beta 128 interface. Same as the Disk Peripherals
              Options dialog's Beta 128 interface option.

       --beta128-48boot
              When a Beta 128 interface is used in 48K or TC2048 emulation the
              option additionally controls whether the machine boots directly
              into the TR-DOS system. Same as the Disk Peripherals Options
              dialog's Beta 128 auto-boot in 48K machines option.

       --betadisk file
              Insert the specified file into the emulated Beta disk
              interface's drive A: and select Pentagon mode on startup.

       --bw-tv
              Specify whether the display should simulate a colour or black
              and white television. This option is effective under the GTK+,
              Win32, Xlib and SDL user interfaces: the others will always
              simulate a colour TV.  The same as the General Options dialog's
              Black and white TV option.

       --competition-code code
              Specify the code to be written to competition mode RZX files.
              The same as the RZX Options dialog's Competition code option.

       --competition-mode
              Specify whether input recordings should be made in `competition
              mode'.  The same as the RZX Options dialog's Competition mode
              option.

       --compress-rzx
              Specify whether RZX files should be written out compressed.
              (Enabled by default, but you can use `--no-compress-rzx' to
              disable). Same as the RZX Options dialog's Compress RZX data
              option.

       --confirm-actions
              Specify whether `dangerous' actions (those which could cause
              data loss, for example resetting the Spectrum) require
              confirmation before occurring. (Enabled by default, but you can
              use `--no-confirm-actions' to disable). This option is the same
              as the General Options dialog's Confirm actions option.

       --debugger-command string
              Specify a debugger command to be run before emulator startup.
              This can be used to set breakpoints or the like. Currently, this
              is the only method to input multi-line debugger commands. (See
              the MONITOR/DEBUGGER section for more information).

       --detect-loader
              Specify whether Fuse should attempt to detect when the tape is
              being accessed and start and stop the virtual tape playing
              automatically. (Enabled by default, but you can use
              `--no-detect-loader' to disable). Same as the General Options
              dialog's Detect loaders option.

       --disciple
              Emulate a DISCiPLE interface. Same as the Disk Peripherals
              Options dialog's DISCiPLE interface option.

       --discipledisk file
              Insert the specified file into the emulated DISCiPLE's drive 1.

       --disk-ask-merge
              Prompt the user to confirm whether Fuse should try to merge the
              `B' side of a disk image from a separate file when opening a new
              single-sided disk image.

       --disk-try-merge mode
              Select whether Fuse should try to merge a separate file for the
              `B' side of a disk image separate file when opening a new disk
              image. Most double sided disk images are dumped as two single
              sided disk images e.g.  `Golden Axe - Side A.dsk' and `Golden
              Axe - Side B.dsk'. So, if we want to play Golden Axe, first we
              have to insert the first disk image and when the game asks to
              insert side B, we have to find and open the second disk image,
              instead of just `flip'-ing the disk inside the drive. If
              enabled, Fuse will try to open the second image too and create a
              double sided disk image (merging the two one sided disk images)
              and insert this merged virtual disk into the disk drive. The
              function detects whether the file is one side of a double-sided
              image if the filename matches a pattern like [Ss]ide[
              _][abAB12][ _.] in the file name of a disk that is being opened.
              If found, Fuse will try to open the other side of the disk too
              substituting the appropriate characters in the filename e.g.
              1->2, a->b, A->B. If successful then it will merge the two
              images and now we have a double sided disk in drive. This means
              that if we open `Golden Axe - Side A.dsk', then Fuse will try to
              open `Golden Axe - Side B.dsk' too. Now, we can just `flip' the
              disk if Golden Axe asks for `Side B'.  The available options are
              Never, With single-sided drives and Always.

       --divide
              Emulate the DivIDE interface. The same as the Disk Peripherals
              Options dialog's DivIDE interface option.

       --divide-masterfile file
       --divide-slavefile file
              Specify an IDE image to be loaded into the DivIDE's emulated
              master and slave drives respectively.

       --divide-write-protect
              Specify that the emulated DivIDE's write protect jumper should
              be considered set. The same as the Disk Peripherals Options
              dialog's DivIDE write protect option.

       --dock file
              Insert the specified file into the emulated Timex 2068 variant
              dock; also select the TC2068 on startup if available.

       --doublescan-mode
              Specify that the framebuffer UI should attempt to use a double
              scan mode (where each line is displayed twice).

       --drive-plus3a-type type
       --drive-plus3b-type type
       --drive-beta128a-type type
       --drive-beta128b-type type
       --drive-beta128c-type type
       --drive-beta128d-type type
       --drive-plusd1-type type
       --drive-plusd2-type type
       --drive-disciple1-type type
       --drive-disciple2-type type
       --drive-opus1-type type
       --drive-opus2-type type
              Specify a disk drive type to emulate with the associated
              interface.  See the Disk Options dialog for more information.

       --drive-40-max-track count
       --drive-80-max-track count
              Specify the maximum number of tracks for 40 and 80 track
              physical drives respectively.

       --embed-snapshot
              Specify whether a snapshot should be embedded in an RZX file
              when recording is started from an existing snapshot. (Enabled by
              default, but you can use `--no-embed-snapshot' to disable). Same
              as the RZX Options dialog's Always embed snapshot option.

       --fastload
              Specify whether Fuse should run at the fastest possible speed
              when the virtual tape is playing. (Enabled by default, but you
              can use `--no-fastload' to disable). The same as the General
              Options dialog's Fastloading option.

       -f frequency
       --sound-freq frequency
              Specify what frequency Fuse should use for the sound device, the
              default is 32 kHz, but some devices only support a single
              frequency or a limited range (e.g.  48 kHz or up to 22 kHz).

       --fuller
              Emulate a Fuller Box interface. Same as the Peripherals Options
              dialog's Fuller Box option.

       --full-screen
              Specify whether Fuse should run in full screen mode.  This
              option is effective only under the SDL UI.

       -g filter
       --graphics-filter mode
              Specify which graphics filter to use if available. The default
              is normal, which uses no filtering. The available options are
              2x, 2xsai, 3x, advmame2x, advmame3x, dotmatrix, half, halfskip,
              hq2x, hq3x, normal, super2xsai, supereagle, timex15x, timextv,
              tv2x, paltv, paltv2x, and paltv3x.  See the GRAPHICS FILTERS
              section for more details.

       --graphicsfile file
              Set the filename used for graphical output from the emulated
              ZX Printer. See the PRINTER EMULATION section for more details.

       -h
       --help
              Give brief usage help, listing available options.

       --if2cart file
              Insert the specified file into the emulated Interface 2.

       --interface1
              Emulate a Sinclair Interface 1. Same as the Peripherals Options
              dialog's Interface 1 option.

       --interface2
              Emulate a Sinclair Interface 2. (Enabled by default, but you can
              use `--no-interface2' to disable). Same as the Peripherals
              Options dialog's Interface 2 option.

       --issue2
              Emulate an issue 2 keyboard. Same as the General Options
              dialog's Issue 2 keyboard option.

       -j device
       --joystick-1 device
              Read from device to emulate the first joystick. Fuse will use
              either `/dev/input/js0' or `/dev/js0' by default.

       --joystick-2 device
              As for --joystick-1 but for the second joystick; the default
              here is either `/dev/input/js1' or `/dev/js1'.

       --joystick-1-output type
       --joystick-2-output type
       --joystick-keyboard-output type
              Select which joystick interface to attach for the first two real
              joysticks and the keyboard joystick. The default is 0, which is
              no output. The available options are 1 (cursor), 2 (kempston), 3
              (Sinclair 1), 4 (Sinclair 2), 5 (Timex 1), 6 (Timex 2), and 7
              (Fuller). Same as the Joysticks Options dialog's Joystick type
              option.

       --joystick-1-fire-1 code
       --joystick-1-fire-2 code
       --joystick-1-fire-3 code
       --joystick-1-fire-4 code
       --joystick-1-fire-5 code
       --joystick-1-fire-6 code
       --joystick-1-fire-7 code
       --joystick-1-fire-8 code
       --joystick-1-fire-9 code
       --joystick-1-fire-10 code
       --joystick-1-fire-11 code
       --joystick-1-fire-12 code
       --joystick-1-fire-13 code
       --joystick-1-fire-14 code
       --joystick-1-fire-15 code
       --joystick-2-fire-1 code
       --joystick-2-fire-2 code
       --joystick-2-fire-3 code
       --joystick-2-fire-4 code
       --joystick-2-fire-5 code
       --joystick-2-fire-6 code
       --joystick-2-fire-7 code
       --joystick-2-fire-8 code
       --joystick-2-fire-9 code
       --joystick-2-fire-10 code
       --joystick-2-fire-11 code
       --joystick-2-fire-12 code
       --joystick-2-fire-13 code
       --joystick-2-fire-14 code
       --joystick-2-fire-15 code
              Select which Fuse key code should be triggered by the applicable
              real joystick button press. The codes are the Fuse keyboard
              codes corresponding to the keys. The default value is 4096 which
              corresponds to the virtual joystick fire button. Same as the
              Joysticks Options dialog's Joystick fire options.

       --joystick-keyboard-up code
       --joystick-keyboard-down code
       --joystick-keyboard-left code
       --joystick-keyboard-right code
       --joystick-keyboard-fire code
              Select which Fuse key code should correspond with each direction
              and fire for the keyboard virtual joystick. The same as the
              Keyboard Joysticks Options dialog's Button for UP, Button for
              DOWN, Button for LEFT, Button for RIGHT and Button for FIRE
              options respectively.

       --joystick-prompt
              If this option is specified, then Fuse will prompt you which
              form of joystick emulation you wish to use when loading a
              snapshot. No prompt will be issued if the configuration in the
              snapshot matches what you are currently using. The same as the
              General Options dialog's Snap joystick prompt option.

       --kempston
              Emulate a Kempston joystick. Same as the Peripherals Options
              dialog's Kempston joystick option.

       --kempston-mouse
              Emulate a Kempston mouse. Same as the Peripherals Options
              dialog's Kempston mouse option.

       --late-timings
              It has been observed that some real Spectrums run such that the
              screen is rendered one tstate later than on other real hardware.
              This option specifies that Fuse should emulate such a machine.
              Same as the General Options dialog's Late timings option.

       --loading-sound
              Specify whether the sound made while tapes are loading should be
              emulated. (Enabled by default, but you can use
              `--no-loading-sound' to disable). Same as the Sound Options
              dialog's Loading sound option.

       -m type
       --machine type
              Specify machine type to emulate initially. The default is 48, a
              48K Spectrum. The available options are 16, 48, 48_ntsc, 128,
              plus2, plus2a, plus3, 2048, 2068, ts2068, pentagon, pentagon512,
              pentagon1024, scorpion and se.

       --melodik
              Emulate a Melodik AY interface for 16/48k Spectrums. Same as the
              Peripherals Options dialog's Melodik option.

       --microdrive-file file
       --microdrive-2-file file
       --microdrive-3-file file
       --microdrive-4-file file
       --microdrive-5-file file
       --microdrive-6-file file
       --microdrive-7-file file
       --microdrive-8-file file
              Specify Interface 1 Microdrive cartridge files to open.

       --mouse-swap-buttons
              Swap the left and right mouse buttons when emulating the
              Kempston mouse. The same as the General Peripherals dialog's
              Swap mouse buttons option.

       --movie-compr level
              This option sets the compression level used when creating
              movies. Same as the Movie Options dialog's Movie compression
              option. The available options are None, Lossless, and High
              (lossy). The default option is Lossless.  See also the MOVIE
              RECORDING section.

       --movie-start filename
              With this command line option, Fuse will start movie recording
              as soon as the emulator is started. See also the MOVIE RECORDING
              section.

       --movie-stop-after-rzx
              With this command line option, Fuse will stop movie recording
              when RZX playback or RZX recording ends. Same as the Movie
              Options dialog's Stop recording after RZX ends option. (Enabled
              by default, but you can use `--no-movie-stop-after-rzx' to
              disable).  See also the MOVIE RECORDING section.

       --opus
              Emulate a Opus Discovery interface. Same as the Disk Peripherals
              Options dialog's Opus Discovery interface option.

       --opusdisk file
              Insert the specified file into the emulated Opus Discovery's
              drive 1.

       --paltv2x
              Specify whether the PAL TV 2x and PAL TV 3x scalers should also
              produce scanlines along the lines of the TV 2x and Timex TV
              scalers.  The same as the General Options dialog's PAL-TV use
              TV2x effect option.

       -p file
       --playback file
              Specify an RZX file to begin playback from.

       --plus3disk file
              Insert the specified file into the emulated +3's A: drive; also
              select the +3 on startup if available.

       --plus3-detect-speedlock
              Specify whether the +3 drives try to detect Speedlock protected
              disks, and emulate `weak' sectors.  If the disk image file (EDSK
              or UDI) contains weak sector data, than Speedlock detection is
              automatically omitted.  See also the WEAK DISK DATA section.
              Same as the Disk Options dialog's +3 Detect Speedlock option.

       --plusd
              Emulate a +D interface. Same as the Disk Peripherals Options
              dialog's +D interface option.

       --plusddisk file
              Insert the specified file into the emulated +D's drive 1.

       --printer
              Specify whether the emulation should include a printer. Same as
              the Peripherals Options dialog's Emulate printers option.

       --rate frame
              Specify the frame rate, the ratio of spectrum frame updates to
              real frame updates. Same as the General Options dialog's Frame
              rate option.

       -r file
       --record file
              Specify an RZX file to begin recording to.

       --rom-16 file
       --rom-48 file
       --rom-128-0 file
       --rom-128-1 file
       --rom-plus2-0 file
       --rom-plus2-1 file
       --rom-plus2a-0 file
       --rom-plus2a-1 file
       --rom-plus2a-2 file
       --rom-plus2a-3 file
       --rom-plus3-0 file
       --rom-plus3-1 file
       --rom-plus3-2 file
       --rom-plus3-3 file
       --rom-plus3e-0 file
       --rom-plus3e-1 file
       --rom-plus3e-2 file
       --rom-plus3e-3 file
       --rom-tc2048 file
       --rom-tc2068-0 file
       --rom-tc2068-1 file
       --rom-ts2068-0 file
       --rom-ts2068-1 file
       --rom-pentagon-0 file
       --rom-pentagon-1 file
       --rom-pentagon-2 file
       --rom-pentagon-3 file
       --rom-scorpion-0 file
       --rom-scorpion-1 file
       --rom-scorpion-2 file
       --rom-scorpion-3 file
       --rom-spec-se-0 file
       --rom-spec-se-1 file
       --rom-interface-1 file
       --rom-opus file
       --rom-plusd file
       --rom-disciple file
       --rom-beta128 file
       --rom-speccyboot file
              Specify the file to be used for ROM(s) used for each machine.
              The options respectively refer to the 16K Spectrum (48.rom),
              48K Spectrum (48.rom), the two ROMs for the 128K Spectrum
              (128-0.rom and 128-1.rom), the two ROMs for the +2 (plus2-0.rom
              and plus2-1.rom), the four ROMs for the +2A (plus3-0.rom,
              plus3-1.rom, plus3-2.rom and plus3-3.rom), the four ROMs for the
              +3 (plus3-0.rom, plus3-1.rom, plus3-2.rom and plus3-3.rom), the
              TC2048 ROM (tc2048.rom), the two ROMs for the TC2068
              (tc2068-0.rom and tc2068-1.rom), the two ROMs for the TS2068
              (tc2068-0.rom and tc2068-1.rom), the two main ROMs, the TR-DOS
              ROM and a reset service ROM for the Pentagon (128p-0.rom,
              128p-1.rom, trdos.rom and gluck.rom), the four ROMs for the
              Scorpion 256 (256s-0.rom, 256s-1.rom, 256s-2.rom and
              256s-3.rom), the two ROMs for the Spectrum SE (se-0.rom and
              se-1.rom), the Interface 1 ROM (if1-2.rom), the Opus Discovery
              ROM (opus.rom), the DISCiPLE ROM (disciple.rom), the +D ROM
              (plusd.rom), the TR-DOS ROM for Beta 128 emulation with the 48K,
              TC2048, 128K or +2 (trdos.rom), and the SpeccyBoot ROM
              (speccyboot-1.4.rom).  The names in brackets denote the
              defaults. Note that not all these ROMs are supplied with Fuse --
              you must supply your own copies of those which are not.

       --no-rs232-handshake
              This option makes Fuse's Interface 1 emulation assume that the
              RS-232 line other end is live when you connect the communication
              channels.  See also the `--rs232-rx' and `--rs232-tx' options.

       --rs232-rx
       --rs232-tx
              Specify the communication channels (FIFO or file) to be used for
              Interface 1 RS-232 emulation as RxD and TxD wire. See also the
              `--rs232-handshake' options.

       --rzx-autosaves
              Specify that, while recording an RZX file, Fuse should
              automatically add a snapshot to the recording stream every
              5 seconds. (Default to on, but you can use `--no-rzx-autosaves'
              to disable). Same as the RZX Options dialog's Create autosaves
              option; see there for more details.

       --separation type
              Give stereo separation of the 128's AY sound channels. Same as
              the General Options dialog's AY stereo separation option. The
              available options are None, ACB, and ABC.  The default option is
              None.

       --simpleide
              Specify whether Fuse will emulate the simple 8-bit IDE interface
              as used by the Spectrum +3e. Same as the Disk Peripherals
              Options dialog's Simple 8-bit IDE option.

       --simpleide-masterfile file
              Specify a HDF file to connect to the emulated Simple 8-bit IDE
              interface's master channel.

       --simpleide-slavefile file
              Specify a HDF file to connect to the emulated Simple 8-bit IDE
              interface's slave channel.

       --slt
              Support the SLT trap instruction. (Enabled by default, but you
              can use `--no-slt' to disable). Same as the General Options
              dialog's Use .slt traps option.

       -s file
       --snapshot file
              Specify a snapshot file to load. The file can be in any snapshot
              format supported by libspectrum(3).

       --sound
              Specify whether Fuse should produce sound. (Enabled by default,
              but you can use `--no-sound' to disable). Same as the Sound
              Options dialog's Sound enabled option.

       -d device
       --sound-device device
              Specify the sound output device to use and any options to give
              that device. If you are not using the SDL UI or using libao or
              libasound (ALSA) for sound output, then the device parameter
              just specifies the device to be used for sound output.

              If you are using the SDL UI, the device parameter allows you to
              specify the audio driver to be used (e.g. dsp, alsa, dma, esd
              and arts).

              If you are using libao for sound output, the device parameter
              allows you to specify the device used for sound output (either
              `live' to a speaker or to a file) and the parameters to be used
              for that device. In general, the device parameter has the form
              driver[:param[=value][,param[=value][,...]].  driver selects the
              libao driver to be used, either one of the `live' drivers (aixs,
              alsa, alsa09, arts, esd, irix, macosx, nas, oss or sun) or a
              file driver (au, raw, wav or null).  The available parameter and
              value pairs for each device are:

              o      aixs: AIX audio system

                     o      dev=device
                            `device' gives the AIX sound device.

              o      alsa: Advanced Linux Sound Architecture version 0.5.x

                     o      card=num
                            `num' gives the ALSA card number.

                     o      dev=num
                            `num' gives the ALSA device number.

                     o      buf_size=num
                            `num' gives the ALSA buffer size in bytes.

              o      alsa09: Advanced Linux Sound Architecture version 0.9+

                     o      dev=string
                            `string' specifies the ALSA device e.g. hw:1.2

                     o      buffer_time=num
                            `num' gives the ALSA buffer time in microseconds.

                     o      period_time=num
                            `num' gives the ALSA period time in microseconds.

                     o      use_mmap=yes|y|true|t|1
                            specifies that libao use memory mapped transfer.

              o      arts: aRts soundserver: no parameters.

              o      esd: Enlightened Sound Daemon.

                     o      host=string
                            `string' gives the ESD host specification.

              o      irix: IRIX Audio Library: no parameters.

              o      macosx: MacOS X CoreAudio: no parameters.

              o      nas: Network Audio System.

                     o      host=string
                            `string' gives the NAS host specification.

                     o      buf_size=num
                            `num' gives the buffer size on the server.

              o      oss: Open Sound System.

                     o      dsp=string
                            `string' gives the OSS device to be used e.g.
                            /dev/sound/dsp1

              o      sun: SUN audio system.

                     o      dev=string
                            `string' gives the audio device to be used.

              o      au: SUN Sparc audio file: no parameters.

              o      raw: raw file.

                     o      byteorder=string
                            `string' can be any of native (host native
                            byteorder), big (big endian) or little (little
                            endian).

              o      wav: Microsoft audio file: no parameters.

              o      null: null output: no parameters.

              o      debug: for debugging libao.

              Finally, each of the file output types (au, raw and wav) have an
              extra option `file=filename' where `filename' gives the file
              output will be directed to. This defaults to `fuse-sound.ao' if
              it is not specified.

              Some examples of use:

              fuse -d alsa09:dev=hw:1

              causes Fuse to use ALSA 0.9+ output with the second (#1) sound
              card.

              fuse -d raw:byteorder=little,file=enigma.raw

              causes Fuse to save little endian words to `enigma.raw'.

              See the `DEVICE' section of ogg123(1) for up to date information
              of devices and options (except for the `file' option which is
              provided by Fuse itself).

              If you are using libasound or ALSA for sound output, the device
              parameter allows you to specify the device used for sound output
              and some parameters to be used for that device. In general, the
              device parameter has the form
              devstr or
              param[=value][,param[=value][,...][,devstr].

              o      devstr: selects the ALSA device used, it can be any
                     complex or simple ALSA device name. e.g.: default or hw:0
                     or tee:plughw:0,'/tmp/out.raw',raw.  See the alsa-lib pcm
                     api reference at
                     http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc/alsa-lib/pcm.html
                     for further explanation.

              o      param and values:

                     o      buffer=nnnn: set the ALSA buffer in frames,
                            smaller value cause smaller sound delay but may
                            more buffer underrun (pops and clicks), larger
                            value cause longer delay but fewer underrun. By
                            default Fuse determine the buffer size based on
                            the actual sound frequency.

                            If you use some special plugin for your pcm device
                            (e.g.: dmix) or your card not support some needed
                            parameter (e.g. cannot play other only 48 kHz
                            stereo sound like some AC97 sound card) may cause
                            Fuse unable to set the needed buffer size,
                            appropriate sound frequency, channels and so on,
                            therefore you cannot get optimal result or not
                            hear the sound at all. In this case try the
                            plughw:#, (where # mean your card number counted
                            from 0) for ALSA device.

                     o      verbose : if given, fuse report ALSA buffer
                            underruns to stderr.

              Some examples of use:

              fuse -d verbose,buffer=2000

              causes Fuse to use the default ALSA device with 2000 frame
              length buffer and report ALSA buffer underruns on stderr.

              fuse -d tee:plughw:0,'/tmp/aufwm.raw',raw

              causes Fuse to use the first card and parallel save the raw
              audio samples into /tmp/aufwm.raw file.

       --sound-force-8bit
              Force the use of 8-bit sound, even if 16-bit is possible. Same
              as the Sound Options dialog's Force 8-bit option.

       --speaker-type type
              Select the output speaker emulation, type can be TV speaker,
              Beeper or Unfiltered. Same as the Sound Options dialog's Speaker
              type option.

       --speccyboot
              Emulate a SpeccyBoot Ethernet interface. Same as the Peripherals
              Options dialog's SpeccyBoot option. See the SpeccyBoot web page
              at http://speccyboot.sourceforge.net/ for full details on the
              SpeccyBoot.

       --speccyboot-tap device
              Specify the TAP device to use for SpeccyBoot emulation.

       --specdrum
              Emulate a SpecDrum interface. Same as the Peripherals Options
              dialog's SpecDrum option. See the World of Spectrum Infoseek web
              page at http://www.worldofspectrum.org/infoseekid.cgi?id=1000062
              for manuals, software and more.

       --spectranet
              Specify whether Fuse will emulate the Spectranet Ethernet
              interface.  Same as the General Peripherals Options dialog's
              Spectranet option. See the SPECTRANET EMULATION section for more
              details.

       --spectranet-disable
              This option controls the state of the Spectranet automatic page-
              in jumper (J2). Same as the General Peripherals Options dialog's
              Spectranet disable option. See the SPECTRANET EMULATION section
              for more details.

       --speed percentage
              Specify the speed (as a percentage of real Spectrum speed) at
              which emulation should attempt to proceed. Same as the General
              Options dialog's Emulation speed option.

       --statusbar
              For the GTK+ and Win32 UI, enables the statusbar beneath the
              display. For the Xlib and SDL UI, enables the status icons
              showing whether the disk and tape are being accessed. Same as
              the General Options dialog's Show statusbar option.

       --strict-aspect-hint
              For the GTK+ UI, use stricter limits for the aspect ratio limits
              set by the `--aspect-hint' option. This can cause some window
              managers (for example, metacity(1)) to not allow the window to
              be resized and moved, but is necessary to prevent others (for
              example, fvwm(1)) from being able resize the window away from
              square.

       -v mode
       --fbmode mode
              Specify which mode to use for the FB UI. Available values for
              mode are `320' (which corresponds to a 320x240x256 mode), the
              default and `640' (a 640x480x256 mode).

       --svga-modes mode1,mode2,mode3
              Specify which SVGA mode to use for the SVGAlib UI at different
              screen sizes. Available values for mode1, mode2 and mode3 are
              listed in a table, when Fuse called with --svga-modes list
              command line option.  When user select a not available mode for
              a size, Fuse just ignore and try to find the best mode for it.
              e.g. with --svga-modes 0,0,12 Fuse use the specified
              1024x768x256 SVGA mode for triple size filters, but select SVGA
              modes automatically for normal or double size filters.  The
              above mode number is just an example, and mode numbers and their
              meanings may vary graphics card by graphics card.

       -D mode
       --doublescan-mode mode
              Specify whether to use doublescan modes in the FB UI.  Available
              values for mode are 0, 1 and 2. 0 means `never doublescan' (use
              640x480 at either 72 Hz or 60 Hz), whereas 1 and 2 both mean
              `try to use doublescan' and will fall back on the 640x480 modes.
              1 selects 72 Hz modes (the same size and shape as your typical
              640x480), and 2 selects 60 Hz modes (overscan).

              If your monitor displays a blank screen when using 1 or 2, press
              F10 then try a different option or say `--fbmode 640'.

       -t file
       --tape file
              Specify a virtual tape file to use. It must be in PZX, TAP or
              TZX format.

       --textfile file
              Set the filename used for text output from the emulated
              printers. See the PRINTER EMULATION section below for more
              details.

       --traps
              Support traps for ROM tape loading/saving. (Enabled by default,
              but you can use `--no-traps' to disable). Same as the General
              Options dialog's Use tape traps option.

       -V
       --version
              Show which version of Fuse is being used.

       --volume-ay volume
              Sets the relative volume of the AY-3-8912 chip from a range of
              0-100%. Same as the Sound Options dialog's AY volume option.

       --volume-beeper volume
              Sets the relative volume of the beeper from a range of 0-100%.
              Same as the Sound Options dialog's Beeper volume option.

       --volume-specdrum volume
              Sets the relative volume of the SpecDrum from a range of 0-100%.
              Same as the Sound Options dialog's SpecDrum volume option.

       --writable-roms
              Allow Spectrum programs to overwrite the ROM(s). The same as the
              General Options dialog's Allow writes to ROM option.

       --zxatasp
              Specify whether Fuse emulate the ZXATASP interface. Same as the
              Disk Peripherals Options dialog's ZXATASP interface option.

       --zxatasp-upload
              Specify the state of the ZXATASP upload jumper. Same as the Disk
              Peripherals Options dialog's ZXATASP upload option.

       --zxatasp-write-protect
              Specify the state of the ZXATASP write protect jumper. Same as
              the Disk Peripherals Options dialog's ZXATASP write protect
              option.

       --zxatasp-masterfile file
              Specify a HDF file to connect to the emulated ZXATASP
              interface's master channel.

       --zxatasp-slavefile file
              Specify a HDF file to connect to the emulated ZXATASP
              interface's slave channel.

       --zxcf
              Specify whether Fuse emulate the ZXCF interface. Same as the
              Disk Peripherals Options dialog's ZXCF interface option.

       --zxcf-upload
              Specify the state of the ZXCF upload jumper. Same as the Disk
              Peripherals Options dialog's ZXCF upload option.

       --zxcf-cffile file
              Specify a HDF file to connect to the emulated ZXCF interface.

       --zxprinter
              Emulate the ZX Printer. Same as the General Peripherals Options
              dialog's ZX Printer option.

       All long options which control on/off settings can be disabled using
       `--no-foo' (for an option `--foo').  For example, the opposite of
       `--issue2' is `--no-issue2'.  These options can also be modified while
       the emulator is running, using the options dialogs -- see the
       documentation for the Options menu in the MENUS AND KEYS section for
       details.

THE VARIOUS FRONT-ENDS
       Fuse supports various front-ends, or UIs (user interfaces). The usual
       one is GTK+-based, but there are also SDL, Win32, Xlib, SVGAlib and
       framebuffer ones.

       The important difference to note is that GTK+ and Win32 versions uses
       `native' dialog boxes etc. (behaving like a fairly normal GUI-based
       program) while the others use an alternative, Fuse-specific `widget
       UI'. This latter front-end is easily spotted by the way it uses the
       main Fuse window/screen for menus and dialogs, and uses the Spectrum's
       own font.

MENUS AND KEYS
       Since many of the keys available are devoted to emulation of the
       Spectrum's keyboard, the primary way of controlling Fuse itself (rather
       than the emulated machine) is via the menus. There are also function
       key shortcuts for some menu options.

       In the GTK+ and Win32 version, the menu bar is always visible at the
       top of the Fuse window. You can click on a menu name to pop it up.
       Alternatively, you can press F1 to display a pop-up version of the menu
       bar, which you can then navigate with the cursor keys or mouse.

       In the widget UI pressing F1 is the only way to get the main menu; and
       unlike the GTK+ version, the emulator pauses while the menus are being
       navigated. The menus show which key to press for each menu option in
       brackets. Pressing Esc exits a menu, and pressing Enter exits the menu
       system entirely (as well as `confirming' any current dialog).

       Here's what the menu options do, along with the function key mappings
       for those items which have them:

       F3
       File, Open...
              Open a Spectrum file. Snapshots will be loaded into memory; tape
              images will be inserted into the emulated tape deck, and if the
              Auto-load media option is set will being loading. Opening a disk
              image or a Timex dock image will cause the appropriate machine
              type (+3, Pentagon or TC2068) to be selected with the image
              inserted, and disks will automatically load if the Auto-load
              media option is set. See the FILE SELECTION section below for
              details on how to choose the file. Note that this behaviour is
              different from previous versions of Fuse, when this option would
              open only snapshots.

       F2
       File, Save Snapshot...
              Save a snapshot (machine state, memory contents, etc.) to file.
              You can select the filename to be saved to. If it has a .szx,
              .z80 or .sna extension, the snapshot will be saved in that
              format. Otherwise, it will be saved as a .szx file.

       File, Recording, Record...
              Start recording input to an RZX file, initialised from the
              current emulation state. You will be prompted for a filename to
              use.

       File, Recording, Record from snapshot...
              Start recording input to an RZX file, initialised from a
              snapshot. You will first be asked for the snapshot to use and
              then the file to save the recording to.

       Insert
       File, Recording, Insert snapshot
              Inserts a snapshot of the current state into the RZX file. This
              can be used at a later point to roll back to the inserted state
              by using one of the commands below.

       Delete
       File, Recording, Rollback
              Rolls back the recording to the point at which the previous
              snapshot was inserted. Recording will continue from that point.

       File, Recording, Rollback to...
              Roll back the recording to any snapshot which has been inserted
              into the recording.

       File, Recording, Play...
              Playback recorded input from an RZX file. This lets you replay
              keypresses recorded previously. RZX files generally contain a
              snapshot with the Spectrum's state at the start of the
              recording; if the selected RZX file doesn't, you'll be prompted
              for a snapshot to load as well.

       File, Recording, Stop
              Stop any currently-recording/playing RZX file.

       File, AY Logging, Record...
              Start recording the bytes output via the AY-3-8912 sound chip to
              a PSG file. You will be prompted for a filename to save the
              recording to.

       File, AY Logging, Stop
              Stop any current AY logging.

       File, Open SCR Screenshot...
              Load an SCR screenshot (essentially just a binary dump of the
              Spectrum's video memory) onto the current screen. Fuse supports
              screenshots saved in the Timex hi-colour and hi-res modes as
              well as `normal' Spectrum screens, and will make a simple
              conversion if a hi-colour or hi-res screenshot is loaded onto a
              non-Timex machine.

       File, Save Screen as SCR...
              Save a copy of whatever's currently displayed on the Spectrum's
              screen as an SCR file. You will be prompted for a filename to
              save the screenshot to.

       File, Save Screen as PNG...
              Save the current screen as a PNG file. You will be prompted for
              a filename to save the screenshot to.

       File, Movies, Record...
              Fuse can record movie (video and audio) into a file with special
              format which can be converted later to a common video file
              format with the fmfconv utility.  You will be prompted for a
              filename to save video. Please see MOVIE RECORDING section.

       File, Movies, Stop
              Stop movie recording which is currently in progress.

       File, Load Binary Data...
              Load binary data from a file into the Spectrum's memory. After
              selecting the file to load data from, you can choose where to
              load the data and how much data to load.

       File, Save Binary Data...
              Save an arbitrary chunk of the Spectrum's memory to a file.
              Select the file you wish to save to, followed by the location
              and length of data you wish to save.

       F10
       File, Exit
              Exit the emulator. A confirmation dialog will appear checking
              you actually want to do this.

       F4
       Options, General...
              Display the General Options dialog, letting you configure Fuse.
              (With the widget UI, the keys shown in brackets toggle the
              options, Enter confirms any changes, and Esc aborts). Note that
              any changed settings only apply to the currently-running Fuse.

              The options available are:

              Emulation speed
                     Set how fast Fuse will attempt to emulate the Spectrum,
                     as a percentage of the speed at which the real machine
                     runs. If your machine isn't fast enough to keep up with
                     the requested speed, Fuse will just run as fast as it
                     can. Note that if the emulation speed is not exactly
                     100%, no sound output will be produced.

              Frame rate
                     Specify the frame rate, the ratio of spectrum frame
                     updates to real frame updates. This is useful if your
                     machine is having trouble keeping up with the spectrum
                     screen updates.

              Issue 2 keyboard
                     Early versions of the Spectrum used a different value for
                     unused bits on the keyboard input ports, and a few games
                     depended on the old value of these bits. Enabling this
                     option switches to the old value, to let you run them.

              Use tape traps
                     Ordinarily, Fuse intercepts calls to the ROM tape-loading
                     routine in order to load from tape files more quickly
                     when possible. But this can (rarely) interfere with TZX
                     loading; disabling this option avoids the problem at the
                     cost of slower (i.e. always real-time) tape-loading.
                     When tape-loading traps are disabled, you need to start
                     tape playback manually, by pressing F8 or choosing the
                     Media, Tape, Play menu item. Fuse also uses tape traps to
                     intercept the tape-saving routine in the ROM to save tape
                     files quickly, tapes can also be saved using the Media,
                     Tape, Record Start menu item.

              Fastloading
                     If this option is enabled, then Fuse will run at the
                     fastest possible speed when the virtual tape is playing,
                     thus dramatically reducing the time it takes to load
                     programs. You may wish to disable this option if you wish
                     to stop the tape at a specific point.

              Accelerate loaders
                     If this option is enabled, then Fuse will attempt to
                     accelerate tape loaders by "short circuiting" the loading
                     loop. This will in general speed up loading, but may
                     cause some loaders to fail.

              Detect loaders
                     If this option is enabled, Fuse will attempt to detect
                     when a loading routine is in progress, and then
                     automatically start the virtual tape to load the program
                     in. This is done by using a heuristic to identify a
                     loading routine, so is by no means infallible, but works
                     in most cases.

              Auto-load media
                     On many occasions when you open a tape or disk file, it's
                     because it's got a program in you want to load and run.
                     If this option is selected, this will automatically
                     happen for you when you open one of these files using the
                     File, Open...  menu option -- you must then use the Media
                     menu to use tapes or disks for saving data to, or for
                     loading data into an already running program.

              Use .slt traps
                     The multi-load aspect of SLT files requires a trap
                     instruction to be supported. This instruction is not
                     generally used except for this trap, but since it's not
                     inconceivable that a program could be wanting to use the
                     real instruction instead, you can choose whether to
                     support the trap or not.

              Allow writes to ROM
                     If this option is selected, Fuse will happily allow
                     programs to overwrite what would normally be ROM. This
                     probably isn't very useful in most circumstances,
                     especially as the 48K ROM overwrites parts of itself.

              Auto-save settings
                     If this option is selected, Fuse will automatically write
                     its currently selected options to its configuration file
                     on exit (if libxml2 was available when Fuse was
                     compiled). If you turn this option off, you'll have to
                     manually use Options, Save afterwards to ensure that this
                     setting gets written to Fuse's configuration file.

              MDR cartridge len
                     This option controls the number of blocks in a new
                     Microdrive cartridge.  If the value smaller than 4 or
                     greater than 254 Fuse assumes 4 or 254.

              Random length MDR cartridge
                     If this option is enabled, Fuse will use a random
                     Microdrive cartridge length instead of the length
                     specified in the MDR cartridge len option.

              RS-232 handshake
                     If you turn this option off, Fuse assumes the RS-232 line
                     other end is live when you connect the communication
                     channels.  See also the `--rs232-rx' and `--rs232-tx'
                     options.

              Black and white TV
                     This option allows you to choose whether to simulate a
                     colour or black and white television. This is effective
                     only under the GTK+, Win32, Xlib and SDL user interfaces:
                     the others will always simulate a colour TV.

              PAL-TV use TV2x effect
                     This option allows you to choose whether the PAL TV 2x
                     and higher scalers also reproduce scanlines in the same
                     way as the TV 2x, TV 3x and Timex TV scalers.

              Confirm actions
                     Specify whether `dangerous' actions (those which could
                     cause data loss, for example resetting the Spectrum)
                     require confirmation before occurring.

              Show statusbar
                     For the GTK+ and Win32 UI, enables the statusbar beneath
                     the display. For the SDL UI, enables the status icons
                     showing whether the disk and tape are being accessed.
                     This option has no effect for the other user interfaces.

              Snap joystick prompt
                     If set, Fuse will prompt you which physical joystick or
                     keyboard you want to connect to the joystick interface
                     enabled in the snapshot unless it already matches your
                     current configuration.

              Late timings
                     If selected, Fuse will cause all screen-related timings
                     (for example, when the screen is rendered and when memory
                     contention occurs) to be one tstate later than "normal",
                     an effect which is present on some real hardware.

       Options, Sound...
              Display the Sound Options dialog, letting you configure Fuse's
              sound output. (With the widget UI, the keys shown in brackets
              toggle the options, Enter confirms any changes, and Esc aborts).
              Note that any changed settings only apply to the currently-
              running Fuse.

              Sound enabled
                     Specify whether sound output should be enabled at all.
                     When this option is disabled, Fuse will not make any
                     sound.

              Loading sound
                     Normally, Fuse emulates tape-loading noise when loading
                     from PZXs, TAPs or TZXs in real-time, albeit at a
                     deliberately lower volume than on a real Spectrum. You
                     can disable this option to eliminate the loading noise
                     entirely.

              AY stereo separation
                     By default, the sound output is mono, since this is all
                     you got from an unmodified Spectrum. But enabling this
                     option gives you so-called ACB stereo (for sound from the
                     128 and other clone's AY-3-8912 sound chip).

              Force 8-bit
                     Force the use of 8-bit sound even if 16-bit (the default)
                     is available. Note that (when the option is enabled) if
                     8-bit sound isn't available then there will be no sound
                     at all, so it's best not to use this option unless you
                     have a specific need for it.

              Speaker type
                     This option allows the emulation of the sound output
                     system to be modified. Different choices of speaker limit
                     the bass and treble response that can be produced from
                     the machine. Choose between a "TV" type speaker and a
                     small beeper type speaker that significantly limits bass
                     and treble response. Choose "Unfiltered" to get
                     unmodified (but less accurate) sound output.

              AY volume
                     Sets the relative volume of the AY-3-8912 chip from a
                     range of 0-100%.

              Beeper volume
                     Sets the relative volume of the beeper from a range of
                     0-100%.

              SpecDrum volume
                     Sets the relative volume of the SpecDrum from a range of
                     0-100%.

       Options, Peripherals, General...
              Display the Peripherals Options dialog, letting you configure
              the peripherals which Fuse will consider to be attached to the
              emulated machines. (With the widget UI, the keys shown in
              brackets toggle the options, Enter confirms any changes, and Esc
              aborts). Note that any changed settings only apply to the
              currently-running Fuse. Also note that any changes that enable
              and disable peripherals may result in a hard reset of the
              emulated machine.

              Kempston joystick
                     If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate a Kempston
                     joystick interface (probably the most widely supported
                     type on the Spectrum).  Note that this option is
                     basically equivalent to plugging the interface itself
                     into a Spectrum, not to connecting a joystick; this
                     affects how the Spectrum responds to a read of input
                     port 31. To use a Kempston joystick in a game, this
                     option must be enabled, and you must also select a
                     Kempston joystick the Options, Joysticks menu.

              Kempston mouse
                     If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate a Kempston
                     mouse interface.

                     If you're using Fuse full-screen, your mouse is
                     automatically used as if attached to the Kempston
                     interface. Otherwise, you'll need to click on the
                     Spectrum display in order to tell Fuse to grab the
                     pointer (and make it invisible); to tell Fuse to release
                     it, click the middle button (or wheel) or press Escape.

                     With the framebuffer UI, Fuse prefers to use GPM; if this
                     is not available, it will fall back to built-in PS/2
                     mouse support. In this mode, it tries /dev/input/mice,
                     /dev/mouse then /dev/psaux, stopping when it successfully
                     opens one. The first of these is preferred since (at
                     least on Linux, with a 2.6-series kernel) any type of
                     mouse can be used and any connected mouse may be used.

              Swap mouse buttons
                     If this option is enabled, the left and right mouse
                     buttons will be swapped when emulating a Kempston mouse.

              Fuller Box
                     If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate a Fuller
                     Box AY sound and joystick interface. This emulation is
                     only available for the 16k, 48k and TC2048 machines.

              Melodik
                     If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate a Melodik
                     AY sound interface.  These interfaces and many similar
                     ones were produced to make the 48K Spectrum compatible
                     with the same AY music as the 128K Spectrum. This
                     emulation is only available for the 16k, 48k and TC2048
                     machines.

              Interface 1
                     If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate the simple
                     Sinclair Interface 1, and allow Microdrive cartridges to
                     be connected and disconnected via the Media, Interface 1,
                     Microdrive menus. It also enables support for the
                     Interface 1 RS-232 interface.

              Interface 2
                     If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate a cartridge
                     port as found on the Interface 2. Cartridges can then be
                     inserted and removed via the Media, Cartridge,
                     Interface 2 menu. Note that the Pentagon, Scorpion,
                     Interface 2, ZXATASP and ZXCF all use the same hardware
                     mechanism for accessing some of their extended features,
                     so only one of these should be selected at once or
                     unpredictable behaviour will occur.

              Emulate printers
                     If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate a printer.
                     See the PRINTER EMULATION section for more details.

              ZX Printer
                     If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate the ZX
                     Printer. See the PRINTER EMULATION section for more
                     details.

              SpeccyBoot interface
                     If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate a
                     SpeccyBoot interface which allows booting a ZX Spectrum
                     over an Ethernet network. See the SpeccyBoot web page at
                     http://speccyboot.sourceforge.net/ for more details.

              SpecDrum interface
                     If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate a Cheetah
                     SpecDrum sound interface.  See the World of Spectrum
                     Infoseek web page at
                     http://www.worldofspectrum.org/infoseekid.cgi?id=1000062
                     for manuals, software and more. This emulation is only
                     available for the 48k, 128k and TC2048 machines.

              Spectranet
                     If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate the
                     Spectranet interface, which provides an Ethernet
                     interface for the Spectrum. See the SPECTRANET EMULATION
                     section for more details.

              Spectranet disable
                     This option controls the state of the Spectranet
                     automatic page-in jumper (J2). See the SPECTRANET
                     EMULATION section for more details.

       Options, Peripherals, Disk...
              Note that any changes that enable and disable peripherals may
              result in a hard reset of the emulated machine.

              Simple 8-bit IDE
                     If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate the simple
                     8-bit IDE interface as used by the Spectrum +3e, and
                     allow hard disks to be connected and disconnected via the
                     Media, IDE, Simple 8-bit menu.

              ZXATASP interface
                     If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate the ZXATASP
                     interface, which provides both additional RAM and an IDE
                     interface. See the ZXATASP AND ZXCF section for more
                     details.

              ZXATASP upload
                     This option controls the state of the ZXATASP upload
                     jumper. See the ZXATASP AND ZXCF section for more
                     details.

              ZXATASP write protect
                     This option controls the state of the ZXATASP write
                     protect jumper. See the ZXATASP AND ZXCF section for more
                     details.

              ZXCF interface
                     If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate the ZXCF
                     interface, which provides both additional RAM and a
                     CompactFlash interface. See the ZXATASP AND ZXCF section
                     for more details.

              ZXCF upload
                     This option controls the state of the ZXCF upload jumper.
                     See the ZXATASP AND ZXCF section for more details.

              DivIDE interface
                     If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate the DivIDE
                     interface. See the DIVIDE section for more details.

              DivIDE write protect
                     This option controls the state of the DivIDE write
                     protection jumper. See the DIVIDE section for more
                     details.

              +D interface
                     If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate the +D
                     interface.  See the +D EMULATION section for more
                     details.

              DISCiPLE interface
                     If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate the
                     DISCiPLE interface.  See the DISCIPLE EMULATION section
                     for more details.

              Beta 128 interface
                     If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate the
                     Beta 128 interface.  See the BETA 128 EMULATION section
                     for more details. Beta 128 emulation is enabled for the
                     Pentagon and Scorpion machines regardless of this option.

              Beta 128 auto-boot in 48K machines
                     If this option is selected, then when a Beta 128
                     interface is used in 48K or TC2048 emulation, the machine
                     will boot directly into the TR-DOS system.

              Opus Discovery interface
                     If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate the Opus
                     Discovery interface.  See the OPUS DISCOVERY EMULATION
                     section for more details.

       Options, RZX...
              Display the RZX Options dialog, letting you configure how Fuse's
              deals with RZX input recordings. (With the widget UI, the keys
              shown in brackets toggle the options, Enter confirms any
              changes, and Esc aborts). Note that any changed settings only
              apply to the currently-running Fuse.

              Create autosaves
                     If this option is selected, Fuse will add a snapshot into
                     the recording stream every 5 seconds while creating an
                     RZX file, thus enabling the rollback facilities to be
                     used without having to explicitly add snapshots into the
                     stream. Older snapshots will be pruned from the stream to
                     keep the file size and number of snapshots down: each
                     snapshot up to 15 seconds will be kept, then one snapshot
                     every 15 seconds until one minute, then one snapshot
                     every minute until 5 minutes, and then one snapshot every
                     5 minutes. Note that this "pruning" applies only to
                     automatically inserted snapshots: snapshots manually
                     inserted into the stream will never be pruned.

              Compress RZX data
                     If this option is selected, and zlib was available when
                     Fuse was compiled, any RZX files written by Fuse will be
                     compressed. This is generally a good thing as it makes
                     the files significantly smaller, and you probably want to
                     turn it off only if you're debugging the RZX files or
                     there's some other program which doesn't support
                     compressed RZX files.

              Competition mode
                     Any input recordings which are started when this option
                     is selected will be made in `competition mode'. In
                     essence, this means that Fuse will act just like a real
                     Spectrum would: you can't load snapshots, pause the
                     emulation in any way, change the speed or anything that
                     you couldn't do on the real machine. If any of these
                     things are attempted, or if the emulated Fuse is running
                     more than 5% faster or slower than normal Spectrum speed,
                     then the recording will immediately be stopped.

                     If libgcrypt was available when Fuse was compiled, then
                     recordings made with competition mode active will be
                     digitally signed, in theory to `certify' that it was made
                     with the above restrictions in place.  However, this
                     procedure is not secure (and cannot be made so), so the
                     presence of any signature on an RZX file should not be
                     taken as providing proof that it was made with
                     competition mode active. This feature is included in Fuse
                     solely as it was one of the requirements for Fuse to be
                     used in an on-line tournament.

              Competition code
                     The numeric code entered here will be written into any
                     RZX files made in competition mode. This is another
                     feature for on-line tournaments which can be used to
                     `prove' that the recording was made after a specific code
                     was released. If you're not playing in such a tournament,
                     you can safely ignore this option.

              Always embed snapshot
                     Specify whether a snapshot should be embedded in an RZX
                     file when recording is started from an existing snapshot.

       Options, Joysticks
              Fuse can emulate many of the common types of joystick which were
              available for the Spectrum. The input for these emulated
              joysticks can be taken from real joysticks attached to the
              emulating machine (configured via the Options, Joysticks,
              Joystick 1...  and Options, Joysticks, Joystick 2...  options),
              or from the q, a, o, p, and Space keys on the emulating machines
              keyboard, configured via the Options, Joysticks, Keyboard...
              option. Note that when using the keyboard to emulate a joystick,
              the q, a, o, p, and Space keys will not have their normal effect
              (to avoid problems with games which do things like use p for
              pause when using a joystick).

              Each of the joysticks (including the `fake' keyboard joystick)
              can be configured to emulate any one of the following joystick
              types:

                     None
                            No joystick: any input will simply be ignored.

                     Cursor
                            A cursor joystick, equivalent to pressing 5
                            (left), 6 (down), 7 (up), 8 (right), and 0 (fire).

                     Kempston
                            A Kempston joystick, read from input port 31. Note
                            that the Options, Peripherals, Kempston interface
                            option must also be set for the input to be
                            recognised.

                     Sinclair 1
                     Sinclair 2
                            The `left' and `right' Sinclair joysticks,
                            equivalent to pressing 1 (left), 2 (right), 3
                            (down), 4 (up), and 5 (fire), or 6 (left), 7
                            (right), 8 (down), 9 (up), and 0 (fire)
                            respectively.

                     Timex 1
                     Timex 2
                            The `left' and `right' joysticks as attached to
                            the Timex 2068 variant's built-in joystick
                            interface.

              For the real joysticks, it is also possible to configure
              (although currently only when using the GTK+ interface) what
              effect each button on the joystick will have: this can be
              Joystick Fire, equivalent to pressing the emulated joystick's
              fire button, Nothing, meaning to have no effect, or any Spectrum
              key, meaning that pressing that button will be equivalent to
              pressing that Spectrum key.

       Options, Select ROMs
              An individual dialog is available for each Spectrum variant
              emulated by Fuse which allows selection of the ROM(s) used by
              that machine. Simply select the ROM you wish to use, and then
              reset the Spectrum for the change to take effect.

       Options, Filter...
              Select the graphics filter currently in use. See the GRAPHICS
              FILTERS section for more details.

       Options, Disk Options...
              When emulating disk drives, Fuse allows the specification of the
              physical drive units attached to the emulated interface. Each
              drive can be set to be one of the following types:

                     Single-sided 40 track

                     Double-sided 40 track

                     Single-sided 80 track

                     Double-sided 80 track

              The available options that can be set are:

              +3 Drive A
                     Defaults to a single-sided 40 track drive.

              +3 Drive B
                     Defaults to a double-sided 80 track drive.

              +3 Detect Speedlock
                     Specify whether the +3 drives try to detect Speedlock
                     protected disks, and emulate `weak' sectors.  If the disk
                     image file (EDSK or UDI) contains weak sector data, than
                     Speedlock detection is automatically omitted.  See also
                     the WEAK DISK DATA section.

              Beta 128 Drive A
                     Defaults to a double-sided 80 track drive.

              Beta 128 Drive B
                     Defaults to a double-sided 80 track drive.

              Beta 128 Drive C
                     Defaults to a double-sided 80 track drive.

              Beta 128 Drive D
                     Defaults to a double-sided 80 track drive.

              +D Drive 1
                     Defaults to a double-sided 80 track drive.

              +D Drive 2
                     Defaults to a double-sided 80 track drive.

              DISCiPLE Drive 1
                     Defaults to a double-sided 80 track drive.

              DISCiPLE Drive 2
                     Defaults to a double-sided 80 track drive.

              Opus Drive 1
                     Defaults to a single-sided 40 track drive.

              Opus Drive 2
                     Defaults to a single-sided 40 track drive.

              Try merge 'B' side of disks
                     This option prompts the user to confirm whether Fuse
                     should try to merge the `B' side of a disk image from a
                     separate file when opening a new single-sided disk image.

              Confirm merge disk sides
                     Select whether Fuse should try to merge a separate file
                     for the `B' side of a disk image separate file when
                     opening a new disk image. Most double sided disk images
                     are dumped as two single sided disk images e.g.  `Golden
                     Axe - Side A.dsk' and `Golden Axe - Side B.dsk'. So, if
                     we want to play Golden Axe, first we have to insert the
                     first disk image and when the game asks to insert side B,
                     we have to find and open the second disk image, instead
                     of just `flip'-ing the disk inside the drive. If enabled,
                     Fuse will try to open the second image too and create a
                     double sided disk image (merging the two one sided disk
                     images) and insert this merged virtual disk into the disk
                     drive. The function detects whether the file is one side
                     of a double-sided image if the filename matches a pattern
                     like [Ss]ide[ _][abAB12][ _.] in the file name of a disk
                     that is being opened. If found, Fuse will try to open the
                     other side of the disk too substituting the appropriate
                     characters in the filename e.g.  1->2, a->b, A->B. If
                     successful then it will merge the two images and now we
                     have a double sided disk in drive. This means that if we
                     open `Golden Axe - Side A.dsk', then Fuse will try to
                     open `Golden Axe - Side B.dsk' too. Now, we can just
                     `flip' the disk if Golden Axe asks for `Side B'.  The
                     available options are Never, With single-sided drives and
                     Always.

       F11
       Options, Full Screen
              Switch Fuse between full screen and windowed mode.  This menu is
              only available under the SDL UI.

       Options, Save
              If libxml2 was available when Fuse was compiled, this will cause
              Fuse's current options to be written to .fuserc in your home
              directory, from which they will be picked up again when Fuse is
              restarted. The best way to update this file is by using this
              option, but it's a simple XML file and shouldn't be too hard to
              edit by hand if you really want to.

       Pause
       Machine, Pause
              Pause or unpause emulation. This option is available only under
              the GTK+ and Win32 UIs; to pause the other user interfaces,
              simply press F1 to bring up the main menu.

       F5
       Machine, Reset
              Reset the emulated Spectrum. Again, you get a chance to cancel
              this if you're using the GTK+ or Win32 UIs.

       Machine, Hard reset
              Reset the emulated Spectrum. A hard reset is equivalent to
              turning the Spectrum's power off, and then turning it back on.
              Again, you get a chance to cancel this if you're using the GTK+
              or Win32 UIs.

       F9
       Machine, Select...
              Choose a type of Spectrum to emulate. An brief overview of the
              Sinclair, Amstrad and Timex can be found at
              http://www.nvg.ntnu.no/sinclair/computers/zxspectrum/zxspectrum.htm
              while more technical information can be found at
              http://www.worldofspectrum.org/faq/reference/reference.htm, and
              http://www.worldofspectrum.org/faq/reference/tmxreference.htm.

              Spectrum 16K
              Spectrum 48K
                     The original machines as released by Sinclair in 1982
                     with 16 or 48K of RAM respectively.

              Spectrum 48K (NTSC)
                     The NTSC 48K machine released in limited numbers in parts
                     of South America.

              Spectrum 128K
                     The 128K machine as released by Sinclair in 1985 (Spain)
                     or 1986 (UK).

              Spectrum +2
                     The first machine released by Amstrad, in 1986. From an
                     emulation point of view, the +2 is virtually identical to
                     the 128K.

              Spectrum +2A
              Spectrum +3
                     The two machines released by Amstrad in 1988. Technically
                     very similar to each other, except that the +3 features a
                     3'' disk drive while the +2A does not.

              Spectrum +3e
                     A +3 with modified ROMs allowing access to IDE hard disks
                     via the simple 8-bit interface, as activated from the
                     Options, Disk Peripherals dialog. See
                     http://www.worldofspectrum.org/zxplus3e/ for more
                     details.

              Timex TC2048
              Timex TC2068
                     The variants of the Spectrum as released by Timex in
                     Portugal.

              Timex TS2068
                     The variant of the Spectrum released by Timex in North
                     America.

              Pentagon 128K
                     Russian clone of the Spectrum. There were many different
                     machines called Pentagon from 1989 to 2006, this machine
                     corresponds to a 1991 era Pentagon 128K with the optional
                     AY sound chip and the integrated Beta 128 disk interface,
                     and is the version of the machine most often emulated.
                     More technical details can be found at
                     http://www.worldofspectrum.org/rusfaq/index.html,

              Pentagon 512K
              Pentagon 1024K
                     Newer versions of the Pentagon Russian Spectrum clones
                     which incorporate more memory and the "Mr Gluk Reset
                     Service" ROM offering a more powerful firmware.

              Scorpion ZS 256
                     Another Russian clone of the Spectrum. Some details can
                     be found at
                     http://www.worldofspectrum.org/rusfaq/index.html.  Like
                     all the Russian clones, they have built in 3.5'' disk
                     drives, accessed via the Beta 128 disk interface and TR-
                     DOS (the Technology Research Disk Operating System). The
                     most important distinction from the Pentagon 128k and
                     similar machines is the display timing details.

              Spectrum SE
                     A recent variant designed by Andrew Owen and Jarek
                     Adamski, which is possibly best thought of as a cross
                     between the 128K machine and the Timex variants, allowing
                     272K of RAM to be accessed. Some more details are
                     available at
                     http://www.worldofspectrum.org/faq/reference/sereference.htm
                     and documentation of the extended BASIC is available at
                     https://github.com/cheveron/sebasic4/wiki.  The bug
                     tracker for the BASIC is at
                     https://github.com/cheveron/sebasic4/issues?state=open.

       Machine, Debugger...
              Start the monitor/debugger. See the MONITOR/DEBUGGER section for
              more information.

       Machine, Poke Finder...
              Start the `poke finder'. See the POKE FINDER section for more
              information.

       Machine, Poke Memory...
              Allow to use multiface POKEs for things such as infinite lives.
              See the POKE MEMORY section for more information.

       Machine, Memory Browser...
              Start the memory browser. It should be fairly obvious what this
              does; perhaps the only thing worth noting is that emulation is
              paused until you close the window.

       Machine, NMI
              Sends a non-maskable interrupt to the emulated Spectrum. Due to
              a typo in the standard 48K ROM, this will cause a reset, but
              modified ROMs are available which make use of this feature. When
              the +D (or DISCiPLE) is emulated, this is used to access the +D
              (or DISCiPLE)'s screenshot and snapshot features (see the +D
              EMULATION and DISCIPLE EMULATION sections below).  For the
              DISCiPLE, Caps Shift must be held down whilst pressing the NMI
              button.  For some UIs, this may be tricky, or even impossible to
              do.  Note that GDOS on the DISCiPLE contains a bug which causes
              corruption of saved snapshots, and a failure to return from the
              NMI menu correctly.  This bug is not present in G+DOS on the +D.

       F7
       Media, Tape, Open...
              Choose a PZX, TAP or TZX virtual-tape file to load from. See the
              FILE SELECTION section below for details on how to choose the
              file. If Auto-load media is set in the General Options dialog
              (as it is by default), you may use the File, Open...  menu
              option instead, and the tape will begin loading automatically.
              Otherwise, you have to start the load in the emulated machine
              (with LOAD "" or the 128's Tape Loader option, though you may
              need to reset first).

              To guarantee that TZX files will load properly, you should
              select the file, make sure tape-loading traps are disabled in
              the General Options dialog, then press F8 (or do Media, Tape,
              Play).  That said, most TZXs will work with tape-loading traps
              enabled (often quickly loading partway, then loading the rest
              real-time), so you might want to try it that way first.

       F8
       Media, Tape, Play
              Start playing the PZX, TAP or TZX file, if required. (Choosing
              the option (or pressing F8) again pauses playback, and a further
              press resumes). To explain -- if tape-loading traps have been
              disabled (in the General Options dialog), starting the loading
              process in the emulated machine isn't enough. You also have to
              `press play', so to speak :-), and this is how you do that. You
              may also need to `press play' like this in certain other
              circumstances, e.g. TZXs containing multi-load games may have a
              stop-the-tape request (which Fuse obeys).

       Media, Tape, Browse
              Browse through the current tape. A brief display of each of the
              data blocks on the current tape will appear, from which you can
              select which block Fuse will play next. With the GTK+ UI,
              emulation will continue while the browser is displayed; double-
              clicking on a block will select it. In the other UIs, emulation
              is paused and you can use the cursor keys and press Enter to
              select it. If you decide you don't want to change block, just
              press Escape.

       Media, Tape, Rewind
              Rewind the current virtual tape, so it can be read again from
              the beginning.

       Media, Tape, Clear
              Clear the current virtual tape. This is particularly useful when
              you want a `clean slate' to add newly-saved files to, before
              doing Media, Tape, Write...  (or F6).

       F6
       Media, Tape, Write...
              Write the current virtual-tape contents to a TZX file. You will
              be prompted for a filename. The virtual-tape contents are the
              contents of the previously-loaded tape (if any has been loaded
              since you last did a Media, Tape, Clear), followed by anything
              you've saved from the emulated machine since.  These newly-saved
              files are not written to any tape file until you choose this
              option!

       Media, Tape, Record Start
              Starts directly recording the output from the emulated Spectrum
              to the current virtual-tape. This is useful when you want to
              record using a non-standard ROM or from a custom save routine.
              Most tape operations are disabled during recording. Stop
              recording with the Media, Tape, Write...  menu option.

       Media, Tape, Record Stop
              Stops the direct recording and places the new recording into the
              virtual-tape.

       Media, Interface 1
              Virtual Microdrive images are accessible only when the
              Interface 1 is active from the Options, Peripherals menu. Note
              that any changes to the Microdrive image will not be written to
              the file on disk until the appropriate save option is used.

       Media, Interface 1, Microdrive 1, Insert New
              Insert a new (unformatted) Microdrive cartridge into emulated
              Microdrive 1.

       Media, Interface 1, Microdrive 1, Insert...
              Insert an existing Microdrive cartridge image into emulated
              Microdrive 1. You will be prompted for a filename.

       Media, Interface 1, Microdrive 1, Eject
              Eject the Microdrive image in Microdrive 1. If the image has
              been modified, you will be asked as to whether you want any
              changes saved.

       Media, Interface 1, Microdrive 1, Save
              Save the Microdrive image in Microdrive 1.

       Media, Interface 1, Microdrive 1, Save as...
              Write the Microdrive image in Microdrive 1 to a file. You will
              be prompted for a filename.

       Media, Interface 1, Microdrive 1, Write protect, Enable
              Enable the write protect tab for the image in Microdrive 1.

       Media, Interface 1, Microdrive 1, Write protect, Disable
              Disable the write protect tab for the image in Microdrive 1.

       Media, Interface 1, Microdrive 2, ...
       Media, Interface 1, Microdrive 3, ...
       Media, Interface 1, Microdrive 4, ...
       Media, Interface 1, Microdrive 5, ...
       Media, Interface 1, Microdrive 6, ...
       Media, Interface 1, Microdrive 7, ...
       Media, Interface 1, Microdrive 8, ...
              Equivalent options for the other emulated Microdrives.

       Media, Interface 1, RS232, Plug RxD
       Media, Interface 1, RS232, Unplug RxD
       Media, Interface 1, RS232, Plug TxD
       Media, Interface 1, RS232, Unplug TxD
              Connect or disconnect a communication channels (FIFO or file) to
              use as the RS-232 TxD or RxD wire.

       Media, Disk
              Virtual floppy disk images are accessible when emulating a +3,
              +3e, Pentagon or Scorpion, or when the Beta 128, Opus Discovery,
              +D or DISCiPLE interface options are enabled and a machine
              compatible with the chosen interface is selected. (See THE .DSK
              FORMAT, BETA 128 EMULATION OPUS DISCOVERY EMULATION +D EMULATION
              and DISCIPLE EMULATION sections below for notes on the file
              formats supported).

              Once again, any changes made to a disk image will not affect the
              file which was `inserted' into the drive. If you do want to keep
              any changes, use the appropriate `eject and write' option before
              exiting Fuse.

       Media, Disk, +3, Drive A:, Insert...
              Insert a disk-image file to read/write in the +3's emulated
              drive A:.

       Media, Disk, +3, Drive A:, Eject
              Eject the disk image currently in the +3's emulated drive A: --
              or from the emulated machine's perspective, eject it. Note that
              any changes made to the image will not be saved.

       Media, Disk, +3, Drive A:, Save
              Save the disk image currently in the +3's drive A:.

       Media, Disk, +3, Drive A:, Save as...
              Save the current state of the disk image currently in the +3's
              drive A: to a file. You will be prompted for a filename.

       Media, Disk, +3, Drive B:, Insert...
              As above, but for the +3's drive B:. Fuse emulates drive B: as a
              second 3'' drive.

       Media, Disk, +3, Drive B:, Eject
              As above, but for drive B:.

       Media, Disk, +3, Drive B:, Save
              As above, but for drive B:.

       Media, Disk, +3, Drive B:, Save as...
              As above, but for drive B:.

       Media, Disk, Beta, Drive A:, Insert New
              Insert a new (unformatted) disk into the emulated Beta drive A:.

       Media, Disk, Beta, Drive A:, Insert...
       Media, Disk, Beta, Drive A:, Eject
       Media, Disk, Beta, Drive A:, Save
       Media, Disk, Beta, Drive A:, Save as...
              As above, but for the emulated Beta disk drive A:.

       Media, Disk, Beta, Drive A:, Write protect, Enable
              Enable the write protect tab for the image in Beta drive A:.

       Media, Disk, Beta, Drive A:, Write protect, Disable
              Disable the write protect tab for the image in Beta drive A:.

       Media, Disk, Beta, Drive B:, ...
       Media, Disk, Beta, Drive C:, ...
       Media, Disk, Beta, Drive D:, ...
              As above, but for the remaining emulated Beta disk interface
              drives.

       Media, Disk, Opus, Drive 1, Insert New
       Media, Disk, Opus, Drive 1, Insert...
       Media, Disk, Opus, Drive 1, Eject
       Media, Disk, Opus, Drive 1, Save
       Media, Disk, Opus, Drive 1, Save as...
       Media, Disk, Opus, Drive 1, Write protect, Enable
       Media, Disk, Opus, Drive 1, Write protect, Disable
       Media, Disk, Opus, Drive 2, ...
              As above, but for the emulated Opus Discovery drives.

       Media, Disk, +D, Drive 1, Insert New
       Media, Disk, +D, Drive 1, Insert...
       Media, Disk, +D, Drive 1, Eject
       Media, Disk, +D, Drive 1, Save
       Media, Disk, +D, Drive 1, Save as...
       Media, Disk, +D, Drive 1, Write protect, Enable
       Media, Disk, +D, Drive 1, Write protect, Disable
       Media, Disk, +D, Drive 2, ...
              As above, but for the emulated +D drives.

       Media, Disk, DISCiPLE, Drive 1, Insert New
       Media, Disk, DISCiPLE, Drive 1, Insert...
       Media, Disk, DISCiPLE, Drive 1, Eject
       Media, Disk, DISCiPLE, Drive 1, Save
       Media, Disk, DISCiPLE, Drive 1, Save as...
       Media, Disk, DISCiPLE, Drive 1, Write protect, Enable
       Media, Disk, DISCiPLE, Drive 1, Write protect, Disable
       Media, Disk, DISCiPLE, Drive 2, ...
              As above, but for the emulated DISCiPLE drives.

       Media, Cartridge, Timex Dock, Insert...
              Insert a cartridge into the Timex 2068 dock. This will cause the
              emulated machine to be changed to the TC2068 (if it wasn't
              already a 2068 variant) and reset.

       Media, Cartridge, Timex Dock, Eject
              Remove the cartridge from the Timex 2068 dock. This will cause
              the emulated machine to be reset.

       Media, Cartridge, Interface 2, Insert...
              Insert a cartridge into the Interface 2 cartridge slot. This
              will cause the emulated machine to be reset and the cartridge
              loaded.

       Media, Cartridge, Interface 2, Eject...
              Remove the cartridge from the Interface 2 cartridge slot. This
              will cause the emulated machine to be reset.

       Media, IDE, Simple 8-bit, Master, Insert...
              Connect an IDE hard disk to the simple 8-bit interface's master
              channel.

       Media, IDE, Simple 8-bit, Master, Commit
              Cause any writes which have been done to virtual hard disk
              attached to the simple 8-bit interface's master channel to be
              committed to the real disk, such that they survive the virtual
              disk being ejected.

       Media, IDE, Simple 8-bit, Master, Eject
              Eject the virtual hard disk from the simple 8-bit interface's
              master channel. Note that any writes to the virtual hard disk
              will be lost unless the Media, IDE, Simple 8-bit, Master, Commit
              option is used before the disk is ejected.

       Media, IDE, Simple 8-bit, Slave, Insert...
       Media, IDE, Simple 8-bit, Slave, Commit
       Media, IDE, Simple 8-bit, Slave, Eject
              The same as the Media, IDE, Simple 8-bit, Master entries above,
              but for the simple 8-bit interface's slave channel.

       Media, IDE, ZXATASP, Master, Insert...
       Media, IDE, ZXATASP, Master, Commit
       Media, IDE, ZXATASP, Master, Eject
       Media, IDE, ZXATASP, Slave, Insert...
       Media, IDE, ZXATASP, Slave, Commit
       Media, IDE, ZXATASP, Slave, Eject
              The same as the Media, IDE, Simple 8-bit, Master entries above,
              but for the two channels of the ZXATASP interface.

       Media, IDE, ZXCF CompactFlash, Insert...
       Media, IDE, ZXCF CompactFlash, Commit
       Media, IDE, ZXCF CompactFlash, Eject
              The same as the Media, IDE, Simple 8-bit, Master entries above,
              but for the ZXCF interface's CompactFlash slot.

       Media, IDE, DivIDE, Master, Insert...
       Media, IDE, DivIDE, Master, Commit
       Media, IDE, DivIDE, Eject
       Media, IDE, DivIDE, Slave, Insert...
       Media, IDE, DivIDE, Slave, Commit
       Media, IDE, DivIDE, Eject
              The same as the Media, IDE, Simple 8-bit entries above, but for
              the two channels of the DivIDE interface.

       Help, Keyboard picture...
              Display a diagram showing the Spectrum keyboard, and the various
              keywords that can be generated with each key from (48K) BASIC.
              Under the GTK+ and Win32 UIs, this will appear in a separate
              window and emulation continues. With the other UIs, the picture
              remains onscreen (and the emulator paused) until you press Esc
              or Enter.

KEY MAPPINGS
       When emulating the Spectrum, keys F1 to F10 are used as shortcuts for
       various menu items, as described above. The alphanumeric keys (along
       with Enter and Space) are mapped as-is to the Spectrum keys. The other
       key mappings are:

       Shift  emulated as Caps Shift

       Control, Alt, and Meta
              emulated as Symbol Shift (most other modifiers are also mapped
              to this)

       Backspace
              emulated as Caps-0 (Delete)

       Esc    emulated as Caps-1 (Edit)

       Caps Lock
              emulated as Caps-2

       Cursor keys
              emulated as Caps-5/6/7/8 (as appropriate)

       Tab    emulated as Caps Shift-Symbol Shift (Extended Mode)

       Some further punctuation keys are supported, if they exist on your
       keyboard -- `,', `.', `/', `;', `'', `#', `-', and `='.  These are
       mapped to the appropriate symbol-shifted keys on the Spectrum.

       A list of keys applicable when using the file selection dialogs is
       given in the FILE SELECTION section below.

DISPLAY SIZE
       Some of Fuse's UIs allow resizing of the emulated Spectrum's display.
       For the window-based ones (GTK+, Win32 and Xlib), you can resize the
       window by, well, resizing it. :-) Exactly how this works depends on
       your window manager; you may have to make the window over twice the
       width and height of the original size before it actually scales up.
       Fuse attempts to keep the window `square', but with some window
       managers this can mean the window will never resize at all. If you
       experience this problem, the `--no-aspect-hint' option may help.

       If you're using the SDL UI under X11 or GTK+, the window will
       automatically resize to be the correct size for the graphics filter
       selected.

GRAPHICS FILTERS
       Fuse has the ability to apply essentially arbitrary filters between
       building its image of the Spectrum's screen, and displaying it on the
       emulating machine's monitor. These filters can be used to do various
       forms of smoothing, emulation of TV scanlines and various other
       possibilities. Support for graphics filters varies between the
       different user interfaces, but there are two general classes: the GTK+,
       Win32, Xlib, SVGAlib and SDL user interfaces (and the saving of .png
       screenshots) support `interpolating' filters which use a palette larger
       than the Spectrum's 16 colours, while the framebuffer user interface
       currently does not support filters at all.

       A further complication arises due to the fact that the Timex machines
       have their high-resolution video mode with twice the horizontal
       resolution. To deal with this, Fuse treats these machines as having a
       `normal' display size which is twice the size of a normal Spectrum's
       screen, leading to a different set of filters being available for these
       machines. Note that any of the double or triple-sizing filters are
       available for Timex machines only when using the SDL, Win32 or GTK+
       user interfaces.

       The available filters, along with their short name used to select them
       from the command line, are:

       Timex half (smoothed) (half)
       Timex half (skipping) (halfskip)
              Two Timex-machine specific filters which scale the screen down
              to half normal (Timex) size; that is, the same size as a normal
              Spectrum screen. The difference between these two filters is in
              how they handle the high-resolution mode: the `smoothed' version
              is an interpolating filter which averages pairs of adjacent
              pixels, while the `skipping' version is a non-interpolating
              filter which simply drops every other pixel.

       Normal (normal)
              The simplest filter: just display one pixel for every pixel on
              the Spectrum's screen.

       Double size (2x)
              Scale the displayed screen up to double size.

       Triple size (3x)
              Scale the displayed screen up to triple size. Available only
              with the GTK+, Win32, Xlib and SDL user interfaces or when
              saving screenshots of non-Timex machines.

       2xSaI (2xsai)
       Super 2xSaI (super2xsai)
       SuperEagle (supereagle)
              Three interpolating filters which apply successively more
              smoothing. All three double the size of the displayed screen.

       AdvMAME2x (advmame2x)
              A double-sizing, non-interpolating filter which attempts to
              smooth diagonal lines.

       AdvMAME3x (advmame3x)
              Very similar to AdvMAME2x, except that it triples the size of
              the displayed screen. Available only with the GTK+, Win32, Xlib
              and SDL user interfaces or when saving screenshots of non-Timex
              machines.

       TV 2x (tv2x)
       TV 3x (tv3x)
       Timex TV (timextv)
              Three filters which attempt to emulate the effect of television
              scanlines. The first is a double-sizing filter for non-Timex
              machines, the second is a similar triple-sizing filter, while
              the last is a single-sizing filter for Timex machines (note that
              this means TV 2X and Timex TV produce the same size output).

       PAL TV (paltv)
       PAL TV 2x (paltv2x)
       PAL TV 3x (paltv3x)
              Three filters which attempt to emulate the effect of the PAL TV
              system which layers a lower-resolution colour image over the top
              of a higher-resolution black-and-white image. The filters can
              also optionally add scanlines like the other TV series scalers.

       Dot matrix (dotmatrix)
              A double-sizing filter which emulates the effect of a dot-matrix
              display.

       Timex 1.5x (timex15x)
              An interpolating Timex-specific filter which scales the Timex
              screen up to 1.5x its usual size (which is therefore 3x the size
              of a `normal' Spectrum screen). Available only for the GTK+,
              Win32 and SDL user interfaces or when saving screenshots.

       HQ 2x (hq2x)
       HQ 3x (hq3x)
              Two filters which do high quality (but slow) antialiasing.
              Doubles and triples the size of the displayed screen
              respectively.

THE EMULATED SPECTRUM
       The emulated Spectrum is, by default, an unmodified 48K Spectrum with a
       tape player and ZX Printer attached. Oh, and apparently some magical
       snapshot load/save machine which is probably best glossed over for the
       sake of the analogy. :-)

       To emulate different kinds of Spectrum, select the Machine, Select...
       menu option, or press F9.

       The Spectrum emulation is paused when any dialogs appear. In the widget
       UI, it's also paused when menus or the keyboard picture are displayed.

PRINTER EMULATION
       The various models of Spectrum supported a range of ways to connect
       printers, three of which are supported by Fuse. Different printers are
       made available for the different models:

       16, 48, TC2048, TC2068, TS2068
              ZX Printer

       128/+2/Pentagon
              Serial printer (text-only)

       +2A, +3
              Parallel printer (text-only)

       If Opus Discovery, +D or DISCiPLE emulation is in use and printer
       emulation is enabled, text-only emulation of the disk interface's
       parallel printer interface is provided.

       Any printout is appended to one (or both) of two files, depending on
       the printer -- these default to printout.txt for text output, and
       printout.pbm for graphics (PBM images are supported by most image
       viewers and converters). These names can be changed with the --textfile
       and --graphicsfile options from the command line or configuration file.
       While the ZX Printer can only output graphically, simulated text output
       is generated at the same time using a crude sort of OCR based on the
       current character set (a bit like using SCREEN$). There is currently no
       support for graphics when using the serial/parallel output, though any
       escape codes used will be `printed' faithfully. (!)

       By the way, it's not a good idea to modify the printout.pbm file
       outside of Fuse if you want to continue appending to it. The header
       needs to have a certain layout for Fuse to be able to continue
       appending to it correctly, and the file will be overwritten if it can't
       be appended to.

ZXATASP AND ZXCF
       The ZXATASP and ZXCF interfaces are two peripherals designed by Sami
       Vehmaa which significantly extend the capabilities of the Spectrum.
       More details on both are available from Sami's homepage,
       http://user.tninet.se/~vjz762w/, but a brief overview is given here.

       The real ZXATASP comes with either 128K or 512K of RAM and the ability
       to connect an IDE hard disks and a CompactFlash card, while the ZXCF
       comes with 128K, 512K or 1024K of RAM and the ability to connect a
       CompactFlash card. From an emulation point of view, the two interfaces
       are actually very similar as a CompactFlash card is logically just an
       IDE hard disk. Currently, Fuse's emulation is fixed at having 512K of
       RAM in the ZXATASP and 1024K in the ZXCF.

       To activate the ZXATASP, simply select the ZXATASP interface option
       from the Options, Disk Peripherals...  dialog. The state of the upload
       and write protect jumpers is then controlled by the ZXATASP upload and
       ZXATASP write protect options. Similarly, the ZXCF is controlled by the
       ZXCF interface and ZXCF upload options (the ZXCF write protect is
       software controlled).

       If you're using either the ZXATASP or ZXCF, you almost certainly want
       to investigate ResiDOS, the operating system designed for use with the
       ZXATASP and ZXCF. ResiDOS provides facilities for using the extra RAM,
       accessing the mass storage devices and a task manager allowing
       virtually instant switching between programs on the Spectrum. See
       http://www.worldofspectrum.org/residos/ for more details.

DIVIDE
       The DivIDE is another IDE interface for the Spectrum, of which full
       details can be found at http://baze.au.com/divide/.  The interface can
       be activated via the DivIDE interface option from the Options, Disk
       Peripherals...  dialog, and the state of its write protect jumper
       controlled via the DivIDE write protect option.  If you're going to be
       using the DivIDE, you'll probably want one of the firmwares available
       from the DivIDE homepage.

SPECTRANET EMULATION
       The Spectranet is an Ethernet network interface for the ZX Spectrum by
       Dylan Thomas. The interface can be activated via the Spectranet option
       on the Peripherals preferences dialog, and the state of its automatic
       page-in (disable) jumper controlled via the Spectranet disable option.
       If you're going to be using the Spectranet, you'll probably want one of
       the firmwares available from the Spectranet homepage
       (http://spectrum.alioth.net/doc/index.php) which is also where you can
       find more information on using the interface.

       Installing the Spectranet firmware on Fuse is slightly more complicated
       than on a real machine, mostly because Fuse's emulation doesn't support
       DHCP. These instructions are correct as of 2012-01-26 -- if you're
       using a later firmware than this, things may have changed slightly.

       The first thing you will need to do is to obtain a copy of the
       Spectranet installer as a .tap file (or similar). The installer is also
       available at the Spectranet site above.

       Once you have a copy of the installer, start Fuse and tick the
       Spectranet option from the Options, Peripherals, General...  dialog,
       and the state of its write protect jumper controlled via the Spectranet
       disable option. Once that's done, open the installer file (use the
       Media, Tape, Open...  command rather than File, Open...  to prevent
       autoloading) and enter the following commands from BASIC:

       CLEAR 26999
       LOAD "" CODE
       RANDOMIZE USR 27000

       The screen should turn blue and you'll see around 20 lines of message
       appearing as the firmware is installed, starting with "Erasing sector
       0" and finishing with "Restoring page B", and you'll get the familiar
       0 OK, 0: 1 at the bottom of the screen.

       Now untick the Spectranet disable option from the Options, Peripherals,
       General...  dialog and reset the Spectrum. You should see a very brief
       blue status screen, before the regular copyright screen appears with
       some Spectranet information at the top -- there should be four status
       lines, starting with "Alioth Spectranet" and ending with the
       Spectranet's IP address (which will be 255.255.255.255 at this stage).

       Now trigger an NMI (the Machine / NMI menu option) and you should get a
       white on blue Spectranet NMI menu with five options.

       Select [A] Configure network settings -- this should lead you to
       another menu, which will scroll of the top of the screen; don't worry
       about this for now.

       You'll now need to set various options:

       [A] Enable/disable DHCP -- select N
       [B] Change IP address -- enter the IP address of the machine you are
       running Fuse on.
       [C] Change netmask -- enter the appropriate netmask for the IP address
       you selected above. If that doesn't mean anything to you, try
       255.255.255.0
       [D] Change default gateway -- enter the appropriate gateway address.
       If you don't know any better, enter the IP address of your router.
       [E] Change primary DNS -- enter the address of your DNS server. If you
       don't know any better, use Google's public DNS server, 8.8.8.8.

       There is no need to change options [F] or [G], but do select:

       [H] Change hostname -- enter a hostname for the Spectranet-enabled
       machine. It doesn't really matter what you enter here -- it's mostly
       useful just to replace the junk default name so you can see what you've
       entered for the other settings.

       Your screen should now look something like this:

       Current configuration
       ============================================
       Use DHCP                : No
       IP address              : 192.168.000.002
       Netmask                 : 255.255.255.000
       Default gateway         : 192.168.000.001
       Primary DNS             : 192.168.000.001
       Secondary DNS           : 255.255.255.255
       Hardware address        : FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF
       Hostname                : fuse
       <menu options>

       If everything looks correct, select [I] Save changes and exit (you'll
       see a brief "Saving configuration..." message) followed by [E] Exit, at
       which point you'll be returned to BASIC.

       Now type the following commands:

       %cfgnew
       %cfgcommit

       Which will show the standard 0 OK, 0:1 at the bottom of the screen.

       Reset the Spectrum again and you'll see the same four line status
       display, but this time with your IP address on the last line.

       Congratulations! You have now installed the Spectranet firmware. To
       save having to go through all that every time you start Fuse, save a
       .szx snapshot at this point, and load that in every time you want to
       use the Spectranet.

FILE SELECTION
       The way you select a file (whether snapshot or tape file) depends on
       which UI you're using. So firstly, here's how to use the GTK+ file
       selector.

       The selector shows the directories and files in the current directory
       in two separate subwindows. If either list is too big to fit in the
       window, you can use the scrollbar to see the rest (by dragging the
       slider, for example), or you can use Shift-Tab (to move the keyboard
       focus to a subwindow) and use the cursor keys.  To change directory,
       double-click it.

       To choose a file to load you can either double-click it, or click it
       then click Ok.  Or click Cancel to abort.

       If you're using the keyboard, probably the easiest way to use the
       selector is to just ignore it and type in the name. This isn't as
       irksome as it sounds, since the filename input box has filename
       completion -- type part of a directory or file name, then press Tab.
       It should complete it. If it was a directory, it moves to that
       directory; if the completion was ambiguous, it completes as much as
       possible, and narrows the filenames shown to those which match. You
       should press Enter when you've finished typing the filename, or Esc to
       abort.

       Now, if you're using the widget UI -- the one using the Spectrum font
       -- the selector works a bit differently. The files and directories are
       all listed in a single two-column-wide window (the directories are
       shown at the top, ending in `/') -- the names may be truncated onscreen
       if they're too long to fit.

       To move the cursor, you can either use the cursor keys, or the Spectrum
       equivalents 5/6/7/8, or (similarly) h/j/k/l. For faster movement, the
       Page Up, Page Down, Home, and End keys are supported and do what you'd
       expect. To select a file or directory, press Enter.  To abort, press
       Esc.

       With both selectors, do bear in mind that all files are shown, whether
       Fuse would be able to load them or not.

MONITOR/DEBUGGER
       Firstly, note that the vast majority of this section applies only if
       you're using the GTK+ user interface; if you're using one of the widget
       user interfaces, you'll get a very basic monitor which shows the
       current values of the registers and allows you to single step through
       execution or continue.

       If you are using the GTK+ user interface, Fuse features a moderately
       powerful, completely transparent monitor/debugger, which can be
       activated via the Machine, Debugger...  menu option. A debugger window
       will appear, showing the current state of the emulated machine: the
       top-left `pane' shows the current state of the Z80 and the last bytes
       written to any emulated peripherals. The bottom-left pane lists any
       active breakpoints. Moving right, the next pane shows where the
       Spectrum's 64K memory map (the `W?' and `C?' indicate whether each 8K
       chunk is writable or contended respectively), and the next a
       disassembly, which by default starts at the current program counter,
       although this can be modified either by the `disassemble' command (see
       below) or by dragging the scrollbar next to it. The next pane shows the
       current stack, and the final pane any `events' which are due to occur
       and could affect emulation. Any of these panes can be removed by use of
       the View menu. Below the displays are an entry box for debugger
       commands, and five buttons for controlling the debugger:

       Evaluate
              Evaluate the command currently in the entry box.

       Single Step
              Run precisely one Z80 opcode and then stop emulation again.

       Continue
              Restart emulation, but leave the debugger window open. Note that
              the debugger window will not be updated while emulation is
              running.

       Break
              Stop emulation and return to the debugger.

       Close
              Close the debugger window and restart emulation.

       Double-clicking on an entry in the stack pane will cause emulation to
       run until the program counter reaches the value stored at that address,
       while double-clicking on an entry in the `events' pane will cause
       emulation to run until that time is reached.

       The main power of the debugger is via the commands entered into the
       entry box, which are similar in nature (but definitely not identical to
       or as powerful as) to those in gdb(1).  In general, the debugger is
       case-insensitive, and numbers will be interpreted as decimal, unless
       prefixed by either `0x' or `$' when they will be interpreted as hex.
       Each command can be abbreviated to the portion not in curly braces.

       ba{se} number
              Change the debugger window to displaying output in base number.
              Available values are 10 (decimal) or 16 (hex).

       br{eakpoint} [address] [condition]
              Set a breakpoint to stop emulation and return to the debugger
              whenever an opcode is executed at address and condition
              evaluates true. If address is omitted, it defaults to the
              current value of PC.

       br{eakpoint} p{ort} (r{ead}|w{rite}) port [condition]
              Set a breakpoint to trigger whenever IO port port is read from
              or written to and condition evaluates true.

       br{eakpoint} (r{ead}|w{rite}) [address] [condition]
              Set a breakpoint to trigger whenever memory location address is
              read from (other than via an opcode fetch) or written to and
              condition evaluates true.  Address again defaults to the current
              value of PC if omitted.

       br{eakpoint} ti{me} time [condition]
              Set a breakpoint to occur time tstates after the start of the
              every frame, assuming condition evaluates true (if one is
              given).

       br{eakpoint} ev{ent} area:detail [condition]
              Set a breakpoint to occur when the event specified by
              area:detail occurs and condition evaluates to true. The events
              which can be caught are:

              divide:page
              divide:unpage
                     The DivIDE interface is paged into or out of memory
                     respectively
              if1:page
              if1:unpage
                     The Interface 1 shadow ROM is paged into or out of memory
              rzx:end
                     An RZX recording finishes playing
              tape:play
              tape:stop
                     The emulated tape starts or stops playing
              zxcf:page
              zxcf:unpage
                     The ZXCF interface is paged into or out of memory
              zxatasp:page
              zxatasp:unpage
                     The ZXATASP interface is paged into or out of memory

              In all cases, the event can be specified as area:* to catch all
              events from that area.

       cl{ear} [address]
              Remove all breakpoints at address or the current value of PC if
              address is omitted. Port read/write breakpoints are unaffected.

       com{mmands} id _newline_
       _debugger command_ _newline_
       _debugger command_ _newline_
       ...
       end
              Set things such that the specified debugger commands will be
              automatically executed when breakpoint id is triggered. There is
              currently no user interface for entering multi-line debugger
              commands, so the only way to specify this command is on the
              command-line via the --debugger-command option.

       cond{ition} id [condition]
              Set breakpoint id to trigger only when condition is true, or
              unconditionally if condition is omitted.

       co{ntinue}
              Equivalent to the Continue button.

       del{ete} [id]
              Remove breakpoint id, or all breakpoints if id is omitted.

       di{sassemble} address
              Set the centre panel disassembly to begin at address.

       ex{it}
              Exit the emulator immediately.

       fi{nish}
              Exit from the current CALL or equivalent. This isn't infallible:
              it works by setting a temporary breakpoint at the current
              contents of the stack pointer, so will not function correctly if
              the code returns to some other point or plays with its stack in
              other ways. Also, setting this breakpoint doesn't disable other
              breakpoints, which may trigger before this one. In that case,
              the temporary breakpoint remains, and the `continue' command can
              be used to return to it.

       i{gnore} id count
              Do not trigger the next count times that breakpoint id would
              have triggered.

       n{ext}
              Step to the opcode following the current one. As with the
              `finish' command, this works by setting a temporary breakpoint
              at the next opcode, so is not infallible.

       o{ut} port value
              Write value to IO port port.

       pr{int} expression
              Print the value of expression to standard output.

       se{t} address value
              Poke value into memory at address.

       se{t} register value
              Set the value of the Z80 register register to value.

       se{t} [im|iff1|iff2] value
              Set the interrupt mode or interrupt flip flops register to
              value.  If the im mode is not 0, 1 or 2 it will be ignored,
              while non-zero iff values will be converted to one.

       se{t} $variable value
              Set the value of the debugger variable variable to value.

       s{tep}
              Equivalent to the Single Step button.

       t{breakpoint} [options]
              This is the same as the `breakpoint' command in its various
              forms, except that the breakpoint is temporary: it will trigger
              once and once only, and then be removed.

       Addresses can be specified in one of two forms: either an absolute
       addresses, specified by an integer in the range 0x0000 to 0xFFFF or as
       a `page:offset' combination, which refers to a location offset bytes
       into memory bank page, independent of where that bank is currently
       paged into memory. RAM pages are indicated simply by an integer, while
       ROMs are prefixed by `R' (e.g. offset 0x1234 in ROM 1 is specified as
       `R1:0x1234').  Pages selected via the /ROMCS line are prefixed with
       `C', while the Timex Dock and Exrom use prefixes `D' and `X'
       respectively. The 48K machines are treated as having a permanent
       mapping of page 5 at 0x4000, page 2 at 0x8000 and page 0 at 0xC000; the
       16K Spectrum is treated as having page 5 at 0x4000 and no page at
       0x8000 and 0xC000.

       Anywhere the debugger is expecting a numeric value, except where it
       expects a breakpoint id, you can instead use a numeric expression,
       which uses a restricted version of C's syntax; exactly the same syntax
       is used for conditional breakpoints, with `0' being false and any other
       value being true. In numeric expressions, you can use integer constants
       (all calculations are done in integers), register names (which simply
       evaluate to the value of the register), debugger variables,
       parentheses, the standard four numeric operations (`+', `-', `*' and
       `/'), the (non-)equality operators `==' and `!=', the comparison
       operators `>', `<', `>=' and `<=', bitwise and (`&'), or (`|') and
       exclusive or (`^') and logical and (`&&') and or (`||').

THE POKE FINDER
       The `poke finder' is a tool which is designed to make the task of
       finding (infinite lives etc.) pokes for games a bit easier: it is
       similar to the `Lifeguard' utility which was available for use with the
       Multiface. It works by maintaining a list of locations in which the
       current number of lives (etc.) may be stored, and having the ability to
       remove from that list any locations which don't contain a specified
       value.

       The poke finder dialog contains an entry box for specifying the value
       to be searched for, a count of the current number of possible locations
       and, if there are less than 20 possible locations, a list of the
       possible locations (in `page:offset' format). The five buttons act as
       follows:

       Incremented
              Remove from the list of possible locations all addresses which
              have not been incremented since the last search.

       Decremented
              Remove from the list of possible locations all addresses which
              have not been decremented since the last search.

       Search
              Remove from the list of possible locations all addresses which
              do not contain the value specified in the `Search for' field.

       Reset
              Reset the poke finder so that all locations are considered
              possible.

       Close
              Close the dialog. Note that this does not reset the current
              state of the poke finder.

       Double-clicking on an entry in the list of possible locations will
       cause a breakpoint to be set to trigger whenever that location is
       written to.

       An example of how to use this may make things a bit clearer. We'll use
       the 128K version of Gryzor. Load the game, define keys to suit and
       start playing. Immediately pause the game and bring up the poke finder
       dialog. We note that we currently have 6 lives, so enter `6' into the
       `Search for' field and click `Search'. This reduces the number of
       possible locations to around 931 (you may get a slightly different
       number depending on exactly when you paused the game). Play along a bit
       and then (deliberately) lose a life. Pause the game again. As we now
       have 5 lives, replace the `6' in the `Search for' field with a `5' and
       click `Search' again. This then reduces the list of possible locations
       to just one: page 2, offset 0x00BC. This is the only location in memory
       which stored `6' when we had 6 lives and `5' when we had 5 lives, so
       its pretty likely that this is where the lives count is stored. Double-
       clicking on the `2:0x00BC' entry in the dialog will set the appropriate
       breakpoint (you may wish to open the debugger at this point to confirm
       this). Play along a bit more. When you next lose a life, emulation is
       stopped with PC at 0x91CD. Scrolling up a few addresses in the
       debugger's disassembly pane shows a value was loaded from 0x80BC (our
       hypothetical lives counter), decremented and then stored again to
       0x80BC, which looks very much like the code to reduce the number of
       lives. We can now use the debugger to replace the decrement with a NOP
       (`set 0x91c9 0'), and playing the game some more after this reveals
       that this has worked and we now have infinite lives.

THE POKE MEMORY
       Fuse supports multiface POKEs, allowing to modify specific memory
       addresses in order to cheat (infinite lives, infinite ammo, etc.).

       The `poke memory' dialog contains a list of recently loaded POKEs and
       some entry boxes for adding custom POKEs:

       Bank
              Sets the 128K memory bank (values `0' to `7') or the current
              memory mapping (value `8' or blank).

       Address
              Memory address to modify. Values in range 16384 to 65535 for 48K
              memory mode or 0 to 65535 for 128K memory banks. GTK+ UI also
              accepts hex addresses.

       Value
              New value for the former address, in range 0 to 255. Value 256
              means "Prompt to the user later".

       It is possible to load POKEs from an external file using the File,
       Open...  menu option or the drag-and-drop functionality in the GTK+ and
       Win32 UIs.  After loading a snapshot or tape, Fuse will try to
       automatically locate a POK file with the same file name. This means
       that if we open `GAME.TAP', then Fuse will try to open `GAME.POK' and
       `POKES/GAME.POK'. See http://www.worldofspectrum.org/POKformat.txt for
       more details about this file format.

       POKEs loaded in the list can be activated or deactivated as the user
       wants and will remain in memory until a machine reset.

THE .DSK FORMAT
       In general, disk images for the +3 Spectrum are thought of as being in
       DSK format. However, this is actually a slight oversimplification;
       there are in fact two similar, but not identical, DSK formats. (The
       difference can be seen by doing `head -1 dskfile': one format will
       start `MV - CPCEMU' and the other will start `EXTENDED').

       Fuse supports both the `CPCEMU' and `EXTENDED' formats.

BETA 128 EMULATION
       Fuse supports Betadisk emulation in its Pentagon and Scorpion
       emulation, and also under 48K, TC2048, 128K and +2 (but not +2A)
       emulation if the Beta 128 interface option from the Options, Disk
       Peripherals...  dialog is enabled. When that option is used in 48K or
       TC2048 emulation the Beta 128 auto-boot in 48K machines option
       additionally controls whether the machine boots directly into the TR-
       DOS system. See the DISK FILE FORMATS section for more details on
       supported disk file formats.

OPUS DISCOVERY EMULATION
       By default, Fuse emulates the Opus Discovery interface with the
       optional 2k RAM expansion and a second 40 track single sided disk
       drive.  See the DISK FILE FORMATS section for more details on supported
       disk file formats. The Opus Discovery's printer port is also emulated
       for output only. (See the PRINTER EMULATION section for more details.)
       The Opus Discovery may only be used with 16K, 48K, 128K, TC2048 and +2
       (not +2A) emulation.  To access disks, use the same syntax as
       Interface 1 and Microdrives.

+D EMULATION
       Fuse supports emulating the +D disk and printer interface. See the DISK
       FILE FORMATS section for more details on supported disk file formats.
       The +D's printer port is emulated. (See the PRINTER EMULATION section
       for more details.) The +D may only be used with 48K, 128K and +2 (not
       +2A) emulation.  To access disks, you will first need to load G+DOS, by
       inserting a disk containing the DOS file (+SYS) and entering "RUN".
       Once DOS is loaded, you can load to/from +D disks by prefixing
       filenames with `dn' where `n' is the number of the drive in use.  For
       example, `LOAD d1"myfile"' would load the file named `myfile' from the
       emulated drive 1.  Microdrive syntax may also be used.

       To save a snapshot, choose the Machine, NMI menu option, and then press
       `4' to save a 48K snapshot, or `5' to save a 128K snapshot.  When
       saving a 128K snapshot, you must then press Y or N to indicate whether
       the screen changed while saving the snapshot, to finish saving.  You
       can also choose `3' to save a screenshot to disk.  Holding Caps Shift
       together with any of these options will cause the +D to save to the
       `other' drive to the one used last.

       Options `1' and `2' allow screenshots to be printed (in monochrome, in
       normal and large formats respectively) if printer emulation is enabled.
       For saving and loading of snapshots, and saving of screenshots to disk,
       G+DOS must be loaded first, but printing of screenshots can be
       performed without loading G+DOS.

       Finally, `X' will return from the NMI menu.

DISCIPLE EMULATION
       Fuse supports emulating the DISCiPLE disk and printer interface,
       although it does not currently support emulation of the Sinclair
       Network, or support emulation of a DISCiPLE attached to a 128K machine.
       See the DISK FILE FORMATS section for more details on supported disk
       file formats, which are the same as for +D emulation as described
       above. The DISCiPLE's printer port is emulated. (See the PRINTER
       EMULATION section for more details.) The DISCiPLE may only be used with
       48K emulation at present.  To access disks, you will first need to load
       GDOS, by inserting a disk containing the DOS file (SYS) and entering
       "RUN".  Once DOS is loaded, you can load to/from DISCiPLE disks by
       prefixing filenames with `dn' where `n' is the number of the drive in
       use.  For example, `LOAD d1"myfile"' would load the file named `myfile'
       from the emulated drive 1.  Microdrive syntax may also be used.

       Snapshots can be saved in a similar manner to that of the +D as
       described above, but note that GDOS on the DISCiPLE contains a bug
       which causes corruption as soon as the NMI button is pressed, affecting
       saving of snapshots, and also loading of snapshots that were originally
       saved with a +D or SAM Coupe.  This will cause corruption even when a
       screenshot is printed, or if the menu is never even entered in the
       first place (due to Caps Shift not being pressed down, as is required
       for the DISCiPLE), provided that GDOS is loaded.  This bug is not
       present in G+DOS on the +D.  (Note: this was caused by saving/restoring
       the AF register twice in the NMI handler, where both AF and the AF'
       shadow register should have been saved/restored.)

       The NMI button works slightly differently on the DISCiPLE than on the
       +D.  Caps Shift must be held down whilst pressing the NMI button, and
       there is no `X' option to exit the menu.  Also, printing of screenshots
       requires GDOS to be loaded.  Depending on the UI that you're using,
       holding down Caps Shift whilst choosing the Machine, NMI menu option
       may be slightly tricky, or even impossible.  For the GTK+ UI, ensure
       that the Shift key is held before entering on the Machine menu.  For
       the widget UI, it does not seem possible to perform this action.

DISK FILE FORMATS
       Fuse supports several disk image formats in its +D, DISCiPLE and
       Beta 128 emulation.

       For reading:

       .UDI
              Ultra Disk Image; for specification please see
              http://scratchpad.wikia.com/wiki/Spectrum_emulator_file_format:_udi
              or http://zxmak.chat.ru/docs.htm

              This is the only image format which can store all the relevant
              information of the recorded data on a magnetic disk, so it can
              be used for any non standard disk format. Fuse can read all
              extended track types too (mixed FM/MFM, or tracks with `WEAK'
              data or even compressed tracks too).

       .FDI
              UKV Spectrum Debugger disk image format.

       .MGT .IMG
              DISCiPLE/+D file formats.

       .SAD .SDF
              For compatibility with SAM Coupe disk images using these
              formats.  Note that SAM Coupe `.DSK' images share the same
              format as `.MGT'.

       .TRD
              TR-DOS disk image; for detailed information please see
              http://web.archive.org/web/20070808150548/http://www.ramsoft.bbk.org/tech/tr-info.zip

       .SCL
              A simple archive format for TR-DOS disk files.

       .TD0
              Teledisk image format; Fuse supports only files which do not use
              the "Advanced Compression" option. Detailed description found in
              http://www.classiccmp.org/dunfield/img54306/td0notes.txt and
              http://www.fpns.net/willy/wteledsk.htm

       .DSK
              CPC disk image format; Fuse supports the plain old and the new
              extended CPC format too. Further information please see the THE
              .DSK FORMAT section and the CPCEMU manual section 7.7.1
              http://www.cpc-emu.org/linux/cpcemu_e.txt or the
              http://www.cpctech.org.uk/docs/extdsk.html

       .OPD .OPU
              Opus Discovery file formats.

       Fuse supports most of the above formats for writing: .UDI .FDI .MGT
       .IMG .SAD .TRD .SCL .OPD .OPU .DSK (only the old CPC format).

       You can save disk images with any output format, just select the
       appropriate extension. (e.g.  `elite3.udi' to save as an UDI file). If
       the appropriate libraries were available when libspectrum(3) was
       compiled, than Fuse will try to create UDI images with compressed
       tracks to save disk space.  There is a .LOG `image' format for
       debugging purpose. This is a plain text file contains three dump of the
       loaded disk image at different details.  Not all image formats can
       store all disk images.  You cannot save a disk image with an
       inappropriate format that loses some information (e.g. variable track
       length or sector length).

WEAK DISK DATA
       Some copy protections have what is described as `weak/random' data.
       Each time the sector is read one or more bytes will change, the value
       may be random between consecutive reads of the same sector.  Two disk
       image formats (Extended DSK and UDI) can store this type of data.  Fuse
       can read and use weak sector data from EDSK and UDI files when present,
       and can save back weak sector data to UDI image format.

MOVIE RECORDING
       Fuse can save movies with sound in a specific file format (FMF).  This
       recording is very fast, and has a moderate size, but you need to use
       the fmfconv program in fuse-utils to convert into regular video and/or
       audio files.  The --movie-compr option allows you to set the
       compression level to None, Lossless or High. If Zlib is not available,
       only None is valid. The default when Zlib is available is Lossless.
       Recording a movie may slow down emulation, if you experience
       performance problems, you can try to set compression to None.

       Fuse records every displayed frame, so by default the recorded file has
       about 50 video frame per second. A standard video has about 24-30/s
       framerate, so if you set Options/General/Frame rate 1:n or the
       equivalent --rate command line option to 2 than recording frame rate
       reduces about 25/s. The exact frame rate depends on the Z80 clock
       frequency which varies depending on the specific emulated machine.

       Note: You can see all of the "gfx" effects only if the Fuse frame rate
       option is set to 1, but in most cases you can safely use 2. Also, movie
       recording stops if the emulated machine is changed.

       The recorded sound sampling rate and the channel number is equal with
       the Fuse generated sound sampling rate (32000 Hz by default) and
       channel number (mono by default). The common sampling frequencies in
       standard video files are 44100 Hz and 48000 Hz. If you use --sound-freq
       command line option you can record sound on 44100 Hz or even 48000 Hz.

       You can record stereo sound if you use AY stereo separation or the
       equivalent --separation command line switch.

       You can use fmfconv to convert recorded movie file into a standard
       video file.

       Examples

       fuse --movie-start output.fmf --rate 2 --sound-freq 44100 --separation
       ACB

       start video recording about 25/s video frame rate and 44100 Hz sampling
       frequency stereo sound default compression level.

COMPRESSED FILES
       Assuming the appropriate libraries were available when libspectrum(3)
       was compiled, snapshots, tape images, dock cartridges and input
       recording files can be read from files compressed with bzip2(3) or
       gzip(3) just as if they were uncompressed.  There is currently no
       support for reading compressed +3, DISCiPLE/+D or Beta disk images.

BUGS
       Selecting a startup filter doesn't work properly with user interfaces
       other than SDL, Win32 and GTK+.

       Changing virtual consoles when using SVGAlib for joystick support
       causes Fuse to exit. If this is a problem, compile Fuse with the
       `--disable-ui-joystick' option.

       The poke finder can't search outside `normal' RAM.

       The libao file output devices not work properly with the GTK+ UI.  No
       error reporting, but the created file does not contain any sound data.
       If you use a `weak' machine alsa09 makes a lot of clicks and pops and
       will output `ALSA: underrun, at least 0ms.' error messages.

FILES
       ~/.fuserc

SEE ALSO
       bzip2(3), fmfconv(1) fuse-utils(1), gzip(3), libspectrum(3), ogg123(1),
       xspect(1), xzx(1)

       The comp.sys.sinclair Spectrum FAQ, at
       http://www.worldofspectrum.org/faq/index.html.

AUTHOR
       Philip Kendall (philip-fuse@shadowmagic.org.uk).

       Matan Ziv-Av wrote the SVGAlib and framebuffer UIs, the glib
       replacement code, and did some work on the OSS-specific sound code and
       the original widget UI code.

       Russell Marks wrote the sound emulation and OSS-specific sound code,
       the joystick emulation, some of the printer code, and the original
       version of this man page.

       John Elliott's lib765 and libdsk libraries were used for the original
       +3 disk and disk image support.

       Ian Collier wrote the ZX Printer emulation (for xz80).

       Darren Salt wrote the original versions of the code for +3 emulation,
       SLT support, MITSHM support (for the Xlib UI), TZX raw data blocks, RZX
       embedded snapshots and compression, the Kempston mouse emulation and
       made many improvements to the widget code.

       Alexander Yurchenko wrote the OpenBSD/Solaris-specific sound code.

       Fredrick Meunier wrote the TC2048, TS2068, Pentagon and Spectrum SE
       support, the CoreAudio sound code, as well as maintaining the OS X port
       and importing the graphics filter code.

       Ludvig Strigeus and The ScummVM project wrote the original graphics
       filter code.

       Dmitry Sanarin wrote the original Beta disk interface emulation (for
       Glukalka).

       Witold Filipczyk wrote the TC2068 support.

       Matthew Westcott wrote the AY logging code and the DivIDE emulation.

       Marek Januszewski wrote various bits of code to make Fuse work under
       Win32, including the DirectDraw user interface.

       Sergio Baldovi made many improvements to the Win32 UI.

       Stuart Brady wrote the DISCiPLE and +D emulation, Scorpion emulation
       and the HP-UX sound code.

       Garry Lancaster wrote the 8-bit IDE, ZXATASP and ZXCF interface
       emulations.

       Gergely Szasz wrote the Interface 1 and Microdrive emulation, the PAL
       TV scalers, the TV 3x scaler, the movie logging code, the libao sound
       code, the uPD765 disk controller used in the +3 and made many
       improvements to the widget code.

       Michael D Wynne wrote the original Opus disk interface emulation (for
       EightyOne).

       Patrik Persson wrote the SpeccyBoot emulation.

Version 1.1.1                   24th May, 2013                         fuse(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | THE VARIOUS FRONT-ENDS | MENUS AND KEYS | KEY MAPPINGS | DISPLAY SIZE | GRAPHICS FILTERS | THE EMULATED SPECTRUM | PRINTER EMULATION | ZXATASP AND ZXCF | DIVIDE | SPECTRANET EMULATION | FILE SELECTION | MONITOR/DEBUGGER | THE POKE FINDER | THE POKE MEMORY | THE .DSK FORMAT | BETA 128 EMULATION | OPUS DISCOVERY EMULATION | +D EMULATION | DISCIPLE EMULATION | DISK FILE FORMATS | WEAK DISK DATA | MOVIE RECORDING | COMPRESSED FILES | BUGS | FILES | SEE ALSO | AUTHOR

Want to link to this manual page? Use this URL:
<https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=fuse&manpath=FreeBSD+10.3-RELEASE+and+Ports>

home | help