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DTRACE(1)               FreeBSD General Commands Manual              DTRACE(1)

NAME
     dtrace - dynamic tracing compiler and tracing utility

SYNOPSIS
     dtrace [-32 | -64] [-aACeFGhHlqSvVwZ] [-b bufsz] [-c cmd]
            [-D name [=value]] [-I path] [-L path] [-o output] [-s script]
            [-U name] [-x arg [=value]] [-X a | c | s | t] [-p pid]
            [-P provider [[predicate] action]]
            [-m [provider:] module [[predicate] action]]
            [-f [[provider:] module:] function [[predicate] action]]
            [-n [[[provider:] module:] function:] name [[predicate] action]]
            [-i probe-id [[predicate] action]]

DESCRIPTION
     DTrace is a comprehensive dynamic tracing framework ported from Solaris.
     DTrace provides a powerful infrastructure that permits administrators,
     developers, and service personnel to concisely answer arbitrary questions
     about the behavior of the operating system and user programs.

     The dtrace command provides a generic interface to the essential services
     provided by the DTrace facility, including:

           +o   Options that list the set of probes and providers currently
               published by DTrace

           +o   Options that enable probes directly using any of the probe
               description specifiers (provider, module, function, name)

           +o   Options that run the D compiler and compile one or more D
               program files or programs written directly on the command line

           +o   Options that generate anonymous tracing programs

           +o   Options that generate program stability reports

           +o   Options that modify DTrace tracing and buffering behavior and
               enable additional D compiler features

     You can use dtrace to create D scripts by using it in a shebang
     declaration to create an interpreter file.  You can also use dtrace to
     attempt to compile D programs and determine their properties without
     actually enabling traces using the -e option.

OPTIONS
     The arguments accepted by the -P, -m, -f, -n, and -i options can include
     an optional D language predicate enclosed in slashes and an optional D
     language action statement list enclosed in braces.  D program code
     specified on the command line must be appropriately quoted to avoid
     interpretation of meta-characters by the shell.

     The following options are supported:

     -32 | -64
             The D compiler produces programs using the native data model of
             the operating system kernel.  If the -32 option is specified,
             dtrace forces the D compiler to compile a D program using the
             32-bit data model.  If the -64 option is specified, dtrace forces
             the D compiler to compile a D program using the 64-bit data
             model.  These options are typically not required as dtrace
             selects the native data model as the default.  The data model
             affects the sizes of integer types and other language properties.
             D programs compiled for either data model can be executed on both
             32-bit and 64-bit kernels.  The -32 and -64 options also
             determine the elf(5) file format (ELF32 or ELF64) produced by the
             -G option.

     -a      Claim anonymous tracing state and display the traced data.  You
             can combine the -a option with the -e option to force dtrace to
             exit immediately after consuming the anonymous tracing state
             rather than continuing to wait for new data.

     -A      Generate directives for anonymous tracing and write them to
             /boot/dtrace.dof.  This option constructs a set of dtrace
             configuration file directives to enable the specified probes for
             anonymous tracing and then exits.  By default, dtrace attempts to
             store the directives to the file /boot/dtrace.dof.  This behavior
             can be modified using the -o option to specify an alternate
             output file.

     -b bufsz
             Set the principal trace buffer size to bufsz.  The trace buffer
             size can include any of the size suffixes k, m, g, or t.  If the
             buffer space cannot be allocated, dtrace attempts to reduce the
             buffer size or exit depending on the setting of the bufresize
             property.

     -c cmd  Run the specified command cmd and exit upon its completion.  If
             more than one -c option is present on the command line, dtrace
             exits when all commands have exited, reporting the exit status
             for each child process as it terminates.  The process ID of the
             first command is made available to any D programs specified on
             the command line or using the -s option through the $target macro
             variable.

     -C      Run the C preprocessor cpp(1) over D programs before compiling
             them.  You can pass options to the C preprocessor using the -D,
             -U, -I, and -H options.  You can select the degree of C standard
             conformance if you use the -X option.  For a description of the
             set of tokens defined by the D compiler when invoking the C
             preprocessor, see -X.

     -D name [=value]
             Define name when invoking cpp(1) (enabled using the -C option).
             If you specify an additional value, the name is assigned the
             corresponding value.  This option passes the -D option to each
             cpp(1) invocation.

     -e      Exit after compiling any requests and consuming anonymous tracing
             state (-a option) but prior to enabling any probes.  You can
             combine this option with the -a option to print anonymous tracing
             data and exit.  You can also combine this option with D compiler
             options.  This combination verifies that the programs compile
             without actually executing them and enabling the corresponding
             instrumentation.

     -f [[provider:] module:] function [[predicate] action]
             Specify function name to trace or list (-l option).  The
             corresponding argument can include any of the probe description
             forms provider:module:function, module:function, or function.
             Unspecified probe description fields are left blank and match any
             probes regardless of the values in those fields.  If no
             qualifiers other than function are specified in the description,
             all probes with the corresponding function are matched.  The -f
             argument can be suffixed with an optional D probe clause.  You
             can specify more than one -f option on the command line at a
             time.

     -F      Coalesce trace output by identifying function entry and return.
             Function entry probe reports are indented and their output is
             prefixed with `->'.  Function return probe reports are unindented
             and their output is prefixed with `<-'.  System call entry probe
             reports are indented and their output is prefixed with `=>'.
             System call return probe reports are unindented and their output
             is prefixed with `<='.

     -G      Generate an ELF file containing an embedded DTrace program.  The
             DTrace probes specified in the program are saved inside of a
             relocatable ELF object which can be linked into another program.
             If the -o option is present, the ELF file is saved using the
             pathname specified as the argument for this operand.  If the -o
             option is not present and the DTrace program is contained with a
             file whose name is filename.d, then the ELF file is saved using
             the name filename.o.  Otherwise the ELF file is saved using the
             name d.out.

     -h      Generate a header file containing macros that correspond to
             probes in the specified provider definitions.  This option should
             be used to generate a header file that is included by other
             source files for later use with the

     -H      Print the pathnames of included files when invoking cpp(1)
             (enabled using the -C option).  This option passes the -H option
             to each cpp(1) invocation, causing it to display the list of
             pathnames, one for each line, to standard error.  -G option.  If
             the -o option is present, the header file is saved using the
             pathname specified as the argument for that option.  If the -o
             option is not present and the DTrace program is contained with a
             file whose name is filename.d, then the header file is saved
             using the name filename.h.

     -i probe-id [[predicate] action]
             Specify probe identifier (probe-id) to trace or list (l option).
             You can specify probe IDs using decimal integers as shown by
             `dtrace -l`.  The -i argument can be suffixed with an optional D
             probe clause.  You can specify more than one -i option at a time.

     -I path
             Add the specified directory path to the search path for #include
             files when invoking cpp(1) (enabled using the -C option).  This
             option passes the -I option to each cpp(1) invocation.  The
             specified path is inserted into the search path ahead of the
             default directory list.

     -l      List probes instead of enabling them.  If the -l option is
             specified, dtrace produces a report of the probes matching the
             descriptions given using the -P, -m, -f, -n, -i, and -s options.
             If none of these options are specified, this option lists all
             probes.

     -L path
             Add the specified directory path to the search path for DTrace
             libraries.  DTrace libraries are used to contain common
             definitions that can be used when writing D programs.  The
             specified path is added after the default library search path.

     -m [provider:] module [[predicate] action]
             Specify module name to trace or list (-l option).  The
             corresponding argument can include any of the probe description
             forms provider:module or module.  Unspecified probe description
             fields are left blank and match any probes regardless of the
             values in those fields.  If no qualifiers other than module are
             specified in the description, all probes with a corresponding
             module are matched.  The -m argument can be suffixed with an
             optional D probe clause.  More than one -m option can be
             specified on the command line at a time.

     -n [[[provider:] module:] function:] name [[predicate] action]
             Specify probe name to trace or list (-l option).  The
             corresponding argument can include any of the probe description
             forms provider:module:function:name, module:function:name,
             function:name, or name.  Unspecified probe description fields are
             left blank and match any probes regardless of the values in those
             fields.  If no qualifiers other than name are specified in the
             description, all probes with a corresponding name are matched.
             The -n argument can be suffixed with an optional D probe clause.
             More than one -n option can be specified on the command line at a
             time.

     -o output
             Specify the output file for the -A, -G, and -l options, or for
             the traced data itself.  If the -A option is present and -o is
             not present, the default output file is /boot/dtrace.dof.  If the
             -G option is present and the -s option's argument is of the form
             filename.d and -o is not present, the default output file is
             filename.o.  Otherwise the default output file is d.out.

     -p pid  Grab the specified process-ID pid, cache its symbol tables, and
             exit upon its completion.  If more than one -p option is present
             on the command line, dtrace exits when all commands have exited,
             reporting the exit status for each process as it terminates.  The
             first process-ID is made available to any D programs specified on
             the command line or using the -s option through the $target macro
             variable.

     -P provider [[predicate] action]
             Specify provider name to trace or list (-l option).  The
             remaining probe description fields module, function, and name are
             left blank and match any probes regardless of the values in those
             fields.  The -P argument can be suffixed with an optional D probe
             clause.  You can specify more than one -P option on the command
             line at a time.

     -q      Set quiet mode.  dtrace suppresses messages such as the number of
             probes matched by the specified options and D programs and does
             not print column headers, the CPU ID, the probe ID, or insert
             newlines into the output.  Only data traced and formatted by D
             program statements such as `dtrace()' and `printf()' is displayed
             to standard output.

     -s script
             Compile the specified D program source file.  If the -e option is
             present, the program is compiled but instrumentation is not
             enabled.  If the -l option is present, the program is compiled
             and the set of probes matched by it is listed, but
             instrumentation is not enabled.  If none of -e, -l, -G, or -A are
             present, the instrumentation specified by the D program is
             enabled and tracing begins.

     -S      Show D compiler intermediate code.  The D compiler produces a
             report of the intermediate code generated for each D program to
             standard error.

     -U name
             Undefine the specified name when invoking cpp(1) (enabled using
             the -C option).  This option passes the -U option to each cpp(1)
             invocation.

     -v      Set verbose mode.  If the -v option is specified, dtrace produces
             a program stability report showing the minimum interface
             stability and dependency level for the specified D programs.

     -V      Report the highest D programming interface version supported by
             dtrace.  The version information is printed to standard output
             and the dtrace command exits.

     -w      Permit destructive actions in D programs specified using the -s,
             -P, -m, -f, -n, or -i options.  If the -w option is not
             specified, dtrace does not permit the compilation or enabling of
             a D program that contains destructive actions.

     -x arg [=value]
             Enable or modify a DTrace runtime option or D compiler option.
             Boolean options are enabled by specifying their name.  Options
             with values are set by separating the option name and value with
             an equals sign (=).

     -X a | c | s | t
             Specify the degree of conformance to the ISO C standard that
             should be selected when invoking cpp(1) (enabled using the -C
             option).  The -X option argument affects the value and presence
             of the __STDC__ macro depending upon the value of the argument
             letter.

             The -X option supports the following arguments:

             a       Default.  ISO C plus K&R compatibility extensions, with
                     semantic changes required by ISO C.  This is the default
                     mode if -X is not specified.  The predefined macro
                     __STDC__ has a value of 0 when cpp(1) is invoked in
                     conjunction with the -Xa option.

             c       Conformance.  Strictly conformant ISO C, without K&R C
                     compatibility extensions.  The predefined macro __STDC__
                     has a value of 1 when cpp(1) is invoked in conjunction
                     with the -Xc option.

             s       K&R C only.  The macro __STDC__ is not defined when
                     cpp(1) is invoked in conjunction with the -Xs option.

             t       Transition.  ISO C plus K&R C compatibility extensions,
                     without semantic changes required by ISO C.  The
                     predefined macro __STDC__ has a value of 0 when cpp(1) is
                     invoked in conjunction with the -Xt option.

             As the -X option only affects how the D compiler invokes the C
             preprocessor, the -Xa and -Xt options are equivalent from the
             perspective of D and both are provided only to ease re-use of
             settings from a C build environment.

             Regardless of the -X mode, the following additional C
             preprocessor definitions are always specified and valid in all
             modes:

                   +o   __sun

                   +o   __unix

                   +o   __SVR4

                   +o   __sparc (on SPARC systems only)

                   +o   __sparcv9 (on SPARC systems only when 64-bit programs
                       are compiled)

                   +o   __i386 (on x86 systems only when 32-bit programs are
                       compiled)

                   +o   __amd64 (on x86 systems only when 64-bit programs are
                       compiled)

                   +o   __`uname -s`_`uname -r` (for example,
                       `FreeBSD_9.2-RELEASE'.

                   +o   __SUNW_D=1

                   +o   __SUNW_D_VERSION=0xMMmmmuuu

                       Where MM is the major release value in hexadecimal, mmm
                       is the minor release value in hexadecimal, and uuu is
                       the micro release value in hexadecimal.

     -Z      Permit probe descriptions that match zero probes.  If the -Z
             option is not specified, dtrace reports an error and exits if any
             probe descriptions specified in D program files (-s option) or on
             the command line (-P, -m, -f, -n, or -i options) contain
             descriptions that do not match any known probes.

OPERANDS
     You can specify zero or more additional arguments on the dtrace command
     line to define a set of macro variables and so forth).  The additional
     arguments can be used in D programs specified using the -s option or on
     the command line.

FILES
     /boot/dtrace.dof  File for anonymous tracing directives.

EXIT STATUS
     The following exit statuses are returned:

     0       Successful completion.

             For D program requests, an exit status of 0 indicates that
             programs were successfully compiled, probes were successfully
             enabled, or anonymous state was successfully retrieved.  dtrace
             returns 0 even if the specified tracing requests encountered
             errors or drops.

     1       An error occurred.

             For D program requests, an exit status of 1 indicates that
             program compilation failed or that the specified request could
             not be satisfied.

     2       Invalid command line options or arguments were specified.

SEE ALSO
     cpp(1), dtruss(1), elf(5)

     Solaris Dynamic Tracing Guide.

FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE         October 5, 2013        FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | OPERANDS | FILES | EXIT STATUS | SEE ALSO

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