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curl(1)				  Curl Manual			       curl(1)

NAME
       curl - transfer a URL

SYNOPSIS
       curl [options / URLs]

DESCRIPTION
       curl  is	 a  tool for transfering data from or to a server. It supports
       these protocols:	DICT, FILE, FTP, FTPS, GOPHER, GOPHERS,	 HTTP,	HTTPS,
       IMAP,  IMAPS,  LDAP,  LDAPS, MQTT, POP3,	POP3S, RTMP, RTMPS, RTSP, SCP,
       SFTP, SMB, SMBS,	SMTP, SMTPS, TELNET or TFTP. The command  is  designed
       to work without user interaction.

       curl offers a busload of	useful tricks like proxy support, user authen-
       tication, FTP upload, HTTP post,	SSL connections, cookies, file	trans-
       fer resume and more. As you will	see below, the number of features will
       make your head spin!

       curl is powered by  libcurl  for	 all  transfer-related	features.  See
       libcurl(3) for details.

URL
       The  URL	 syntax	is protocol-dependent. You'll find a detailed descrip-
       tion in RFC 3986.

       You can specify multiple	URLs or	parts of URLs  by  writing  part  sets
       within braces and quoting the URL as in:

	 "http://site.{one,two,three}.com"

       or you can get sequences	of alphanumeric	series by using	[] as in:

	 "ftp://ftp.example.com/file[1-100].txt"

	 "ftp://ftp.example.com/file[001-100].txt"    (with leading zeros)

	 "ftp://ftp.example.com/file[a-z].txt"

       Nested  sequences  are not supported, but you can use several ones next
       to each other:

	 "http://example.com/archive[1996-1999]/vol[1-4]/part{a,b,c}.html"

       You can specify any amount of URLs on the command line.	They  will  be
       fetched	in a sequential	manner in the specified	order. You can specify
       command line options and	URLs mixed and in any  order  on  the  command
       line.

       You  can	 specify a step	counter	for the	ranges to get every Nth	number
       or letter:

	 "http://example.com/file[1-100:10].txt"

	 "http://example.com/file[a-z:2].txt"

       When using [] or	{} sequences when invoked from a command line  prompt,
       you probably have to put	the full URL within double quotes to avoid the
       shell from interfering with it. This also  goes	for  other  characters
       treated special,	like for example '&', '?' and '*'.

       Provide	the IPv6 zone index in the URL with an escaped percentage sign
       and the interface name. Like in

	 "http://[fe80::3%25eth0]/"

       If you specify URL without protocol:// prefix,  curl  will  attempt  to
       guess  what  protocol  you might	want. It will then default to HTTP but
       try other protocols based on often-used host name prefixes.  For	 exam-
       ple,  for  host names starting with "ftp." curl will assume you want to
       speak FTP.

       curl will do its	best to	use what you pass to it	as a URL.  It  is  not
       trying  to  validate it as a syntactically correct URL by any means but
       is instead very liberal with what it accepts.

       curl will attempt to re-use connections for multiple file transfers, so
       that  getting many files	from the same server will not do multiple con-
       nects / handshakes. This	improves speed.	Of course this is only done on
       files  specified	 on  a	single command line and	cannot be used between
       separate	curl invocations.

OUTPUT
       If not told otherwise, curl writes the received data to stdout. It  can
       be  instructed  to  instead save	that data into a local file, using the
       -o, --output or -O, --remote-name options. If curl  is  given  multiple
       URLs  to	 transfer on the command line, it similarly needs multiple op-
       tions for where to save them.

       curl does not parse or otherwise	"understand" the content  it  gets  or
       writes  as  output.  It does no encoding	or decoding, unless explicitly
       asked to	with dedicated command line options.

PROTOCOLS
       curl supports numerous protocols, or put	in URL	terms:	schemes.  Your
       particular build	may not	support	them all.

       DICT   Lets you lookup words using online dictionaries.

       FILE   Read  or	write  local  files.  curl  does not support accessing
	      file:// URL remotely, but	when running on	Microsoft Windows  us-
	      ing the native UNC approach will work.

       FTP(S) curl  supports  the  File	Transfer Protocol with a lot of	tweaks
	      and levers. With or without using	TLS.

       GOPHER(S)
	      Retrieve files.

       HTTP(S)
	      curl supports HTTP with numerous options and variations. It  can
	      speak HTTP version 0.9, 1.0, 1.1,	2 and 3	depending on build op-
	      tions and	the correct command line options.

       IMAP(S)
	      Using the	mail reading protocol, curl can	"download" emails  for
	      you. With	or without using TLS.

       LDAP(S)
	      curl can do directory lookups for	you, with or without TLS.

       MQTT   curl supports MQTT version 3. Downloading	over MQTT equals "sub-
	      scribe" to a topic while uploading/posting equals	"publish" on a
	      topic. MQTT over TLS is not supported (yet).

       POP3(S)
	      Downloading  from	 a  pop3  server means getting a mail. With or
	      without using TLS.

       RTMP(S)
	      The Realtime Messaging Protocol  is  primarily  used  to	server
	      streaming	media and curl can download it.

       RTSP   curl supports RTSP 1.0 downloads.

       SCP    curl supports SSH	version	2 scp transfers.

       SFTP   curl supports SFTP (draft	5) done	over SSH version 2.

       SMB(S) curl supports SMB	version	1 for upload and download.

       SMTP(S)
	      Uploading	 contents  to  an  SMTP	server means sending an	email.
	      With or without TLS.

       TELNET Telling curl to fetch a telnet URL starts	an interactive session
	      where  it	 sends	what  it  reads	 on stdin and outputs what the
	      server sends it.

       TFTP   curl can do TFTP downloads and uploads.

PROGRESS METER
       curl normally displays a	progress meter during  operations,  indicating
       the  amount  of	transferred  data,  transfer speeds and	estimated time
       left, etc. The progress meter displays number of	bytes and  the	speeds
       are  in	bytes per second. The suffixes (k, M, G, T, P) are 1024	based.
       For example 1k is 1024 bytes. 1M	is 1048576 bytes.

       curl displays this data to the terminal by default, so  if  you	invoke
       curl  to	do an operation	and it is about	to write data to the terminal,
       it disables the progress	meter as otherwise it would mess up the	output
       mixing progress meter and response data.

       If you want a progress meter for	HTTP POST or PUT requests, you need to
       redirect	the response output to a file, using shell redirect  (>),  -o,
       --output	or similar.

       This  does  not apply to	FTP upload as that operation does not spit out
       any response data to the	terminal.

       If you prefer a progress	 "bar"	instead	 of  the  regular  meter,  -#,
       --progress-bar  is your friend. You can also disable the	progress meter
       completely with the -s, --silent	option.

OPTIONS
       Options start with one or two dashes. Many of the  options  require  an
       additional value	next to	them.

       The  short  "single-dash"  form	of the options,	-d for example,	may be
       used with or without a space between it and its value, although a space
       is a recommended	separator. The long "double-dash" form,	-d, --data for
       example,	requires a space between it and	its value.

       Short version options that don't	need any additional values can be used
       immediately  next  to  each other, like for example you can specify all
       the options -O, -L and -v at once as -OLv.

       In general, all boolean options are enabled with	--option and yet again
       disabled	 with --no-option. That	is, you	use the	exact same option name
       but prefix it with "no-". However, in this list we mostly only list and
       show  the --option version of them. (This concept with --no options was
       added in	7.19.0.	Previously most	options	were  toggled  on/off  through
       repeated	use of the same	command	line option.)

       --abstract-unix-socket <path>
	      (HTTP)  Connect  through an abstract Unix	domain socket, instead
	      of using the network.  Note: netstat shows the path  of  an  ab-
	      stract  socket  prefixed	with  '@', however the <path> argument
	      should not have this leading character.

	      Example:
	       curl --abstract-unix-socket socketpath https://example.com

	      Added in 7.53.0.

       --alt-svc <file name>
	      (HTTPS) This option enables the alt-svc parser in	curl.  If  the
	      file name	points to an existing alt-svc cache file, that will be
	      used. After a completed transfer,	the cache will be saved	to the
	      file name	again if it has	been modified.

	      Specify a	"" file	name (zero length) to avoid loading/saving and
	      make curl	just handle the	cache in memory.

	      If this option is	used several times, curl  will	load  contents
	      from all the files but the last one will be used for saving.

	      Example:
	       curl --alt-svc svc.txt https://example.com

	      Added in 7.64.1.

       --anyauth
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to figure out authentication method by itself,
	      and use the most secure one the remote site claims  to  support.
	      This is done by first doing a request and	checking the response-
	      headers, thus possibly inducing  an  extra  network  round-trip.
	      This  is	used  instead  of  setting  a  specific	authentication
	      method, which you	can do with  --basic,  --digest,  --ntlm,  and
	      --negotiate.

	      Using --anyauth is not recommended if you	do uploads from	stdin,
	      since it may require data	to be sent twice and then  the	client
	      must  be able to rewind. If the need should arise	when uploading
	      from stdin, the upload operation will fail.

	      Used together with -u, --user.

	      Example:
	       curl --anyauth --user me:pwd https://example.com

	      See also --proxy-anyauth,	--basic	and --digest.

       -a, --append
	      (FTP SFTP) When used in an upload, this makes curl append	to the
	      target  file  instead  of	 overwriting  it.  If  the remote file
	      doesn't exist, it	will be	created.  Note that this flag  is  ig-
	      nored by some SFTP servers (including OpenSSH).

	      Example:
	       curl --upload-file local	--append ftp://example.com/

       --aws-sigv4 <provider1[:provider2[:region[:service]]]>
	      Use AWS V4 signature authentication in the transfer.

	      The  provider argument is	a string that is used by the algorithm
	      when creating outgoing authentication headers.

	      The region argument is a string that points to a geographic area
	      of  a resources collection (region-code) when the	region name is
	      omitted from the endpoint.

	      The service argument is a	string that points to a	function  pro-
	      vided by a cloud (service-code) when the service name is omitted
	      from the endpoint.

	      Example:
	       curl --aws-sigv4	"aws:amz:east-2:es" --user "key:secret"	https://example.com

	      Added in 7.75.0.

       --basic
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to use HTTP Basic authentication with the  re-
	      mote host. This is the default and this option is	usually	point-
	      less, unless you use it to override a previously set option that
	      sets  a  different  authentication method	(such as --ntlm, --di-
	      gest, or --negotiate).

	      Used together with -u, --user.

	      Example:
	       curl -u name:password --basic https://example.com

	      See also --proxy-basic.

       --cacert	<file>
	      (TLS) Tells curl to use the specified certificate	file to	verify
	      the  peer.  The  file  may contain multiple CA certificates. The
	      certificate(s) must be in	PEM format. Normally curl is built  to
	      use a default file for this, so this option is typically used to
	      alter that default file.

	      curl recognizes the environment variable named  'CURL_CA_BUNDLE'
	      if  it  is  set,	and uses the given path	as a path to a CA cert
	      bundle. This option overrides that variable.

	      The windows version of curl will automatically  look  for	 a  CA
	      certs file named 'curl-ca-bundle.crt', either in the same	direc-
	      tory as curl.exe,	or in the Current Working Directory, or	in any
	      folder along your	PATH.

	      If  curl	is  built  against  the	 NSS  SSL library, the NSS PEM
	      PKCS#11 module (libnsspem.so) needs to be	available for this op-
	      tion to work properly.

	      (iOS  and	macOS only) If curl is built against Secure Transport,
	      then this	option is supported for	 backward  compatibility  with
	      other  SSL  engines,  but	it should not be set. If the option is
	      not set, then curl will use the certificates in the  system  and
	      user  Keychain to	verify the peer, which is the preferred	method
	      of verifying the peer's certificate chain.

	      (Schannel	only) This option is supported for Schannel in Windows
	      7	 or later with libcurl 7.60 or later. This option is supported
	      for backward compatibility with other SSL	engines; instead it is
	      recommended  to use Windows' store of root certificates (the de-
	      fault for	Schannel).

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --cacert CA-file.txt https://example.com

       --capath	<dir>
	      (TLS) Tells curl to use the specified certificate	 directory  to
	      verify  the  peer.  Multiple paths can be	provided by separating
	      them with	":" (e.g.  "path1:path2:path3"). The certificates must
	      be  in PEM format, and if	curl is	built against OpenSSL, the di-
	      rectory must have	been processed using the c_rehash utility sup-
	      plied  with  OpenSSL.  Using  --capath can allow OpenSSL-powered
	      curl to make SSL-connections much	more  efficiently  than	 using
	      --cacert if the --cacert file contains many CA certificates.

	      If this option is	set, the default capath	value will be ignored,
	      and if it	is used	several	times, the last	one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --capath /local/directory https://example.com

       --cert-status
	      (TLS) Tells curl to verify the status of the server  certificate
	      by using the Certificate Status Request (aka. OCSP stapling) TLS
	      extension.

	      If this option is	enabled	and the	server sends an	invalid	 (e.g.
	      expired) response, if the	response suggests that the server cer-
	      tificate has been	revoked, or no response	at  all	 is  received,
	      the verification fails.

	      This  is	currently  only	implemented in the OpenSSL, GnuTLS and
	      NSS backends.

	      Example:
	       curl --cert-status https://example.com

	      Added in 7.41.0.

       --cert-type <type>
	      (TLS) Tells curl what type the provided  client  certificate  is
	      using. PEM, DER, ENG and P12 are recognized types.  If not spec-
	      ified, PEM is assumed.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --cert-type	PEM --cert file	https://example.com

	      See also -E, --cert, --key and --key-type.

       -E, --cert <certificate[:password]>
	      (TLS) Tells curl to use the specified  client  certificate  file
	      when getting a file with HTTPS, FTPS or another SSL-based	proto-
	      col. The certificate must	be in PKCS#12 format if	 using	Secure
	      Transport,  or PEM format	if using any other engine.  If the op-
	      tional password isn't specified, it will be queried for  on  the
	      terminal.	 Note  that  this  option assumes a "certificate" file
	      that is the private key and the client certificate concatenated!
	      See -E, --cert and --key to specify them independently.

	      If  curl	is  built against the NSS SSL library then this	option
	      can tell curl the	nickname of the	certificate to use within  the
	      NSS  database defined by the environment variable	SSL_DIR	(or by
	      default /etc/pki/nssdb). If the NSS  PEM	PKCS#11	 module	 (lib-
	      nsspem.so)  is  available	 then  PEM files may be	loaded.	If you
	      want to use a file from the current directory, please precede it
	      with  "./"  prefix, in order to avoid confusion with a nickname.
	      If the nickname contains ":", it needs to	be preceded by "\"  so
	      that  it	is not recognized as password delimiter.  If the nick-
	      name contains "\", it needs to be	escaped	as "\\"	so that	it  is
	      not recognized as	an escape character.

	      If  curl is built	against	OpenSSL	library, and the engine	pkcs11
	      is available, then a PKCS#11 URI (RFC 7512) can be used to spec-
	      ify  a  certificate located in a PKCS#11 device. A string	begin-
	      ning with	"pkcs11:" will be interpreted as a PKCS#11 URI.	 If  a
	      PKCS#11 URI is provided, then the	--engine option	will be	set as
	      "pkcs11" if none was provided and	the --cert-type	option will be
	      set as "ENG" if none was provided.

	      (iOS  and	macOS only) If curl is built against Secure Transport,
	      then the certificate string can either be	the name of a certifi-
	      cate/private  key	in the system or user keychain,	or the path to
	      a	PKCS#12-encoded	certificate and	private	key. If	 you  want  to
	      use  a  file  from the current directory,	please precede it with
	      "./" prefix, in order to avoid confusion with a nickname.

	      (Schannel	only) Client certificates must be specified by a  path
	      expression  to  a	 certificate  store.  (Loading PFX is not sup-
	      ported; you can import it	to a store first). You can use "<store
	      location>\<store	name>\<thumbprint>"  to	refer to a certificate
	      in  the  system  certificates  store,  for   example,   "Curren-
	      tUser\MY\934a7ac6f8a5d579285a74fa61e19f23ddfe8d7a".   Thumbprint
	      is usually a SHA-1 hex string which you can see  in  certificate
	      details.	Following  store locations are supported: CurrentUser,
	      LocalMachine, CurrentService, Services,  CurrentUserGroupPolicy,
	      LocalMachineGroupPolicy, LocalMachineEnterprise.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --cert certfile --key keyfile https://example.com

	      See also --cert-type, --key and --key-type.

       --ciphers <list of ciphers>
	      (TLS) Specifies which ciphers to use in the connection. The list
	      of ciphers must specify valid ciphers. Read  up  on  SSL	cipher
	      list details on this URL:

	       https://curl.se/docs/ssl-ciphers.html

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --ciphers ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-CCM8 https://example.com

       --compressed-ssh
	      (SCP SFTP) Enables built-in SSH compression.  This is a request,
	      not an order; the	server may or may not do it.

	      Example:
	       curl --compressed-ssh sftp://example.com/

	      Added in 7.56.0.

       --compressed
	      (HTTP) Request a compressed response using one of	the algorithms
	      curl supports, and automatically decompress the content. Headers
	      are not modified.

	      If this option is	used and the server sends an  unsupported  en-
	      coding, curl will	report an error. This is a request, not	an or-
	      der; the server may or may not deliver data compressed.

	      Example:
	       curl --compressed https://example.com

       -K, --config <file>

	      Specify a	text file to read curl	arguments  from.  The  command
	      line  arguments  found  in the text file will be used as if they
	      were provided on the command line.

	      Options and their	parameters must	be specified on	the same  line
	      in the file, separated by	whitespace, colon, or the equals sign.
	      Long option names	can optionally be given	 in  the  config  file
	      without the initial double dashes	and if so, the colon or	equals
	      characters can be	used as	separators. If the option is specified
	      with  one	or two dashes, there can be no colon or	equals charac-
	      ter between the option and its parameter.

	      If the parameter contains	whitespace (or starts with  :  or  =),
	      the  parameter  must  be	enclosed  within quotes. Within	double
	      quotes, the following escape sequences are  available:  \\,  \",
	      \t, \n, \r and \v. A backslash preceding any other letter	is ig-
	      nored.

	      If the first column of a config line is  a  '#'  character,  the
	      rest of the line will be treated as a comment.

	      Only write one option per	physical line in the config file.

	      Specify  the  filename  to -K, --config as '-' to	make curl read
	      the file from stdin.

	      Note that	to be able to specify a	URL in the  config  file,  you
	      need  to	specify	 it  using the --url option, and not by	simply
	      writing the URL on its own line. So, it could  look  similar  to
	      this:

	      url = "https://curl.se/docs/"

	      When  curl  is invoked, it (unless -q, --disable is used)	checks
	      for a default config file	and uses it if found, even  when  this
	      option  is  used.	 The default config file is checked for	in the
	      following	places in this order:

	      1) Use the CURL_HOME environment variable	if set

	      2) Use the XDG_CONFIG_HOME environment variable if set (Added in
	      7.73.0)

	      3) Use the HOME environment variable if set

	      4) Non-windows: use getpwuid to find the home directory

	      5) Windows: use APPDATA if set

	      6) Windows: use "USERPROFILE\Application Data" if	set

	      7)  On  windows, if there	is no .curlrc file in the home dir, it
	      checks for one in	the same dir the curl executable is placed. On
	      Unix-like	 systems,  it will simply try to load .curlrc from the
	      determined home dir.

	      #	--- Example file ---
	      #	this is	a comment
	      url = "example.com"
	      output = "curlhere.html"
	      user-agent = "superagent/1.0"

	      #	and fetch another URL too
	      url = "example.com/docs/manpage.html"
	      -O
	      referer =	"http://nowhereatall.example.com/"
	      #	--- End	of example file	---

	      This option can be used multiple times to	load  multiple	config
	      files.

	      Example:
	       curl --config file.txt https://example.com

       --connect-timeout <fractional seconds>
	      Maximum  time  in	 seconds  that	you allow curl's connection to
	      take.  This only limits the connection phase, so	if  curl  con-
	      nects  within the	given period it	will continue -	if not it will
	      exit.  Since version 7.32.0, this	option accepts decimal values.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Examples:
	       curl --connect-timeout 20 https://example.com
	       curl --connect-timeout 3.14 https://example.com

	      See also -m, --max-time.

       --connect-to <HOST1:PORT1:HOST2:PORT2>

	      For  a  request  to  the	given  HOST1:PORT1  pair,  connect  to
	      HOST2:PORT2 instead.  This option	is suitable to direct requests
	      at a specific server, e.g. at a specific cluster node in a clus-
	      ter  of  servers.	This option is only used to establish the net-
	      work connection. It does NOT affect the  hostname/port  that  is
	      used for TLS/SSL (e.g. SNI, certificate verification) or for the
	      application protocols. "HOST1" and  "PORT1"  may	be  the	 empty
	      string, meaning "any host/port". "HOST2" and "PORT2" may also be
	      the  empty  string,  meaning   "use   the	  request's   original
	      host/port".

	      A	"host" specified to this option	is compared as a string, so it
	      needs to match the name used in request URL. It  can  be	either
	      numerical	such as	"127.0.0.1" or the full	host name such as "ex-
	      ample.org".

	      This option can be used many times to add	many connect rules.

	      Example:
	       curl --connect-to example.com:443:example.net:8443 https://example.com

	      See also --resolve and -H, --header. Added in 7.49.0.

       -C, --continue-at <offset>
	      Continue/Resume a	previous file transfer at  the	given  offset.
	      The  given  offset  is  the  exact  number of bytes that will be
	      skipped, counting	from the beginning of the source  file	before
	      it is transferred	to the destination.  If	used with uploads, the
	      FTP server command SIZE will not be used by curl.

	      Use "-C -" to tell curl to automatically find out	 where/how  to
	      resume  the  transfer. It	then uses the given output/input files
	      to figure	that out.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Examples:
	       curl -C - https://example.com
	       curl -C 400 https://example.com

	      See also -r, --range.

       -c, --cookie-jar	<filename>
	      (HTTP) Specify to	which file you want curl to write all  cookies
	      after  a	completed  operation. Curl writes all cookies from its
	      in-memory	cookie storage to the given file at the	end of	opera-
	      tions.  If  no  cookies  are known, no data will be written. The
	      file will	be written using the Netscape cookie file  format.  If
	      you set the file name to a single	dash, "-", the cookies will be
	      written to stdout.

	      This command line	option will activate the  cookie  engine  that
	      makes curl record	and use	cookies. Another way to	activate it is
	      to use the -b, --cookie option.

	      If the cookie jar	can't be created or written to,	the whole curl
	      operation	 won't fail or even report an error clearly. Using -v,
	      --verbose	will get a warning displayed, but  that	 is  the  only
	      visible feedback you get about this possibly lethal situation.

	      If  this	option	is used	several	times, the last	specified file
	      name will	be used.

	      Examples:
	       curl -c store-here.txt https://example.com
	       curl -c store-here.txt -b read-these https://example.com

       -b, --cookie <data|filename>
	      (HTTP) Pass the data to the HTTP server in the Cookie header. It
	      is  supposedly the data previously received from the server in a
	      "Set-Cookie:"  line.   The  data	should	be   in	  the	format
	      "NAME1=VALUE1; NAME2=VALUE2".

	      If  no '=' symbol	is used	in the argument, it is instead treated
	      as a filename to read previously stored cookie from. This	option
	      also activates the cookie	engine which will make curl record in-
	      coming cookies, which may	be handy if you're using this in  com-
	      bination	with  the  -L,	--location  option  or do multiple URL
	      transfers	on the same invoke. If the file	name is	exactly	a  mi-
	      nus ("-"), curl will instead read	the contents from stdin.

	      The file format of the file to read cookies from should be plain
	      HTTP headers (Set-Cookie style) or the  Netscape/Mozilla	cookie
	      file format.

	      The  file	 specified with	-b, --cookie is	only used as input. No
	      cookies will be written to the file. To store cookies,  use  the
	      -c, --cookie-jar option.

	      If you use the Set-Cookie	file format and	don't specify a	domain
	      then the cookie is not sent since	the domain will	 never	match.
	      To  address  this,  set  a domain	in Set-Cookie line (doing that
	      will include sub-domains)	or preferably: use the	Netscape  for-
	      mat.

	      This option can be used multiple times.

	      Users very often want to both read cookies from a	file and write
	      updated cookies back to a	file, so using both -b,	 --cookie  and
	      -c, --cookie-jar in the same command line	is common.

	      Examples:
	       curl -b cookiefile https://example.com
	       curl -b cookiefile -c cookiefile	https://example.com

       --create-dirs
	      When used	in conjunction with the	-o, --output option, curl will
	      create the necessary local directory hierarchy as	 needed.  This
	      option  creates  the directories mentioned with the -o, --output
	      option, nothing else. If the --output file name uses  no	direc-
	      tory, or if the directories it mentions already exist, no	direc-
	      tories will be created.

	      Created dirs are made with mode 0750 on unix style file systems.

	      To create	remote directories when	using FTP or SFTP, try	--ftp-
	      create-dirs.

	      Example:
	       curl --create-dirs --output local/dir/file https://example.com

       --create-file-mode <mode>
	      (SFTP SCP	FILE) When curl	is used	to create files	remotely using
	      one of the supported protocols, this option allows the  user  to
	      set which	'mode' to set on the file at creation time, instead of
	      the default 0644.

	      This option takes	an octal number	as argument.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --create-file-mode 0777 -T localfile sftp://example.com/new

	      See also --ftp-create-dirs. Added	in 7.75.0.

       --crlf (FTP SMTP)  Convert  LF  to  CRLF	 in  upload.  Useful  for  MVS
	      (OS/390).

	      (SMTP added in 7.40.0)

	      Example:
	       curl --crlf -T file ftp://example.com/

       --crlfile <file>
	      (TLS) Provide a file using PEM format with a Certificate Revoca-
	      tion List	that may specify peer certificates that	are to be con-
	      sidered revoked.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --crlfile rejects.txt https://example.com

	      Added in 7.19.7.

       --curves	<algorithm list>
	      (TLS)  Tells  curl  to request specific curves to	use during SSL
	      session establishment according to RFC 8422, 5.1.	 Multiple  al-
	      gorithms	can  be	 provided  by  separating  them	with ":" (e.g.
	      "X25519:P-521").	The parameter is available identically in  the
	      "openssl s_client/s_server" utilities.

	      --curves	allows	a OpenSSL powered curl to make SSL-connections
	      with exactly the (EC) curve requested by	the  client,  avoiding
	      intransparent client/server negotiations.

	      If  this	option	is  set,  the  default	curves list built into
	      openssl will be ignored.

	      Example:
	       curl --curves X25519 https://example.com

	      Added in 7.73.0.

       --data-ascii <data>
	      (HTTP) This is just an alias for -d, --data.

	      Example:
	       curl --data-ascii @file https://example.com

       --data-binary <data>
	      (HTTP) This posts	data exactly as	specified with no  extra  pro-
	      cessing whatsoever.

	      If  you  start  the data with the	letter @, the rest should be a
	      filename.	 Data is posted	in a  similar  manner  as  -d,	--data
	      does,  except  that  newlines and	carriage returns are preserved
	      and conversions are never	done.

	      Like -d, --data the default content-type sent to the  server  is
	      application/x-www-form-urlencoded.  If  you  want	the data to be
	      treated as arbitrary binary data by the server then set the con-
	      tent-type	 to octet-stream: -H "Content-Type: application/octet-
	      stream".

	      If this option is	used several times,  the  ones	following  the
	      first will append	data as	described in -d, --data.

	      Example:
	       curl --data-binary @filename https://example.com

       --data-raw <data>
	      (HTTP)  This  posts data similarly to -d,	--data but without the
	      special interpretation of	the @ character.

	      Examples:
	       curl --data-raw "hello" https://example.com
	       curl --data-raw "@at@at@" https://example.com

	      See also -d, --data. Added in 7.43.0.

       --data-urlencode	<data>
	      (HTTP) This posts	data, similar to the other -d, --data  options
	      with the exception that this performs URL-encoding.

	      To  be  CGI-compliant,  the <data> part should begin with	a name
	      followed by a separator and a content specification. The	<data>
	      part can be passed to curl using one of the following syntaxes:

	      content
		     This  will	make curl URL-encode the content and pass that
		     on. Just be careful so that the content  doesn't  contain
		     any  =  or	 @  symbols, as	that will then make the	syntax
		     match one of the other cases below!

	      =content
		     This will make curl URL-encode the	content	and pass  that
		     on. The preceding = symbol	is not included	in the data.

	      name=content
		     This  will	make curl URL-encode the content part and pass
		     that on. Note that	the name part is expected to  be  URL-
		     encoded already.

	      @filename
		     This  will	 make  curl load data from the given file (in-
		     cluding any newlines), URL-encode that data and  pass  it
		     on	in the POST.

	      name@filename
		     This  will	 make  curl load data from the given file (in-
		     cluding any newlines), URL-encode that data and  pass  it
		     on	 in  the  POST.	 The  name part	gets an	equal sign ap-
		     pended, resulting in  name=urlencoded-file-content.  Note
		     that the name is expected to be URL-encoded already.

       Examples:
	curl --data-urlencode name=val https://example.com
	curl --data-urlencode =encodethis https://example.com
	curl --data-urlencode name@file	https://example.com
	curl --data-urlencode @fileonly	https://example.com

       See also	-d, --data and --data-raw. Added in 7.18.0.

       -d, --data <data>
	      (HTTP  MQTT)  Sends  the specified data in a POST	request	to the
	      HTTP server, in the same way that	a browser does when a user has
	      filled  in an HTML form and presses the submit button. This will
	      cause curl to pass the data to the server	using the content-type
	      application/x-www-form-urlencoded.  Compare to -F, --form.

	      --data-raw is almost the same but	does not have a	special	inter-
	      pretation	of the @ character. To post data  purely  binary,  you
	      should  instead use the --data-binary option.  To	URL-encode the
	      value of a form field you	may use	--data-urlencode.

	      If any of	these options is used more than	once on	the same  com-
	      mand  line,  the	data  pieces specified will be merged together
	      with a separating	 &-symbol.  Thus,  using  '-d  name=daniel  -d
	      skill=lousy'  would  generate  a	post  chunk  that  looks  like
	      'name=daniel&skill=lousy'.

	      If you start the data with the letter @, the rest	 should	 be  a
	      file  name  to read the data from, or - if you want curl to read
	      the data from stdin. Posting data	from  a	 file  named  'foobar'
	      would  thus  be done with	-d, --data @foobar. When -d, --data is
	      told to read from	a file like that, carriage  returns  and  new-
	      lines will be stripped out. If you don't want the	@ character to
	      have a special interpretation use	--data-raw instead.

	      Examples:
	       curl -d "name=curl" https://example.com
	       curl -d "name=curl" -d "tool=cmdline" https://example.com
	       curl -d @filename https://example.com

	      See also --data-binary, --data-urlencode	and  --data-raw.  This
	      option  overrides	 -F,  --form  and -I, --head and -T, --upload-
	      file.

       --delegation <LEVEL>
	      (GSS/kerberos) Set LEVEL to tell the server what it  is  allowed
	      to delegate when it comes	to user	credentials.

	      none   Don't allow any delegation.

	      policy Delegates	if  and	only if	the OK-AS-DELEGATE flag	is set
		     in	the Kerberos service ticket,  which  is	 a  matter  of
		     realm policy.

	      always Unconditionally allow the server to delegate.

       If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       Example:
	curl --delegation "none" https://example.com

       --digest
	      (HTTP)  Enables HTTP Digest authentication. This is an authenti-
	      cation scheme that prevents the password from  being  sent  over
	      the  wire	in clear text. Use this	in combination with the	normal
	      -u, --user option	to set user name and password.

	      If this option is	used several times,  only  the	first  one  is
	      used.

	      Example:
	       curl -u name:password --digest https://example.com

	      See  also	 -u, --user, --proxy-digest and	--anyauth. This	option
	      overrides	--basic	and --ntlm and --negotiate.

       --disable-eprt
	      (FTP) Tell curl to disable the use of the	EPRT and LPRT commands
	      when doing active	FTP transfers. Curl will normally always first
	      attempt to use EPRT, then	LPRT before using PORT,	but with  this
	      option,  it  will	 use PORT right	away. EPRT and LPRT are	exten-
	      sions to the original FTP	protocol, and  may  not	 work  on  all
	      servers, but they	enable more functionality in a better way than
	      the traditional PORT command.

	      --eprt can be used to explicitly enable EPRT again and --no-eprt
	      is an alias for --disable-eprt.

	      If  the  server is accessed using	IPv6, this option will have no
	      effect as	EPRT is	necessary then.

	      Disabling	EPRT only changes the active behavior. If you want  to
	      switch  to  passive  mode	 you need to not use -P, --ftp-port or
	      force it with --ftp-pasv.

	      Example:
	       curl --disable-eprt ftp://example.com/

       --disable-epsv
	      (FTP) Tell curl to disable the use of the	EPSV command when  do-
	      ing  passive  FTP	transfers. Curl	will normally always first at-
	      tempt to use EPSV	before PASV, but with this option, it will not
	      try using	EPSV.

	      --epsv can be used to explicitly enable EPSV again and --no-epsv
	      is an alias for --disable-epsv.

	      If the server is an IPv6 host, this option will have  no	effect
	      as EPSV is necessary then.

	      Disabling	EPSV only changes the passive behavior.	If you want to
	      switch to	active mode you	need to	use -P,	--ftp-port.

	      Example:
	       curl --disable-epsv ftp://example.com/

       -q, --disable
	      If used as the first parameter on	the command line,  the	curlrc
	      config  file will	not be read and	used. See the -K, --config for
	      details on the default config file search	path.

	      Example:
	       curl -q https://example.com

       --disallow-username-in-url
	      (HTTP) This tells	curl to	exit if	 passed	 a  url	 containing  a
	      username.	 This  is  probably  most useful when the URL is being
	      provided at run-time or similar.

	      Example:
	       curl --disallow-username-in-url https://example.com

	      See also --proto.	Added in 7.61.0.

       --dns-interface <interface>
	      (DNS) Tell curl to send outgoing DNS  requests  through  <inter-
	      face>.  This  option is a	counterpart to --interface (which does
	      not affect DNS). The supplied string must	be an  interface  name
	      (not an address).

	      Example:
	       curl --dns-interface eth0 https://example.com

	      See  also	 --dns-ipv4-addr  and --dns-ipv6-addr. --dns-interface
	      requires that the	underlying libcurl was	built  to  support  c-
	      ares. Added in 7.33.0.

       --dns-ipv4-addr <address>
	      (DNS) Tell curl to bind to <ip-address> when making IPv4 DNS re-
	      quests, so that the DNS requests originate  from	this  address.
	      The argument should be a single IPv4 address.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --dns-ipv4-addr 10.1.2.3 https://example.com

	      See  also	 --dns-interface  and --dns-ipv6-addr. --dns-ipv4-addr
	      requires that the	underlying libcurl was	built  to  support  c-
	      ares. Added in 7.33.0.

       --dns-ipv6-addr <address>
	      (DNS) Tell curl to bind to <ip-address> when making IPv6 DNS re-
	      quests, so that the DNS requests originate  from	this  address.
	      The argument should be a single IPv6 address.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --dns-ipv6-addr 2a04:4e42::561 https://example.com

	      See  also	 --dns-interface  and --dns-ipv4-addr. --dns-ipv6-addr
	      requires that the	underlying libcurl was	built  to  support  c-
	      ares. Added in 7.33.0.

       --dns-servers <addresses>
	      Set the list of DNS servers to be	used instead of	the system de-
	      fault.  The list of IP addresses should be separated  with  com-
	      mas. Port	numbers	may also optionally be given as	:_port-number_
	      after each IP address.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --dns-servers 192.168.0.1,192.168.0.2 https://example.com

	      --dns-servers requires that the underlying libcurl was built  to
	      support c-ares. Added in 7.33.0.

       --doh-cert-status
	      (all) Same as --cert-status but used for DoH (DNS-over-HTTPS).

	      Example:
	       curl --doh-cert-status --doh-url	https://doh.example https://example.com

	      Added in 7.76.0.

       --doh-insecure
	      (all) Same as -k,	--insecure but used for	DoH (DNS-over-HTTPS).

	      Example:
	       curl --doh-insecure --doh-url https://doh.example https://example.com

	      Added in 7.76.0.

       --doh-url <URL>
	      (all)  Specifies which DNS-over-HTTPS (DoH) server to use	to re-
	      solve hostnames, instead of  using  the  default	name  resolver
	      mechanism. The URL must be HTTPS.

	      Some  SSL	 options  that you set for your	transfer will apply to
	      DoH since	the name lookups take place  over  SSL.	 However,  the
	      certificate  verification	 settings are not inherited and	can be
	      controlled separately via	--doh-insecure and --doh-cert-status.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --doh-url https://doh.example https://example.com

	      Added in 7.62.0.

       -D, --dump-header <filename>
	      (HTTP FTP) Write the received protocol headers to	the  specified
	      file.  If	 no  headers are received, the use of this option will
	      create an	empty file.

	      When used	in FTP,	the FTP	server response	lines  are  considered
	      being "headers" and thus are saved there.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --dump-header store.txt https://example.com

	      See also -o, --output.

       --egd-file <file>
	      (TLS)  Specify  the  path	 name  to the Entropy Gathering	Daemon
	      socket. The socket is used to seed the  random  engine  for  SSL
	      connections.

	      Example:
	       curl --egd-file /random/here https://example.com

	      See also --random-file.

       --engine	<name>
	      (TLS)  Select the	OpenSSL	crypto engine to use for cipher	opera-
	      tions. Use --engine list to print	a list of build-time supported
	      engines.	Note  that  not	all (and possibly none)	of the engines
	      may be available at run-time.

	      Example:
	       curl --engine flavor https://example.com

       --etag-compare <file>
	      (HTTP) This option makes a conditional HTTP request for the spe-
	      cific ETag read from the given file by sending a custom If-None-
	      Match header using the stored ETag.

	      For correct results, make	sure that the specified	file  contains
	      only  a  single  line  with  the	desired	ETag. An empty file is
	      parsed as	an empty ETag.

	      Use the option --etag-save to first save the  ETag  from	a  re-
	      sponse,  and  then  use this option to compare against the saved
	      ETag in a	subsequent request.

	      Example:
	       curl --etag-compare etag.txt https://example.com

	      Added in 7.68.0.

       --etag-save <file>
	      (HTTP) This option saves an HTTP ETag to the specified file.  An
	      ETag  is	a  caching  related  header, usually returned in a re-
	      sponse.

	      If no ETag is sent by the	server,	an empty file is created.

	      Example:
	       curl --etag-save	storetag.txt https://example.com

	      Added in 7.68.0.

       --expect100-timeout <seconds>
	      (HTTP) Maximum time in seconds that you allow curl to wait for a
	      100-continue  response  when curl	emits an Expects: 100-continue
	      header in	its request. By	default	curl  will  wait  one  second.
	      This  option accepts decimal values! When	curl stops waiting, it
	      will continue as if the response has been	received.

	      Example:
	       curl --expect100-timeout	2.5 -T file https://example.com

	      See also --connect-timeout. Added	in 7.47.0.

       --fail-early
	      Fail and exit on the first detected transfer error.

	      When curl	is used	to do multiple transfers on the	command	 line,
	      it will attempt to operate on each given URL, one	by one.	By de-
	      fault, it	will ignore errors if there are	more  URLs  given  and
	      the  last	 URL's	success	will determine the error code curl re-
	      turns. So	early failures will be "hidden"	by subsequent success-
	      ful transfers.

	      Using  this  option,  curl  will	instead	return an error	on the
	      first transfer that fails, independent of	 the  amount  of  URLs
	      that  are	given on the command line. This	way, no	transfer fail-
	      ures go undetected by scripts and	similar.

	      This option is global and	does not need to be specified for each
	      use of -:, --next.

	      This option does not imply -f, --fail, which causes transfers to
	      fail due to the server's HTTP status code. You can  combine  the
	      two options, however note	-f, --fail is not global and is	there-
	      fore contained by	-:, --next.

	      Example:
	       curl --fail-early https://example.com https://two.example

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --fail-with-body
	      (HTTP) Return an error on	server errors where the	HTTP  response
	      code  is	400  or	 greater). In normal cases when	an HTTP	server
	      fails to deliver a document, it returns an HTML document stating
	      so  (which  often	 also  describes why and more).	This flag will
	      still allow curl to output and save that content but also	to re-
	      turn error 22.

	      This  is	an  alternative	 option	to -f, --fail which makes curl
	      fail for the same	circumstances but without saving the content.

	      Example:
	       curl --fail-with-body https://example.com

	      See also -f, --fail. Added in 7.76.0.

       -f, --fail
	      (HTTP) Fail silently (no output at all) on server	 errors.  This
	      is  mostly done to enable	scripts	etc to better deal with	failed
	      attempts.	In normal cases	when an	HTTP server fails to deliver a
	      document,	 it  returns  an HTML document stating so (which often
	      also describes why and more). This flag will prevent  curl  from
	      outputting that and return error 22.

	      This  method is not fail-safe and	there are occasions where non-
	      successful response codes	will slip through, especially when au-
	      thentication is involved (response codes 401 and 407).

	      Example:
	       curl --fail https://example.com

	      See also --fail-with-body.

       --false-start
	      (TLS)  Tells  curl  to use false start during the	TLS handshake.
	      False start is a mode where a TLS	client will start sending  ap-
	      plication	 data  before verifying	the server's Finished message,
	      thus saving a round trip when performing a full handshake.

	      This is currently	only implemented in the	NSS and	Secure	Trans-
	      port (on iOS 7.0 or later, or OS X 10.9 or later)	backends.

	      Example:
	       curl --false-start https://example.com

	      Added in 7.42.0.

       --form-string <name=string>
	      (HTTP  SMTP  IMAP)  Similar  to -F, --form except	that the value
	      string for the named parameter is	used  literally.  Leading  '@'
	      and '<' characters, and the ';type=' string in the value have no
	      special meaning. Use this	in preference to -F, --form if there's
	      any  possibility	that the string	value may accidentally trigger
	      the '@' or '<' features of -F, --form.

	      Example:
	       curl --form-string "data" https://example.com

	      See also -F, --form.

       -F, --form <name=content>
	      (HTTP SMTP IMAP) For HTTP	protocol family, this lets  curl  emu-
	      late  a  filled-in  form	in which a user	has pressed the	submit
	      button. This causes curl to POST	data  using  the  Content-Type
	      multipart/form-data according to RFC 2388.

	      For SMTP and IMAP	protocols, this	is the means to	compose	a mul-
	      tipart mail message to transmit.

	      This enables uploading of	binary files etc. To force  the	 'con-
	      tent' part to be a file, prefix the file name with an @ sign. To
	      just get the content part	from a file, prefix the	file name with
	      the  symbol  <.  The  difference	between	@ and <	is then	that @
	      makes a file get attached	in the post as a  file	upload,	 while
	      the < makes a text field and just	get the	contents for that text
	      field from a file.

	      Tell curl	to read	content	from stdin instead of a	file by	 using
	      -	as filename. This goes for both	@ and <	constructs. When stdin
	      is used, the contents is buffered	in memory first	by curl	to de-
	      termine its size and allow a possible resend.  Defining a	part's
	      data from	a named	non-regular file (such as a named pipe or sim-
	      ilar)  is	unfortunately not subject to buffering and will	be ef-
	      fectively	read at	transmission time; since the full size is  un-
	      known before the transfer	starts,	such data is sent as chunks by
	      HTTP and rejected	by IMAP.

	      Example: send an image to	an HTTP	server,	where 'profile'	is the
	      name  of	the  form-field	to which the file portrait.jpg will be
	      the input:

	       curl -F profile=@portrait.jpg https://example.com/upload.cgi

	      Example: send your name and shoe size in two text	fields to  the
	      server:

	       curl -F name=John -F shoesize=11	https://example.com/

	      Example:	send your essay	in a text field	to the server. Send it
	      as a plain text field, but get the contents for it from a	 local
	      file:

	       curl -F "story=<hugefile.txt" https://example.com/

	      You  can	also  tell  curl  what	Content-Type  to  use by using
	      'type=', in a manner similar to:

	       curl -F "web=@index.html;type=text/html"	example.com

	      or

	       curl -F "name=daniel;type=text/foo" example.com

	      You can also explicitly change the name field of a  file	upload
	      part by setting filename=, like this:

	       curl -F "file=@localfile;filename=nameinpost" example.com

	      If  filename/path	contains ',' or	';', it	must be	quoted by dou-
	      ble-quotes like:

	       curl -F "file=@\"local,file\";filename=\"name;in;post\""	 exam-
	      ple.com

	      or

	       curl   -F   'file=@"local,file";filename="name;in;post"'	 exam-
	      ple.com

	      Note that	if a filename/path is  quoted  by  double-quotes,  any
	      double-quote or backslash	within the filename must be escaped by
	      backslash.

	      Quoting must also	be applied to non-file	data  if  it  contains
	      semicolons, leading/trailing spaces or leading double quotes:

	       curl  -F	 'colors="red;	green;	blue";type=text/x-myapp' exam-
	      ple.com

	      You can add custom headers to the	 field	by  setting  headers=,
	      like

		curl -F	"submit=OK;headers=\"X-submit-type: OK\"" example.com

	      or

		curl -F	"submit=OK;headers=@headerfile"	example.com

	      The  headers=  keyword may appear	more that once and above notes
	      about quoting apply. When	headers	are read from  a  file,	 Empty
	      lines and	lines starting with '#'	are comments and ignored; each
	      header can be folded by splitting	between	two words and starting
	      the  continuation	 line  with a space; embedded carriage-returns
	      and trailing spaces are stripped.	  Here	is  an	example	 of  a
	      header file contents:

		# This file contain two	headers.
		X-header-1: this is a header

		# The following	header is folded.
		X-header-2: this is
		 another header

	      To  support  sending  multipart mail messages, the syntax	is ex-
	      tended as	follows:
	      -	name can be omitted: the equal sign is the first character  of
	      the argument,
	      -	 if  data  starts with '(', this signals to start a new	multi-
	      part: it can be followed by a content type specification.
	      -	a multipart can	be terminated with a '=)' argument.

	      Example: the following command sends an SMTP  mime  e-mail  con-
	      sisting in an inline part	in two alternative formats: plain text
	      and HTML.	It attaches a text file:

	       curl -F '=(;type=multipart/alternative' \
		       -F '=plain text message'	\
		       -F '= <body>HTML	message</body>;type=text/html' \
		    -F '=)' -F '=@textfile.txt'	...  smtp://example.com

	      Data can be encoded for transfer using encoder=.	Available  en-
	      codings are binary and 8bit that do nothing else than adding the
	      corresponding Content-Transfer-Encoding header, 7bit  that  only
	      rejects 8-bit characters with a transfer error, quoted-printable
	      and base64 that encodes  data  according	to  the	 corresponding
	      schemes, limiting	lines length to	76 characters.

	      Example:	send  multipart	mail with a quoted-printable text mes-
	      sage and a base64	attached file:

	       curl -F '=text message;encoder=quoted-printable'	\
		    -F '=@localfile;encoder=base64' ...	smtp://example.com

	      See further examples and details in the MANUAL.

	      This option can be used multiple times.

	      Example:
	       curl --form "name=curl" --form "file=@loadthis" https://example.com

	      This option overrides -d,	--data and -I, --head  and  -T,	 --up-
	      load-file.

       --ftp-account <data>
	      (FTP) When an FTP	server asks for	"account data" after user name
	      and password has been provided, this data	is sent	off using  the
	      ACCT command.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --ftp-account "mr.robot" ftp://example.com/

	      Added in 7.13.0.

       --ftp-alternative-to-user <command>
	      (FTP)  If	 authenticating	with the USER and PASS commands	fails,
	      send this	 command.   When  connecting  to  Tumbleweed's	Secure
	      Transport	 server	 over  FTPS  using a client certificate, using
	      "SITE AUTH" will tell the	server to retrieve the	username  from
	      the certificate.

	      Example:
	       curl --ftp-alternative-to-user "U53r" ftp://example.com

	      Added in 7.15.5.

       --ftp-create-dirs
	      (FTP  SFTP)  When	 an FTP	or SFTP	URL/operation uses a path that
	      doesn't currently	exist on the server, the standard behavior  of
	      curl is to fail. Using this option, curl will instead attempt to
	      create missing directories.

	      Example:
	       curl --ftp-create-dirs -T file ftp://example.com/remote/path/file

	      See also --create-dirs.

       --ftp-method <method>
	      (FTP) Control what method	curl should use	to reach a file	on  an
	      FTP(S)  server. The method argument should be one	of the follow-
	      ing alternatives:

	      multicwd
		     curl does a single	CWD operation for each	path  part  in
		     the  given	URL. For deep hierarchies this means very many
		     commands. This is how RFC 1738 says it  should  be	 done.
		     This is the default but the slowest behavior.

	      nocwd  curl  does	 no  CWD at all. curl will do SIZE, RETR, STOR
		     etc and give a full path to the server for	all these com-
		     mands. This is the	fastest	behavior.

	      singlecwd
		     curl does one CWD with the	full target directory and then
		     operates on the file "normally"  (like  in	 the  multicwd
		     case).  This  is  somewhat	 more standards	compliant than
		     'nocwd' but without the full penalty of 'multicwd'.

       Examples:
	curl --ftp-method multicwd ftp://example.com/dir1/dir2/file
	curl --ftp-method nocwd	ftp://example.com/dir1/dir2/file
	curl --ftp-method singlecwd ftp://example.com/dir1/dir2/file

       Added in	7.15.1.

       --ftp-pasv
	      (FTP) Use	passive	mode for the data connection. Passive  is  the
	      internal	default	behavior, but using this option	can be used to
	      override a previous -P, --ftp-port option.

	      If this option is	used several times,  only  the	first  one  is
	      used.  Undoing  an  enforced passive really isn't	doable but you
	      must then	instead	enforce	the correct -P,	--ftp-port again.

	      Passive mode means that curl will	try the	EPSV command first and
	      then PASV, unless	--disable-epsv is used.

	      Example:
	       curl --ftp-pasv ftp://example.com/

	      See also --disable-epsv. Added in	7.11.0.

       -P, --ftp-port <address>
	      (FTP)  Reverses  the  default initiator/listener roles when con-
	      necting with FTP.	This option makes curl use active  mode.  curl
	      then  tells the server to	connect	back to	the client's specified
	      address and port,	while passive mode asks	the server to setup an
	      IP  address  and	port for it to connect to. <address> should be
	      one of:

	      interface
		     e.g. "eth0" to specify which interface's IP  address  you
		     want to use (Unix only)

	      IP address
		     e.g. "192.168.10.1" to specify the	exact IP address

	      host name
		     e.g. "my.host.domain" to specify the machine

	      -	     make  curl	 pick the same IP address that is already used
		     for the control connection

       If this option is used several times, the last one will be  used.  Dis-
       able  the  use  of PORT with --ftp-pasv.	Disable	the attempt to use the
       EPRT command instead of PORT by using --disable-eprt.  EPRT  is	really
       PORT++.

       Since  7.19.5,  you can append ":[start]-[end]" to the right of the ad-
       dress, to tell curl what	TCP port range to use. That means you  specify
       a port range, from a lower to a higher number. A	single number works as
       well, but do note that it increases the risk of failure since the  port
       may not be available.

       Examples:
	curl -P	- ftp:/example.com
	curl -P	eth0 ftp:/example.com
	curl -P	192.168.0.2 ftp:/example.com

       See also	--ftp-pasv and --disable-eprt.

       --ftp-pret
	      (FTP)  Tell  curl	to send	a PRET command before PASV (and	EPSV).
	      Certain FTP servers, mainly drftpd,  require  this  non-standard
	      command  for  directory  listings	as well	as up and downloads in
	      PASV mode.

	      Example:
	       curl --ftp-pret ftp://example.com/

	      Added in 7.20.0.

       --ftp-skip-pasv-ip
	      (FTP) Tell curl to not use the IP	address	the server suggests in
	      its  response to curl's PASV command when	curl connects the data
	      connection. Instead curl will re-use the same IP address it  al-
	      ready uses for the control connection.

	      Since curl 7.74.0	this option is enabled by default.

	      This  option has no effect if PORT, EPRT or EPSV is used instead
	      of PASV.

	      Example:
	       curl --ftp-skip-pasv-ip ftp://example.com/

	      See also --ftp-pasv. Added in 7.14.2.

       --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode <active/passive>
	      (FTP) Sets the CCC mode. The passive mode	will not initiate  the
	      shutdown,	but instead wait for the server	to do it, and will not
	      reply to the shutdown from the server. The active	mode initiates
	      the shutdown and waits for a reply from the server.

	      Example:
	       curl --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode active --ftp-ssl-ccc ftps://example.com/

	      See also --ftp-ssl-ccc. Added in 7.16.2.

       --ftp-ssl-ccc
	      (FTP)  Use  CCC  (Clear  Command Channel)	Shuts down the SSL/TLS
	      layer after authenticating. The rest of the control channel com-
	      munication  will be unencrypted. This allows NAT routers to fol-
	      low the FTP transaction. The default mode	is passive.

	      Example:
	       curl --ftp-ssl-ccc ftps://example.com/

	      See also --ssl and --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode. Added in 7.16.1.

       --ftp-ssl-control
	      (FTP) Require SSL/TLS for	the FTP	 login,	 clear	for  transfer.
	      Allows  secure  authentication, but non-encrypted	data transfers
	      for efficiency.  Fails the transfer if the server	 doesn't  sup-
	      port SSL/TLS.

	      Example:
	       curl --ftp-ssl-control ftp://example.com

	      Added in 7.16.0.

       -G, --get
	      When  used,  this	 option	 will make all data specified with -d,
	      --data, --data-binary or --data-urlencode	to be used in an  HTTP
	      GET  request instead of the POST request that otherwise would be
	      used. The	data will be appended to the URL with a	'?' separator.

	      If used in combination with -I, --head, the POST data  will  in-
	      stead be appended	to the URL with	a HEAD request.

	      If  this	option	is  used  several times, only the first	one is
	      used. This is because undoing a GET doesn't make sense, but  you
	      should then instead enforce the alternative method you prefer.

	      Examples:
	       curl --get https://example.com
	       curl --get -d "tool=curl" -d "age=old" https://example.com
	       curl --get -I -d	"tool=curl" https://example.com

       -g, --globoff
	      This option switches off the "URL	globbing parser". When you set
	      this option, you can specify URLs	that contain the letters  {}[]
	      without  having curl itself interpret them. Note that these let-
	      ters are not normal legal	URL contents but they  should  be  en-
	      coded according to the URI standard.

	      Example:
	       curl -g "https://example.com/{[]}}}}"

       --happy-eyeballs-timeout-ms <milliseconds>
	      Happy  Eyeballs is an algorithm that attempts to connect to both
	      IPv4 and IPv6 addresses for  dual-stack  hosts,  giving  IPv6  a
	      head-start  of the specified number of milliseconds. If the IPv6
	      address cannot be	connected to within that time, then a  connec-
	      tion  attempt is made to the IPv4	address	in parallel. The first
	      connection to be established is the one that is used.

	      The range	of suggested useful values is limited. Happy  Eyeballs
	      RFC  6555	 says  "It  is RECOMMENDED that	connection attempts be
	      paced 150-250 ms apart to	balance	human factors against  network
	      load."  libcurl currently	defaults to 200	ms. Firefox and	Chrome
	      currently	default	to 300 ms.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --happy-eyeballs-timeout-ms	500 https://example.com

	      Added in 7.59.0.

       --haproxy-protocol
	      (HTTP) Send a HAProxy PROXY protocol v1 header at	the  beginning
	      of  the  connection. This	is used	by some	load balancers and re-
	      verse proxies to indicate	the client's true IP address and port.

	      This option is primarily useful when sending test	requests to  a
	      service that expects this	header.

	      Example:
	       curl --haproxy-protocol https://example.com

	      Added in 7.60.0.

       -I, --head
	      (HTTP FTP	FILE) Fetch the	headers	only! HTTP-servers feature the
	      command HEAD which this uses to get nothing but the header of  a
	      document.	 When  used  on	an FTP or FILE file, curl displays the
	      file size	and last modification time only.

	      Example:
	       curl -I https://example.com

       -H, --header <header/@file>
	      (HTTP) Extra header to include in	the request when sending  HTTP
	      to  a  server. You may specify any number	of extra headers. Note
	      that if you should add a custom header that has the same name as
	      one  of  the  internal  ones curl	would use, your	externally set
	      header will be used instead of the internal one. This allows you
	      to  make	even  trickier	stuff than curl	would normally do. You
	      should not replace internally set	headers	without	 knowing  per-
	      fectly well what you're doing. Remove an internal	header by giv-
	      ing a replacement	without	content	 on  the  right	 side  of  the
	      colon, as	in: -H "Host:".	If you send the	custom header with no-
	      value then its header must be terminated with a semicolon,  such
	      as -H "X-Custom-Header;" to send "X-Custom-Header:".

	      curl  will  make	sure  that each	header you add/replace is sent
	      with the proper end-of-line marker, you should thus not add that
	      as a part	of the header content: do not add newlines or carriage
	      returns, they will only mess things up for you.

	      This option can take an argument in @filename style, which  then
	      adds  a  header  for  each line in the input file. Using @- will
	      make curl	read the header	file from stdin. Added in 7.55.0.

	      You need --proxy-header to send custom headers  intended	for  a
	      HTTP proxy. Added	in 7.37.0.

	      Passing  on  a  "Transfer-Encoding: chunked" header when doing a
	      HTTP request with	a request body,	will make curl send  the  data
	      using chunked encoding.

	      WARNING:	headers	 set  with  this option	will be	set in all re-
	      quests - even after redirects are	followed, like when told  with
	      -L,  --location. This can	lead to	the header being sent to other
	      hosts than the original host, so	sensitive  headers  should  be
	      used with	caution	combined with following	redirects.

	      This  option  can	 be  used multiple times to add/replace/remove
	      multiple headers.

	      Examples:
	       curl -H "X-First-Name: Joe" https://example.com
	       curl -H "User-Agent: yes-please/2000" https://example.com
	       curl -H "Host:" https://example.com

	      See also -A, --user-agent	and -e,	--referer.

       -h, --help <category>
	      Usage help. This lists all commands of the  <category>.	If  no
	      arg  was	provided, curl will display the	most important command
	      line arguments.  If the argument "all" was provided,  curl  will
	      display  all  options available.	If the argument	"category" was
	      provided,	curl will display all categories and their meanings.

	      Example:
	       curl --help all

       --hostpubmd5 <md5>
	      (SFTP SCP) Pass a	string containing 32 hexadecimal  digits.  The
	      string  should  be the 128 bit MD5 checksum of the remote	host's
	      public key, curl will refuse the connection with the host	unless
	      the md5sums match.

	      Example:
	       curl --hostpubmd5 e5c1c49020640a5ab0f2034854c321a8 sftp://example.com/

	      Added in 7.17.1.

       --hsts <file name>
	      (HTTPS)  This  option enables HSTS for the transfer. If the file
	      name points to an	existing HSTS cache file, that will  be	 used.
	      After  a completed transfer, the cache will be saved to the file
	      name again if it has been	modified.

	      Specify a	"" file	name (zero length) to avoid loading/saving and
	      make curl	just handle HSTS in memory.

	      If  this	option	is used	several	times, curl will load contents
	      from all the files but the last one will be used for saving.

	      Example:
	       curl --hsts cache.txt https://example.com

	      Added in 7.74.0.

       --http0.9
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to be fine with	HTTP version 0.9 response.

	      HTTP/0.9 is a completely headerless response and	therefore  you
	      can  also	 connect with this to non-HTTP servers and still get a
	      response since curl will simply transparently downgrade -	if al-
	      lowed.

	      Since curl 7.66.0, HTTP/0.9 is disabled by default.

	      Example:
	       curl --http0.9 https://example.com

       -0, --http1.0
	      (HTTP)  Tells  curl to use HTTP version 1.0 instead of using its
	      internally preferred HTTP	version.

	      Example:
	       curl --http1.0 https://example.com

	      This option overrides --http1.1 and --http2.

       --http1.1
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to use HTTP version 1.1.

	      Example:
	       curl --http1.1 https://example.com

	      This option  overrides  -0,  --http1.0  and  --http2.  Added  in
	      7.33.0.

       --http2-prior-knowledge
	      (HTTP)  Tells  curl  to  issue  its  non-TLS HTTP	requests using
	      HTTP/2 without HTTP/1.1 Upgrade.	It  requires  prior  knowledge
	      that  the	 server	 supports HTTP/2 straight away.	HTTPS requests
	      will still do HTTP/2 the standard	way with  negotiated  protocol
	      version in the TLS handshake.

	      Example:
	       curl --http2-prior-knowledge https://example.com

	      --http2-prior-knowledge requires that the	underlying libcurl was
	      built to support HTTP/2. This option overrides --http1.1 and -0,
	      --http1.0	and --http2. Added in 7.49.0.

       --http2
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to use HTTP version 2.

	      For  HTTPS,  this	means curl will	attempt	to negotiate HTTP/2 in
	      the TLS handshake. curl does this	by default.

	      For HTTP,	this means curl	will attempt to	upgrade	the request to
	      HTTP/2 using the Upgrade:	request	header.

	      Example:
	       curl --http2 https://example.com

	      See also --http1.1 and --http3. --http2 requires that the	under-
	      lying libcurl was	built to support HTTP/2. This option overrides
	      --http1.1	 and  -0, --http1.0 and	--http2-prior-knowledge. Added
	      in 7.33.0.

       --http3
	      (HTTP) WARNING: this option is experimental. Do not use in  pro-
	      duction.

	      Tells  curl  to use HTTP version 3 directly to the host and port
	      number used in the URL. A	normal HTTP/3 transaction will be done
	      to  a  host and then get redirected via Alt-Svc, but this	option
	      allows a user to circumvent that when you	know that  the	target
	      speaks HTTP/3 on the given host and port.

	      This  option  will make curl fail	if a QUIC connection cannot be
	      established, it cannot fall back to a lower HTTP version on  its
	      own.

	      Example:
	       curl --http3 https://example.com

	      See also --http1.1 and --http2. --http3 requires that the	under-
	      lying libcurl was	built to support HTTP/3. This option overrides
	      --http1.1	and -0,	--http1.0 and --http2 and --http2-prior-knowl-
	      edge. Added in 7.66.0.

       --ignore-content-length
	      (FTP HTTP) For HTTP, Ignore the Content-Length header.  This  is
	      particularly  useful  for	servers	running	Apache 1.x, which will
	      report incorrect Content-Length for files	larger	than  2	 giga-
	      bytes.

	      For  FTP (since 7.46.0), skip the	RETR command to	figure out the
	      size before downloading a	file.

	      This option doesn't work for HTTP	if libcurl was	built  to  use
	      hyper.

	      Example:
	       curl --ignore-content-length https://example.com

       -i, --include
	      Include  the  HTTP  response headers in the output. The HTTP re-
	      sponse headers can include things	 like  server  name,  cookies,
	      date of the document, HTTP version and more...

	      To view the request headers, consider the	-v, --verbose option.

	      Example:
	       curl -i https://example.com

	      See also -v, --verbose.

       -k, --insecure
	      (TLS) By default,	every SSL connection curl makes	is verified to
	      be secure. This option allows curl to proceed and	 operate  even
	      for server connections otherwise considered insecure.

	      The  server  connection  is verified by making sure the server's
	      certificate contains the right name  and	verifies  successfully
	      using the	cert store.

	      See this online resource for further details:
	       https://curl.se/docs/sslcerts.html

	      WARNING: this makes the transfer insecure.

	      Example:
	       curl --insecure https://example.com

	      See also --proxy-insecure	and --cacert.

       --interface <name>

	      Perform  an operation using a specified interface. You can enter
	      interface	name, IP address or host name. An example  could  look
	      like:

	       curl --interface	eth0:1 https://www.example.com/

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      On  Linux	 it can	be used	to specify a VRF, but the binary needs
	      to either	have CAP_NET_RAW or to be run as root.	More  informa-
	      tion   about  Linux  VRF:	 https://www.kernel.org/doc/Documenta-
	      tion/networking/vrf.txt

	      Example:
	       curl --interface	eth0 https://example.com

	      See also --dns-interface.

       -4, --ipv4
	      This option tells	curl to	resolve	names to IPv4 addresses	 only,
	      and not for example try IPv6.

	      Example:
	       curl --ipv4 https://example.com

	      See  also	 --http1.1  and	 --http2.  This	 option	 overrides -6,
	      --ipv6.

       -6, --ipv6
	      This option tells	curl to	resolve	names to IPv6 addresses	 only,
	      and not for example try IPv4.

	      Example:
	       curl --ipv6 https://example.com

	      See  also	 --http1.1  and	 --http2.  This	 option	 overrides -4,
	      --ipv4.

       -j, --junk-session-cookies
	      (HTTP) When curl is told to read cookies from a given file, this
	      option will make it discard all "session cookies". This will ba-
	      sically have the same effect as if a  new	 session  is  started.
	      Typical  browsers	 always	 discard  session cookies when they're
	      closed down.

	      Example:
	       curl --junk-session-cookies -b cookies.txt https://example.com

	      See also -b, --cookie and	-c, --cookie-jar.

       --keepalive-time	<seconds>
	      This option sets the time	a connection needs to remain idle  be-
	      fore  sending  keepalive	probes and the time between individual
	      keepalive	probes.	It is currently	effective on operating systems
	      offering	the  TCP_KEEPIDLE  and	TCP_KEEPINTVL  socket  options
	      (meaning Linux, recent AIX, HP-UX	and more). This	option has  no
	      effect if	--no-keepalive is used.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.
	      If unspecified, the option defaults to 60	seconds.

	      Example:
	       curl --keepalive-time 20	https://example.com

	      Added in 7.18.0.

       --key-type <type>
	      (TLS) Private key	file type. Specify which type your --key  pro-
	      vided  private  key  is. DER, PEM, and ENG are supported.	If not
	      specified, PEM is	assumed.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --key-type DER --key here https://example.com

       --key <key>
	      (TLS SSH)	Private	key file name. Allows you to provide your pri-
	      vate  key	in this	separate file. For SSH,	if not specified, curl
	      tries  the  following  candidates	 in  order:   '~/.ssh/id_rsa',
	      '~/.ssh/id_dsa', './id_rsa', './id_dsa'.

	      If  curl is built	against	OpenSSL	library, and the engine	pkcs11
	      is available, then a PKCS#11 URI (RFC 7512) can be used to spec-
	      ify  a  private key located in a PKCS#11 device. A string	begin-
	      ning with	"pkcs11:" will be interpreted as a PKCS#11 URI.	 If  a
	      PKCS#11 URI is provided, then the	--engine option	will be	set as
	      "pkcs11" if none was provided and	the --key-type option will  be
	      set as "ENG" if none was provided.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --cert certificate --key here https://example.com

       --krb <level>
	      (FTP)  Enable Kerberos authentication and	use. The level must be
	      entered and should be one	of 'clear', 'safe', 'confidential', or
	      'private'.  Should  you  use  a  level that is not one of	these,
	      'private'	will instead be	used.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --krb clear	ftp://example.com/

	      --krb requires that the underlying libcurl was built to  support
	      Kerberos.

       --libcurl <file>
	      Append  this  option  to any ordinary curl command line, and you
	      will get libcurl-using C source code written to  the  file  that
	      does the equivalent of what your command-line operation does!

	      This option is global and	does not need to be specified for each
	      use of -:, --next.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last given  file  name
	      will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --libcurl client.c https://example.com

	      Added in 7.16.1.

       --limit-rate <speed>
	      Specify  the  maximum  transfer  rate you	want curl to use - for
	      both downloads and uploads. This feature is useful if you	have a
	      limited pipe and you'd like your transfer	not to use your	entire
	      bandwidth. To make it slower than	it otherwise would be.

	      The given	speed is measured in bytes/second, unless a suffix  is
	      appended.	  Appending  'k' or 'K'	will count the number as kilo-
	      bytes, 'm' or 'M'	makes it megabytes, while 'g' or 'G' makes  it
	      gigabytes.  The suffixes (k, M, G, T, P) are 1024	based. For ex-
	      ample 1k is 1024.	Examples: 200K,	3m and 1G.

	      If you also use the -Y, --speed-limit option, that  option  will
	      take precedence and might	cripple	the rate-limiting slightly, to
	      help keeping the speed-limit logic working.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Examples:
	       curl --limit-rate 100K https://example.com
	       curl --limit-rate 1000 https://example.com
	       curl --limit-rate 10M https://example.com

       -l, --list-only
	      (FTP POP3) (FTP) When listing  an	 FTP  directory,  this	switch
	      forces  a	 name-only view. This is especially useful if the user
	      wants to machine-parse the contents of an	 FTP  directory	 since
	      the normal directory view	doesn't	use a standard look or format.
	      When used	like this, the option causes an	 NLST  command	to  be
	      sent to the server instead of LIST.

	      Note:  Some  FTP	servers	 list  only files in their response to
	      NLST; they do not	include	sub-directories	and symbolic links.

	      (POP3) When retrieving a specific	email from POP3,  this	switch
	      forces  a	 LIST command to be performed instead of RETR. This is
	      particularly useful if the user wants to see if a	specific  mes-
	      sage-id exists on	the server and what size it is.

	      Note:  When combined with	-X, --request, this option can be used
	      to send a	UIDL command instead, so the user may use the  email's
	      unique  identifier  rather  than	its message-id to make the re-
	      quest.

	      Example:
	       curl --list-only	ftp://example.com/dir/

	      Added in 4.0.

       --local-port <num/range>
	      Set a preferred single number or range (FROM-TO) of  local  port
	      numbers to use for the connection(s).  Note that port numbers by
	      nature are a scarce resource that	will be	busy at	times so  set-
	      ting  this range to something too	narrow might cause unnecessary
	      connection setup failures.

	      Example:
	       curl --local-port 1000-3000 https://example.com

	      Added in 7.15.2.

       --location-trusted
	      (HTTP) Like -L, --location, but will allow sending  the  name  +
	      password to all hosts that the site may redirect to. This	may or
	      may not introduce	a security breach if the site redirects	you to
	      a	 site  to which	you'll send your authentication	info (which is
	      plaintext	in the case of HTTP Basic authentication).

	      Example:
	       curl --location-trusted -u user:password	https://example.com

	      See also -u, --user.

       -L, --location
	      (HTTP) If	the server reports that	the requested page  has	 moved
	      to a different location (indicated with a	Location: header and a
	      3XX response code), this option will make	curl redo the  request
	      on  the  new  place.  If used together with -i, --include	or -I,
	      --head, headers from all requested pages will be shown. When au-
	      thentication  is	used,  curl  only sends	its credentials	to the
	      initial host. If a redirect takes	curl to	a different  host,  it
	      won't  be	 able to intercept the user+password. See also --loca-
	      tion-trusted on how to change this. You can limit	the amount  of
	      redirects	to follow by using the --max-redirs option.

	      When  curl  follows  a redirect and if the request is a POST, it
	      will send	the following request with a GET if the	HTTP  response
	      was  301,	 302,  or  303.	If the response	code was any other 3xx
	      code, curl will re-send the following request using the same un-
	      modified method.

	      You can tell curl	to not change POST requests to GET after a 30x
	      response by using	the dedicated  options	for  that:  --post301,
	      --post302	and --post303.

	      The  method  set	with  -X,  --request overrides the method curl
	      would otherwise select to	use.

	      Example:
	       curl -L https://example.com

       --login-options <options>
	      (IMAP POP3 SMTP) Specify the login options to use	during	server
	      authentication.

	      You  can	use login options to specify protocol specific options
	      that may be used during authentication. At  present  only	 IMAP,
	      POP3  and	SMTP support login options. For	more information about
	      login options please see RFC  2384,  RFC	5092  and  IETF	 draft
	      draft-earhart-url-smtp-00.txt

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --login-options 'AUTH=*' imap://example.com

	      Added in 7.34.0.

       --mail-auth <address>
	      (SMTP)  Specify  a  single address. This will be used to specify
	      the authentication address (identity)  of	 a  submitted  message
	      that is being relayed to another server.

	      Example:
	       curl --mail-auth	user@example.come -T mail smtp://example.com/

	      See also --mail-rcpt and --mail-from. Added in 7.25.0.

       --mail-from <address>
	      (SMTP)  Specify  a single	address	that the given mail should get
	      sent from.

	      Example:
	       curl --mail-from	user@example.com -T mail smtp://example.com/

	      See also --mail-rcpt and --mail-auth. Added in 7.20.0.

       --mail-rcpt-allowfails
	      (SMTP) When sending data to multiple recipients, by default curl
	      will  abort  SMTP	conversation if	at least one of	the recipients
	      causes RCPT TO command to	return an error.

	      The default behavior can be changed by  passing  --mail-rcpt-al-
	      lowfails	command-line option which will make curl ignore	errors
	      and proceed with the remaining valid recipients.

	      If all recipients	trigger	RCPT TO	 failures  and	this  flag  is
	      specified,  curl	will still abort the SMTP conversation and re-
	      turn the error received from to the last RCPT TO command.

	      Example:
	       curl --mail-rcpt-allowfails --mail-rcpt dest@example.com	smtp://example.com

	      Added in 7.69.0.

       --mail-rcpt <address>
	      (SMTP) Specify a single e-mail address,  user  name  or  mailing
	      list  name. Repeat this option several times to send to multiple
	      recipients.

	      When performing an address verification (VRFY command), the  re-
	      cipient  should  be  specified as	the user name or user name and
	      domain (as per Section 3.5 of RFC5321). (Added in	7.34.0)

	      When performing a	mailing	list expand (EXPN command), the	recip-
	      ient  should  be	specified using	the mailing list name, such as
	      "Friends"	or "London-Office".  (Added in 7.34.0)

	      Example:
	       curl --mail-rcpt	user@example.net smtp://example.com

	      Added in 7.20.0.

       -M, --manual
	      Manual. Display the huge help text.

	      Example:
	       curl --manual

       --max-filesize <bytes>
	      (FTP HTTP	MQTT) Specify the maximum size (in bytes) of a file to
	      download.	 If  the file requested	is larger than this value, the
	      transfer will not	start and curl will return with	exit code 63.

	      A	size modifier may be used. For example,	Appending 'k'  or  'K'
	      will  count  the	number	as  kilobytes,	'm'  or	 'M'  makes it
	      megabytes, while 'g' or 'G' makes	it gigabytes. Examples:	 200K,
	      3m and 1G. (Added	in 7.58.0)

	      NOTE:  The  file size is not always known	prior to download, and
	      for such files this option has no	effect even if the file	trans-
	      fer ends up being	larger than this given limit.  Example:
	       curl --max-filesize 100K	https://example.com

	      See also --limit-rate.

       --max-redirs <num>
	      (HTTP)  Set  maximum  number of redirections to follow. When -L,
	      --location is used, to prevent  curl  from  following  too  many
	      redirects,  by  default,	the  limit is set to 50	redirects. Set
	      this option to -1	to make	it unlimited.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --max-redirs 3 --location https://example.com

       -m, --max-time <fractional seconds>
	      Maximum time in seconds that you allow the  whole	 operation  to
	      take.   This is useful for preventing your batch jobs from hang-
	      ing for hours due	to slow	networks or links going	 down.	 Since
	      7.32.0, this option accepts decimal values, but the actual time-
	      out will decrease	in accuracy as the specified timeout increases
	      in decimal precision.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Examples:
	       curl --max-time 10 https://example.com
	       curl --max-time 2.92 https://example.com

	      See also --connect-timeout.

       --metalink
	      This  option was previously used to specify a metalink resource.
	      Metalink support has been	disabled in curl since 7.78.0 for  se-
	      curity reasons.

	      Example:
	       curl --metalink file https://example.com

	      Added in 7.27.0.

       --negotiate
	      (HTTP) Enables Negotiate (SPNEGO)	authentication.

	      This  option  requires a library built with GSS-API or SSPI sup-
	      port. Use	-V, --version  to  see	if  your  curl	supports  GSS-
	      API/SSPI or SPNEGO.

	      When  using this option, you must	also provide a fake -u,	--user
	      option to	activate the authentication code properly.  Sending  a
	      '-u  :'  is  enough  as  the user	name and password from the -u,
	      --user option aren't actually used.

	      If this option is	used several times,  only  the	first  one  is
	      used.

	      Example:
	       curl --negotiate	-u : https://example.com

	      See also --basic,	--ntlm,	--anyauth and --proxy-negotiate.

       --netrc-file <filename>
	      This  option  is similar to -n, --netrc, except that you provide
	      the path (absolute or relative) to  the  netrc  file  that  curl
	      should use.  You can only	specify	one netrc file per invocation.
	      If several --netrc-file options are provided, the	last one  will
	      be used.

	      It will abide by --netrc-optional	if specified.

	      Example:
	       curl --netrc-file netrc https://example.com

	      This option overrides -n,	--netrc. Added in 7.21.5.

       --netrc-optional
	      Very  similar  to	 -n, --netrc, but this option makes the	.netrc
	      usage optional and not mandatory as the -n, --netrc option does.

	      Example:
	       curl --netrc-optional https://example.com

	      See also --netrc-file. This option overrides -n, --netrc.

       -n, --netrc
	      Makes curl scan the .netrc  (_netrc  on  Windows)	 file  in  the
	      user's home directory for	login name and password. This is typi-
	      cally used for FTP on Unix. If used with HTTP, curl will	enable
	      user  authentication. See	netrc(5) and ftp(1) for	details	on the
	      file format. Curl	will not complain if that  file	 doesn't  have
	      the  right  permissions  (it should be neither world- nor	group-
	      readable). The environment variable "HOME" is used to  find  the
	      home directory.

	      A	 quick and very	simple example of how to setup a .netrc	to al-
	      low curl to FTP to the machine host.domain.com  with  user  name
	      'myself' and password 'secret' should look similar to:

	      machine host.domain.com login myself password secret

	      Example:
	       curl --netrc https://example.com

       -:, --next
	      Tells curl to use	a separate operation for the following URL and
	      associated options. This allows you  to  send  several  URL  re-
	      quests,  each with their own specific options, for example, such
	      as different user	names or custom	requests for each.

	      -:, --next will reset all	local options  and  only  global  ones
	      will  have  their	values survive over to the operation following
	      the -:, --next instruction. Global options  include  -v,	--ver-
	      bose, --trace, --trace-ascii and --fail-early.

	      For  example,  you can do	both a GET and a POST in a single com-
	      mand line:

	       curl www1.example.com --next -d postthis	www2.example.com

	      Examples:
	       curl https://example.com	--next -d postthis www2.example.com
	       curl -I https://example.com --next https://example.net/

	      Added in 7.36.0.

       --no-alpn
	      (HTTPS) Disable the ALPN TLS extension. ALPN is enabled  by  de-
	      fault  if	 libcurl  was  built with an SSL library that supports
	      ALPN. ALPN is used by a libcurl that supports HTTP/2 to  negoti-
	      ate HTTP/2 support with the server during	https sessions.

	      Example:
	       curl --no-alpn https://example.com

	      See  also	 --no-npn and --http2. --no-alpn requires that the un-
	      derlying libcurl was built to support TLS. Added in 7.36.0.

       -N, --no-buffer
	      Disables the buffering of	the output stream. In normal work sit-
	      uations,	curl  will  use	a standard buffered output stream that
	      will have	the effect that	it will	output the data	in chunks, not
	      necessarily  exactly  when  the data arrives.  Using this	option
	      will disable that	buffering.

	      Note that	this is	the negated option name	 documented.  You  can
	      thus use --buffer	to enforce the buffering.

	      Example:
	       curl --no-buffer	https://example.com

       --no-keepalive
	      Disables	the  use  of keepalive messages	on the TCP connection.
	      curl otherwise enables them by default.

	      Note that	this is	the negated option name	 documented.  You  can
	      thus use --keepalive to enforce keepalive.

	      Example:
	       curl --no-keepalive https://example.com

       --no-npn
	      (HTTPS) Disable the NPN TLS extension. NPN is enabled by default
	      if libcurl was built with	an SSL library that supports NPN.  NPN
	      is  used	by  a libcurl that supports HTTP/2 to negotiate	HTTP/2
	      support with the server during https sessions.

	      Example:
	       curl --no-npn https://example.com

	      See also --no-alpn and --http2. --no-npn requires	that  the  un-
	      derlying libcurl was built to support TLS. Added in 7.36.0.

       --no-progress-meter
	      Option to	switch off the progress	meter output without muting or
	      otherwise	affecting warning and informational messages like  -s,
	      --silent does.

	      Note  that  this	is the negated option name documented. You can
	      thus use --progress-meter	to enable the progress meter again.

	      Example:
	       curl --no-progress-meter	-o store https://example.com

	      See also -v, --verbose and -s, --silent. Added in	7.67.0.

       --no-sessionid
	      (TLS) Disable curl's use of SSL session-ID caching.  By  default
	      all  transfers are done using the	cache. Note that while nothing
	      should ever get hurt by attempting  to  reuse  SSL  session-IDs,
	      there seem to be broken SSL implementations in the wild that may
	      require you to disable this in order for you to succeed.

	      Note that	this is	the negated option name	 documented.  You  can
	      thus use --sessionid to enforce session-ID caching.

	      Example:
	       curl --no-sessionid https://example.com

	      Added in 7.16.0.

       --noproxy <no-proxy-list>
	      Comma-separated  list  of	hosts for which	not to use a proxy, if
	      one is specified.	The only wildcard is  a	 single	 *  character,
	      which  matches  all  hosts,  and effectively disables the	proxy.
	      Each name	in this	list is	matched	as either a domain which  con-
	      tains  the  hostname,  or	 the hostname itself. For example, lo-
	      cal.com would match local.com, local.com:80, and	www.local.com,
	      but not www.notlocal.com.

	      Since  7.53.0,  This  option overrides the environment variables
	      that disable the proxy ('no_proxy' and 'NO_PROXY').  If  there's
	      an  environment  variable	disabling a proxy, you can set the no-
	      proxy list to "" to override it.

	      Example:
	       curl --noproxy "www.example" https://example.com

	      Added in 7.19.4.

       --ntlm-wb
	      (HTTP) Enables NTLM much in the style --ntlm does, but hand over
	      the  authentication  to the separate binary ntlmauth application
	      that is executed when needed.

	      Example:
	       curl --ntlm-wb -u user:password https://example.com

	      See also --ntlm and --proxy-ntlm.

       --ntlm (HTTP) Enables  NTLM  authentication.  The  NTLM	authentication
	      method was designed by Microsoft and is used by IIS web servers.
	      It is a proprietary protocol, reverse-engineered by clever  peo-
	      ple and implemented in curl based	on their efforts. This kind of
	      behavior should not be endorsed, you should  encourage  everyone
	      who  uses	 NTLM to switch	to a public and	documented authentica-
	      tion method instead, such	as Digest.

	      If you want to enable NTLM for your proxy	 authentication,  then
	      use --proxy-ntlm.

	      If  this	option	is  used  several times, only the first	one is
	      used.

	      Example:
	       curl --ntlm -u user:password https://example.com

	      See also	--proxy-ntlm.  --ntlm  requires	 that  the  underlying
	      libcurl  was built to support TLS. This option overrides --basic
	      and --negotiate and --digest and --anyauth.

       --oauth2-bearer <token>
	      (IMAP POP3 SMTP HTTP) Specify the	Bearer	Token  for  OAUTH  2.0
	      server  authentication.  The Bearer Token	is used	in conjunction
	      with the user name which can be specified	as part	of  the	 --url
	      or -u, --user options.

	      The  Bearer  Token  and user name	are formatted according	to RFC
	      6750.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --oauth2-bearer "mF_9.B5f-4.1JqM" https://example.com

       --output-dir <dir>

	      This option specifies the	directory in  which  files  should  be
	      stored, when -O, --remote-name or	-o, --output are used.

	      The  given  output directory is used for all URLs	and output op-
	      tions on the command line, up until the first -:,	--next.

	      If the specified target directory	doesn't	exist,	the  operation
	      will fail	unless --create-dirs is	also used.

	      If this option is	used multiple times, the last specified	direc-
	      tory will	be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --output-dir "tmp" -O https://example.com

	      See also -O, --remote-name and -J,  --remote-header-name.	 Added
	      in 7.73.0.

       -o, --output <file>
	      Write output to <file> instead of	stdout.	If you are using {} or
	      [] to fetch multiple documents, you should quote the URL and you
	      can  use	'#' followed by	a number in the	<file> specifier. That
	      variable will be replaced	with the current string	 for  the  URL
	      being fetched. Like in:

	       curl "http://{one,two}.example.com" -o "file_#1.txt"

	      or use several variables like:

	       curl "http://{site,host}.host[1-5].com" -o "#1_#2"

	      You  may use this	option as many times as	the number of URLs you
	      have. For	example, if you	specify	two URLs on the	 same  command
	      line, you	can use	it like	this:

		curl -o	aa example.com -o bb example.net

	      and  the	order  of  the -o options and the URLs doesn't matter,
	      just that	the first -o is	for the	first URL and so  on,  so  the
	      above command line can also be written as

		curl example.com example.net -o	aa -o bb

	      See  also	 the --create-dirs option to create the	local directo-
	      ries dynamically.	Specifying the output as '-' (a	 single	 dash)
	      will force the output to be done to stdout.

	      To   suppress  response  bodies,	you  can  redirect  output  to
	      /dev/null:

		curl example.com -o /dev/null

	      Or for Windows use nul:

		curl example.com -o nul

	      Examples:
	       curl -o file https://example.com
	       curl "http://{one,two}.example.com" -o "file_#1.txt"
	       curl "http://{site,host}.host[1-5].com" -o "#1_#2"
	       curl -o file https://example.com	-o file2 https://example.net

	      See also -O, --remote-name, --remote-name-all and	-J,  --remote-
	      header-name.

       --parallel-immediate
	      When  doing  parallel  transfers,	this option will instruct curl
	      that it should rather prefer opening up more connections in par-
	      allel at once rather than	waiting	to see if new transfers	can be
	      added as multiplexed streams on another connection.

	      This option is global and	does not need to be specified for each
	      use of -:, --next.

	      Example:
	       curl --parallel-immediate -Z https://example.com	-o file1 https://example.com -o	file2

	      See also -Z, --parallel and --parallel-max. Added	in 7.68.0.

       --parallel-max <num>
	      When  asked to do	parallel transfers, using -Z, --parallel, this
	      option controls the maximum amount of transfers to do simultane-
	      ously.

	      This option is global and	does not need to be specified for each
	      use of -:, --next.

	      The default is 50.

	      Example:
	       curl --parallel-max 100 -Z https://example.com ftp://example.com/

	      See also -Z, --parallel. Added in	7.66.0.

       -Z, --parallel
	      Makes curl perform its transfers in parallel as compared to  the
	      regular serial manner.

	      This option is global and	does not need to be specified for each
	      use of -:, --next.

	      Example:
	       curl --parallel https://example.com -o file1 https://example.com	-o file2

	      Added in 7.66.0.

       --pass <phrase>
	      (SSH TLS)	Passphrase for the private key.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --pass secret --key	file https://example.com

       --path-as-is
	      Tell curl	to not handle sequences	of /../	or /./	in  the	 given
	      URL  path.  Normally curl	will squash or merge them according to
	      standards	but with this option set you tell it not to do that.

	      Example:
	       curl --path-as-is https://example.com/../../etc/passwd

	      Added in 7.42.0.

       --pinnedpubkey <hashes>
	      (TLS) Tells curl to  use	the  specified	public	key  file  (or
	      hashes)  to  verify the peer. This can be	a path to a file which
	      contains a single	public key in PEM or DER format, or any	number
	      of base64	encoded	sha256 hashes preceded by 'sha256//' and sepa-
	      rated by ';'

	      When negotiating a TLS or	SSL connection,	 the  server  sends  a
	      certificate  indicating  its identity. A public key is extracted
	      from this	certificate and	if it does not exactly match the  pub-
	      lic  key provided	to this	option,	curl will abort	the connection
	      before sending or	receiving any data.

	      PEM/DER support:

	      7.39.0: OpenSSL, GnuTLS and GSKit

	      7.43.0: NSS and wolfSSL

	      7.47.0: mbedtls

	      sha256 support:

	      7.44.0: OpenSSL, GnuTLS, NSS and wolfSSL

	      7.47.0: mbedtls

	      Other SSL	backends not supported.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Examples:
	       curl --pinnedpubkey keyfile https://example.com
	       curl --pinnedpubkey 'sha256//ce118b51897f4452dc'	https://example.com

       --post301
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to respect RFC 7231/6.4.2 and not convert POST
	      requests into GET	requests when following	a 301 redirection. The
	      non-RFC behavior is ubiquitous in	web browsers, so curl does the
	      conversion by default to maintain	consistency. However, a	server
	      may require a POST to remain a POST after	 such  a  redirection.
	      This option is meaningful	only when using	-L, --location.

	      Example:
	       curl --post301 --location -d "data" https://example.com

	      See  also	 --post302,  --post303	and  -L,  --location. Added in
	      7.17.1.

       --post302
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to respect RFC 7231/6.4.3 and not convert POST
	      requests into GET	requests when following	a 302 redirection. The
	      non-RFC behavior is ubiquitous in	web browsers, so curl does the
	      conversion by default to maintain	consistency. However, a	server
	      may require a POST to remain a POST after	 such  a  redirection.
	      This option is meaningful	only when using	-L, --location.

	      Example:
	       curl --post302 --location -d "data" https://example.com

	      See  also	 --post301,  --post303	and  -L,  --location. Added in
	      7.19.1.

       --post303
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to violate RFC 7231/6.4.4 and not convert POST
	      requests	into  GET  requests when following 303 redirections. A
	      server may require a POST	to remain a POST after a 303 redirect-
	      ion. This	option is meaningful only when using -L, --location.

	      Example:
	       curl --post303 --location -d "data" https://example.com

	      See  also	 --post302,  --post301	and  -L,  --location. Added in
	      7.26.0.

       --preproxy [protocol://]host[:port]
	      Use the specified	SOCKS proxy before connecting to  an  HTTP  or
	      HTTPS  -x,  --proxy.  In	such a case curl first connects	to the
	      SOCKS proxy and then connects (through SOCKS)  to	 the  HTTP  or
	      HTTPS proxy. Hence pre proxy.

	      The pre proxy string should be specified with a protocol:// pre-
	      fix to  specify  alternative  proxy  protocols.  Use  socks4://,
	      socks4a://,  socks5://  or  socks5h://  to  request the specific
	      SOCKS version to be used.	No protocol specified will  make  curl
	      default to SOCKS4.

	      If  the  port number is not specified in the proxy string, it is
	      assumed to be 1080.

	      User and password	that might be provided in the proxy string are
	      URL  decoded by curl. This allows	you to pass in special charac-
	      ters such	as @ by	using %40 or pass in a colon with %3a.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --preproxy socks5://proxy.example -x http://http.example https://example.com

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       -#, --progress-bar
	      Make curl	display	transfer progress as a simple progress bar in-
	      stead of the standard, more informational, meter.

	      This  progress  bar draws	a single line of '#' characters	across
	      the screen and shows a percentage	if the transfer	size is	known.
	      For  transfers  without  a  known	size, there will be space ship
	      (-=o=-) that moves back and forth	but only while data  is	 being
	      transferred, with	a set of flying	hash sign symbols on top.

	      This option is global and	does not need to be specified for each
	      use of -:, --next.

	      Example:
	       curl -# -O https://example.com

       --proto-default <protocol>
	      Tells curl to use	protocol for any URL missing a scheme name.

	      An unknown or unsupported	 protocol  causes  error  CURLE_UNSUP-
	      PORTED_PROTOCOL (1).

	      This option does not change the default proxy protocol (http).

	      Without this option set, curl guesses protocol based on the host
	      name, see	--url for details.

	      Example:
	       curl --proto-default https ftp.example.com

	      Added in 7.45.0.

       --proto-redir <protocols>
	      Tells curl to limit what protocols it may	use on redirect.  Pro-
	      tocols  denied by	--proto	are not	overridden by this option. See
	      --proto for how protocols	are represented.

	      Example, allow only HTTP and HTTPS on redirect:

	       curl --proto-redir -all,http,https http://example.com

	      By default curl will allow HTTP, HTTPS, FTP and FTPS on redirect
	      (7.65.2).	 Older versions	of curl	allowed	all protocols on redi-
	      rect except several disabled for security	reasons: Since	7.19.4
	      FILE  and	 SCP  are  disabled, and since 7.40.0 SMB and SMBS are
	      also disabled. Specifying	all or +all enables all	 protocols  on
	      redirect,	including those	disabled for security.

	      Example:
	       curl --proto-redir =http,https https://example.com

	      Added in 7.20.2.

       --proto <protocols>
	      Tells  curl  to  limit  what protocols it	may use	for transfers.
	      Protocols	are evaluated left to right, are comma separated,  and
	      are  each	 a protocol name or 'all', optionally prefixed by zero
	      or more modifiers. Available modifiers are:

	      +	 Permit	this protocol in addition to protocols already permit-
		 ted (this is the default if no	modifier is used).

	      -	 Deny  this  protocol,	removing it from the list of protocols
		 already permitted.

	      =	 Permit	only this protocol (ignoring the list already  permit-
		 ted),	though subject to later	modification by	subsequent en-
		 tries in the comma separated list.

	      For example:

	      --proto -ftps  uses the default protocols, but disables ftps

	      --proto -all,https,+http
			     only enables http and https

	      --proto =http,https
			     also only enables http and	https

	      Unknown protocols	produce	a  warning.  This  allows  scripts  to
	      safely  rely on being able to disable potentially	dangerous pro-
	      tocols, without relying upon support  for	 that  protocol	 being
	      built into curl to avoid an error.

	      This option can be used multiple times, in which case the	effect
	      is the same as concatenating the protocols into one instance  of
	      the option.

	      Example:
	       curl --proto =http,https,sftp https://example.com

	      See also --proto-redir and --proto-default. Added	in 7.20.2.

       --proxy-anyauth
	      Tells  curl to pick a suitable authentication method when	commu-
	      nicating with the	given HTTP proxy. This might  cause  an	 extra
	      request/response round-trip.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-anyauth --proxy-user user:passwd -x	proxy https://example.com

	      See also -x, --proxy, --proxy-basic and --proxy-digest. Added in
	      7.13.2.

       --proxy-basic
	      Tells curl to use	HTTP Basic authentication  when	 communicating
	      with the given proxy. Use	--basic	for enabling HTTP Basic	with a
	      remote host. Basic is the	 default  authentication  method  curl
	      uses with	proxies.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-basic --proxy-user user:passwd -x proxy https://example.com

	      See also -x, --proxy, --proxy-anyauth and	--proxy-digest.

       --proxy-cacert <file>
	      Same as --cacert but used	in HTTPS proxy context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-cacert CA-file.txt -x https://proxy	https://example.com

	      See  also	 --proxy-capath,  --cacert,  --capath and -x, --proxy.
	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-capath <dir>
	      Same as --capath but used	in HTTPS proxy context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-capath /local/directory -x https://proxy https://example.com

	      See also --proxy-cacert, -x,  --proxy  and  --capath.  Added  in
	      7.52.0.

       --proxy-cert-type <type>
	      Same as --cert-type but used in HTTPS proxy context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-cert-type PEM --proxy-cert file -x https://proxy https://example.com

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-cert <cert[:passwd]>
	      Same as -E, --cert but used in HTTPS proxy context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-cert file -x https://proxy https://example.com

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-ciphers <list>
	      Same as --ciphers	but used in HTTPS proxy	context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-ciphers ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-CCM8 -x https://proxy https://example.com

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-crlfile <file>
	      Same as --crlfile	but used in HTTPS proxy	context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-crlfile rejects.txt	-x https://proxy https://example.com

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-digest
	      Tells  curl to use HTTP Digest authentication when communicating
	      with the given proxy. Use	--digest for enabling HTTP Digest with
	      a	remote host.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-digest --proxy-user	user:passwd -x proxy https://example.com

	      See also -x, --proxy, --proxy-anyauth and	--proxy-basic.

       --proxy-header <header/@file>
	      (HTTP)  Extra header to include in the request when sending HTTP
	      to a proxy. You may specify any number of	extra headers. This is
	      the  equivalent option to	-H, --header but is for	proxy communi-
	      cation only like in CONNECT requests when	you  want  a  separate
	      header  sent  to	the proxy to what is sent to the actual	remote
	      host.

	      curl will	make sure that each header  you	 add/replace  is  sent
	      with the proper end-of-line marker, you should thus not add that
	      as a part	of the header content: do not add newlines or carriage
	      returns, they will only mess things up for you.

	      Headers  specified  with this option will	not be included	in re-
	      quests that curl knows will not be sent to a proxy.

	      Starting in 7.55.0, this option can take an argument  in	@file-
	      name  style, which then adds a header for	each line in the input
	      file. Using @- will make curl read the header file from stdin.

	      This option can be used  multiple	 times	to  add/replace/remove
	      multiple headers.

	      Examples:
	       curl --proxy-header "X-First-Name: Joe" -x http://proxy https://example.com
	       curl --proxy-header "User-Agent:	surprise" -x http://proxy https://example.com
	       curl --proxy-header "Host:" -x http://proxy https://example.com

	      Added in 7.37.0.

       --proxy-insecure
	      Same as -k, --insecure but used in HTTPS proxy context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-insecure -x	https://proxy https://example.com

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-key-type	<type>
	      Same as --key-type but used in HTTPS proxy context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-key-type DER --proxy-key here -x https://proxy https://example.com

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-key <key>
	      Same as --key but	used in	HTTPS proxy context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-key	here -x	https://proxy https://example.com

       --proxy-negotiate
	      Tells  curl  to  use HTTP	Negotiate (SPNEGO) authentication when
	      communicating with the given proxy. Use --negotiate for enabling
	      HTTP Negotiate (SPNEGO) with a remote host.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-negotiate --proxy-user user:passwd -x proxy	https://example.com

	      See also --proxy-anyauth and --proxy-basic. Added	in 7.17.1.

       --proxy-ntlm
	      Tells  curl  to  use HTTP	NTLM authentication when communicating
	      with the given proxy. Use	--ntlm for enabling NTLM with a	remote
	      host.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-ntlm --proxy-user user:passwd -x http://proxy https://example.com

	      See also --proxy-negotiate and --proxy-anyauth.

       --proxy-pass <phrase>
	      Same as --pass but used in HTTPS proxy context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-pass secret	--proxy-key here -x https://proxy https://example.com

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-pinnedpubkey <hashes>
	      (TLS)  Tells  curl  to  use  the	specified  public key file (or
	      hashes) to verify	the proxy. This	can be a path to a file	 which
	      contains a single	public key in PEM or DER format, or any	number
	      of base64	encoded	sha256 hashes preceded by 'sha256//' and sepa-
	      rated by ';'

	      When  negotiating	 a  TLS	 or SSL	connection, the	server sends a
	      certificate indicating its identity. A public key	 is  extracted
	      from  this certificate and if it does not	exactly	match the pub-
	      lic key provided to this option, curl will abort the  connection
	      before sending or	receiving any data.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Examples:
	       curl --proxy-pinnedpubkey keyfile https://example.com
	       curl --proxy-pinnedpubkey 'sha256//ce118b51897f4452dc' https://example.com

       --proxy-service-name <name>
	      This  option allows you to change	the service name for proxy ne-
	      gotiation.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-service-name "shrubbery" -x	proxy https://example.com

	      Added in 7.43.0.

       --proxy-ssl-allow-beast
	      Same as --ssl-allow-beast	but used in HTTPS proxy	context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-ssl-allow-beast -x https://proxy https://example.com

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-ssl-auto-client-cert
	      Same as --ssl-auto-client-cert but used in HTTPS proxy context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-ssl-auto-client-cert -x https://proxy https://example.com

	      Added in 7.77.0.

       --proxy-tls13-ciphers <ciphersuite list>
	      (TLS) Specifies which cipher suites to use in the	connection  to
	      your HTTPS proxy when it negotiates TLS 1.3. The list of ciphers
	      suites must specify valid	ciphers. Read up  on  TLS  1.3	cipher
	      suite details on this URL:

	       https://curl.se/docs/ssl-ciphers.html

	      This  option  is	currently  used	only when curl is built	to use
	      OpenSSL 1.1.1 or later. If you are using a different SSL backend
	      you  can try setting TLS 1.3 cipher suites by using the --proxy-
	      ciphers option.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-tls13-ciphers TLS_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 -x proxy https://example.com

       --proxy-tlsauthtype <type>
	      Same as --tlsauthtype but	used in	HTTPS proxy context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-tlsauthtype	SRP -x https://proxy https://example.com

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-tlspassword <string>
	      Same as --tlspassword but	used in	HTTPS proxy context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-tlspassword	passwd -x https://proxy	https://example.com

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-tlsuser <name>
	      Same as --tlsuser	but used in HTTPS proxy	context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-tlsuser smith -x https://proxy https://example.com

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-tlsv1
	      Same as -1, --tlsv1 but used in HTTPS proxy context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-tlsv1 -x https://proxy https://example.com

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       -U, --proxy-user	<user:password>
	      Specify the user name and	password to use	for proxy  authentica-
	      tion.

	      If  you use a Windows SSPI-enabled curl binary and do either Ne-
	      gotiate or NTLM authentication then you can tell curl to	select
	      the user name and	password from your environment by specifying a
	      single colon with	this option: "-U :".

	      On systems where it works, curl will hide	the given option argu-
	      ment  from  process listings. This is not	enough to protect cre-
	      dentials from possibly getting seen by other users on  the  same
	      system  as  they will still be visible for a brief moment	before
	      cleared. Such sensitive data should be retrieved from a file in-
	      stead or similar and never used in clear text in a command line.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-user name:pwd -x proxy https://example.com

       -x, --proxy [protocol://]host[:port]
	      Use the specified	proxy.

	      The  proxy string	can be specified with a	protocol:// prefix. No
	      protocol specified or http:// will be treated as HTTP proxy. Use
	      socks4://, socks4a://, socks5:// or socks5h:// to	request	a spe-
	      cific SOCKS version to be	used.  (The protocol support was added
	      in curl 7.21.7)

	      HTTPS  proxy  support  via https:// protocol prefix was added in
	      7.52.0 for OpenSSL, GnuTLS and NSS.

	      Unrecognized and unsupported  proxy  protocols  cause  an	 error
	      since  7.52.0.   Prior  versions may ignore the protocol and use
	      http:// instead.

	      If the port number is not	specified in the proxy string,	it  is
	      assumed to be 1080.

	      This  option  overrides  existing	environment variables that set
	      the proxy	to use.	If there's an environment variable  setting  a
	      proxy, you can set proxy to "" to	override it.

	      All operations that are performed	over an	HTTP proxy will	trans-
	      parently be converted to HTTP. It	means  that  certain  protocol
	      specific operations might	not be available. This is not the case
	      if you can tunnel	through	the proxy, as one with the -p, --prox-
	      ytunnel option.

	      User and password	that might be provided in the proxy string are
	      URL decoded by curl. This	allows you to pass in special  charac-
	      ters such	as @ by	using %40 or pass in a colon with %3a.

	      The  proxy host can be specified the exact same way as the proxy
	      environment variables, including the protocol  prefix  (http://)
	      and the embedded user + password.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy http://proxy.example https://example.com

       --proxy1.0 <host[:port]>
	      Use  the	specified  HTTP	 1.0  proxy. If	the port number	is not
	      specified, it is assumed at port 1080.

	      The only difference between this and the HTTP proxy  option  -x,
	      --proxy,	is that	attempts to use	CONNECT	through	the proxy will
	      specify an HTTP 1.0 protocol instead of the default HTTP 1.1.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy1.0 -x http://proxy https://example.com

       -p, --proxytunnel
	      When an HTTP proxy is used -x, --proxy, this  option  will  make
	      curl  tunnel through the proxy. The tunnel approach is made with
	      the HTTP proxy CONNECT request and requires that the  proxy  al-
	      lows direct connect to the remote	port number curl wants to tun-
	      nel through to.

	      To suppress proxy	CONNECT	response headers when curl is  set  to
	      output headers use --suppress-connect-headers.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxytunnel -x http://proxy https://example.com

	      See also -x, --proxy.

       --pubkey	<key>
	      (SFTP SCP) Public	key file name. Allows you to provide your pub-
	      lic key in this separate file.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      (As of 7.39.0, curl attempts to automatically extract the	public
	      key  from	the private key	file, so passing this option is	gener-
	      ally not required. Note that this	public key extraction requires
	      libcurl  to  be linked against a copy of libssh2 1.2.8 or	higher
	      that is itself linked against OpenSSL.)

	      Example:
	       curl --pubkey file.pub sftp://example.com/

       -Q, --quote <command>
	      (FTP SFTP) Send an arbitrary command to the remote FTP  or  SFTP
	      server.  Quote commands are sent BEFORE the transfer takes place
	      (just after the initial PWD command in an	FTP  transfer,	to  be
	      exact). To make commands take place after	a successful transfer,
	      prefix them with a dash '-'.  To make  commands  be  sent	 after
	      curl has changed the working directory, just before the transfer
	      command(s), prefix the command with a '+'	 (this	is  only  sup-
	      ported for FTP). You may specify any number of commands.

	      By  default  curl	 will stop at first failure. To	make curl con-
	      tinue even if the	command	fails, prefix the command with an  as-
	      terisk  (*). Otherwise, if the server returns failure for	one of
	      the commands, the	entire operation will be aborted.

	      You must send syntactically correct FTP commands as RFC 959  de-
	      fines  to	 FTP  servers,	or one of the commands listed below to
	      SFTP servers.

	      This option can be used multiple times.

	      SFTP is a	binary protocol. Unlike	for FTP, curl interprets  SFTP
	      quote  commands  itself before sending them to the server.  File
	      names may	be quoted shell-style to embed spaces or special char-
	      acters.	Following is the list of all supported SFTP quote com-
	      mands:

	      atime date file
		     The atime command sets the	last access time of  the  file
		     named  by	the file operand. The <date expression>	can be
		     all sorts of date strings,	see  the  curl_getdate(3)  man
		     page for date expression details. (Added in 7.73.0)

	      chgrp group file
		     The  chgrp	command	sets the group ID of the file named by
		     the file operand to the group ID specified	by  the	 group
		     operand. The group	operand	is a decimal integer group ID.

	      chmod mode file
		     The  chmod	 command  modifies  the	 file mode bits	of the
		     specified file. The mode operand is an octal integer mode
		     number.

	      chown user file
		     The chown command sets the	owner of the file named	by the
		     file operand to the user ID specified by the  user	 oper-
		     and. The user operand is a	decimal	integer	user ID.

	      ln source_file target_file
		     The ln and	symlink	commands create	a symbolic link	at the
		     target_file location pointing to  the  source_file	 loca-
		     tion.

	      mkdir directory_name
		     The  mkdir	command	creates	the directory named by the di-
		     rectory_name operand.

	      mtime date file
		     The mtime command sets the	last modification time of  the
		     file named	by the file operand. The <date expression> can
		     be	all sorts of date strings, see the curl_getdate(3) man
		     page for date expression details. (Added in 7.73.0)

	      pwd    The pwd command returns the absolute pathname of the cur-
		     rent working directory.

	      rename source target
		     The rename	command	renames	the file or directory named by
		     the  source  operand to the destination path named	by the
		     target operand.

	      rm file
		     The rm command removes the	file specified by the file op-
		     erand.

	      rmdir directory
		     The  rmdir	 command removes the directory entry specified
		     by	the directory operand, provided	it is empty.

	      symlink source_file target_file
		     See ln.

       Example:
	curl --quote "DELE file" ftp://example.com/foo

       --random-file <file>
	      Specify the path name to file containing what will be considered
	      as  random  data.	The data may be	used to	seed the random	engine
	      for SSL connections.  See	also the --egd-file option.

	      Example:
	       curl --random-file rubbish https://example.com

       -r, --range <range>
	      (HTTP FTP	SFTP FILE) Retrieve a byte range (i.e. a partial docu-
	      ment)  from  an  HTTP/1.1,  FTP  or SFTP server or a local FILE.
	      Ranges can be specified in a number of ways.

	      0-499	specifies the first 500	bytes

	      500-999	specifies the second 500 bytes

	      -500	specifies the last 500 bytes

	      9500-	specifies the bytes from offset	9500 and forward

	      0-0,-1	specifies the first and	last byte only(*)(HTTP)

	      100-199,500-599
			specifies two separate 100-byte	ranges(*) (HTTP)

	      (*) = NOTE that this will	cause the server to reply with a  mul-
	      tipart  response,	 which will be returned	as-is by curl! Parsing
	      or otherwise transforming	this response is the responsibility of
	      the caller.

	      Only  digit characters (0-9) are valid in	the 'start' and	'stop'
	      fields of	the 'start-stop' range syntax. If a non-digit  charac-
	      ter is given in the range, the server's response will be unspec-
	      ified, depending on the server's configuration.

	      You should also be aware that many HTTP/1.1 servers do not  have
	      this  feature  enabled, so that when you attempt to get a	range,
	      you'll instead get the whole document.

	      FTP and SFTP range downloads only	 support  the  simple  'start-
	      stop'  syntax  (optionally with one of the numbers omitted). FTP
	      use depends on the extended FTP command SIZE.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --range 22-44 https://example.com

       --raw  (HTTP) When used,	it disables all	internal HTTP decoding of con-
	      tent  or transfer	encodings and instead makes them passed	on un-
	      altered, raw.

	      Example:
	       curl --raw https://example.com

	      Added in 7.16.2.

       -e, --referer <URL>
	      (HTTP) Sends the "Referrer Page" information to the HTTP server.
	      This can also be set with	the -H,	--header flag of course.  When
	      used with	-L, --location you  can	 append	 ";auto"  to  the  -e,
	      --referer	 URL  to  make curl automatically set the previous URL
	      when it follows a	Location: header. The ";auto"  string  can  be
	      used alone, even if you don't set	an initial -e, --referer.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Examples:
	       curl --referer "https://fake.example" https://example.com
	       curl --referer "https://fake.example;auto" -L https://example.com
	       curl --referer ";auto" -L https://example.com

	      See also -A, --user-agent	and -H,	--header.

       -J, --remote-header-name
	      (HTTP) This option tells the -O, --remote-name option to use the
	      server-specified Content-Disposition  filename  instead  of  ex-
	      tracting a filename from the URL.

	      If  the  server  specifies a file	name and a file	with that name
	      already exists in	the current working directory it will  not  be
	      overwritten and an error will occur. If the server doesn't spec-
	      ify a file name then this	option has no effect.

	      There's no attempt to decode %-sequences (yet) in	 the  provided
	      file name, so this option	may provide you	with rather unexpected
	      file names.

	      WARNING: Exercise	judicious use of this  option,	especially  on
	      Windows.	A  rogue  server  could	 send you the name of a	DLL or
	      other file that could possibly be	loaded automatically  by  Win-
	      dows or some third party software.

	      Example:
	       curl -OJ	https://example.com/file

       --remote-name-all
	      This  option changes the default action for all given URLs to be
	      dealt with as if -O, --remote-name were used for each one. So if
	      you want to disable that for a specific URL after	--remote-name-
	      all has been used, you must use "-o -" or	--no-remote-name.

	      Example:
	       curl --remote-name-all ftp://example.com/file1 ftp://example.com/file2

	      Added in 7.19.0.

       -O, --remote-name
	      Write output to a	local file named like the remote file we  get.
	      (Only  the file part of the remote file is used, the path	is cut
	      off.)

	      The file will be saved in	the current working directory. If  you
	      want  the	 file  saved  in  a different directory, make sure you
	      change the current working directory before invoking  curl  with
	      this option.

	      The  remote  file	 name  to use for saving is extracted from the
	      given URL, nothing else, and if it already  exists  it  will  be
	      overwritten.  If	you  want  the server to be able to choose the
	      file name	refer to -J, --remote-header-name which	can be used in
	      addition	to  this option. If the	server chooses a file name and
	      that name	already	exists it will not be overwritten.

	      There is no URL decoding done on the file	name. If it has	%20 or
	      other  URL  encoded parts	of the name, they will end up as-is as
	      file name.

	      You may use this option as many times as the number of URLs  you
	      have.

	      Example:
	       curl -O https://example.com/filename

       -R, --remote-time
	      When  used,  this	will make curl attempt to figure out the time-
	      stamp of the remote file,	and if that is available make the  lo-
	      cal file get that	same timestamp.

	      Example:
	       curl --remote-time -o foo https://example.com

       --request-target	<path>
	      (HTTP)  Tells curl to use	an alternative "target"	(path) instead
	      of using the path	as provided in the  URL.  Particularly	useful
	      when  wanting  to	 issue	HTTP requests without leading slash or
	      other data that doesn't follow the  regular  URL	pattern,  like
	      "OPTIONS *".

	      Example:
	       curl --request-target "*" -X OPTIONS https://example.com

	      Added in 7.55.0.

       -X, --request <command>
	      (HTTP) Specifies a custom	request	method to use when communicat-
	      ing with the HTTP	server.	 The specified request method will  be
	      used  instead  of	 the  method otherwise used (which defaults to
	      GET). Read the HTTP 1.1 specification for	details	 and  explana-
	      tions.  Common  additional HTTP requests include PUT and DELETE,
	      but related technologies like WebDAV offers PROPFIND, COPY, MOVE
	      and more.

	      Normally	you  don't  need  this option. All sorts of GET, HEAD,
	      POST and PUT requests are	rather invoked by using	dedicated com-
	      mand line	options.

	      This  option  only  changes the actual word used in the HTTP re-
	      quest, it	does not alter the way curl behaves. So	for example if
	      you  want	 to make a proper HEAD request,	using -X HEAD will not
	      suffice. You need	to use the -I, --head option.

	      The method string	you set	with -X, --request will	 be  used  for
	      all  requests,  which  if	you for	example	use -L,	--location may
	      cause unintended side-effects when curl doesn't  change  request
	      method according to the HTTP 30x response	codes -	and similar.

	      (FTP) Specifies a	custom FTP command to use instead of LIST when
	      doing file lists with FTP.

	      (POP3) Specifies a custom	POP3 command to	use instead of LIST or
	      RETR. (Added in 7.26.0)

	      (IMAP)  Specifies	 a custom IMAP command to use instead of LIST.
	      (Added in	7.30.0)

	      (SMTP) Specifies a custom	SMTP command to	use instead of HELP or
	      VRFY. (Added in 7.34.0)

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Examples:
	       curl -X "DELETE"	https://example.com
	       curl -X NLST ftp://example.com/

       --resolve <[+]host:port:addr[,addr]...>
	      Provide  a custom	address	for a specific host and	port pair. Us-
	      ing this,	you can	make the curl requests(s) use a	specified  ad-
	      dress  and prevent the otherwise normally	resolved address to be
	      used. Consider it	a sort of /etc/hosts alternative  provided  on
	      the  command line. The port number should	be the number used for
	      the specific protocol the	host will be used for.	It  means  you
	      need several entries if you want to provide address for the same
	      host but different ports.

	      By specifying '*'	as host	you can	tell curl to resolve any  host
	      and specific port	pair to	the specified address. Wildcard	is re-
	      solved last so any --resolve with	a specific host	and port  will
	      be used first.

	      The provided address set by this option will be used even	if -4,
	      --ipv4 or	-6, --ipv6 is set to make curl use another IP version.

	      By prefixing the host with a '+' you can make the	entry time out
	      after  curl's  default  timeout  (1 minute). Note	that this will
	      only make	sense for long running parallel	transfers with	a  lot
	      of files.	In such	cases, if this option is used curl will	try to
	      resolve the host as it normally would once the timeout  has  ex-
	      pired.

	      Support for providing the	IP address within [brackets] was added
	      in 7.57.0.

	      Support for providing multiple IP	addresses per entry was	 added
	      in 7.59.0.

	      Support for resolving with wildcard was added in 7.64.0.

	      Support for the '+' prefix was was added in 7.75.0.

	      This option can be used many times to add	many host names	to re-
	      solve.

	      Example:
	       curl --resolve example.com:443:127.0.0.1	https://example.com

	      Added in 7.21.3.

       --retry-all-errors
	      Retry on any error. This option is used together with --retry.

	      This option is the "sledgehammer"	of retrying. Do	not  use  this
	      option by	default	(eg in curlrc),	there may be unintended	conse-
	      quences such as sending or receiving duplicate data. Do not  use
	      with  redirected	input or output. You'd be much better off han-
	      dling your unique	problems in shell script. Please read the  ex-
	      ample below.

	      WARNING:	For server compatibility curl attempts to retry	failed
	      flaky transfers as close as possible to how they	were  started,
	      but  this	 is  not possible with redirected input	or output. For
	      example, before retrying it removes output data  from  a	failed
	      partial  transfer	 that  was  written to an output file. However
	      this is not true of data redirected to a | pipe or > file, which
	      are  not reset. We strongly suggest don't	parse or record	output
	      via redirect in combination with this option, since you may  re-
	      ceive duplicate data.

	      By default curl will not error on	an HTTP	response code that in-
	      dicates an HTTP error, if	the transfer was successful. For exam-
	      ple,  if	a  server replies 404 Not Found	and the	reply is fully
	      received then that is not	an error. When --retry	is  used  then
	      curl  will retry on some HTTP response codes that	indicate tran-
	      sient HTTP errors, but that does not include most	 4xx  response
	      codes  such  as  404. If you want	to retry on all	response codes
	      that indicate HTTP errors	(4xx and 5xx) then  combine  with  -f,
	      --fail.

	      Example:
	       curl --retry-all-errors https://example.com

	      Added in 7.71.0.

       --retry-connrefused
	      In  addition to the other	conditions, consider ECONNREFUSED as a
	      transient	error too for --retry. This option  is	used  together
	      with --retry.

	      Example:
	       curl --retry-connrefused	--retry	https://example.com

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --retry-delay <seconds>
	      Make  curl  sleep	 this  amount of time before each retry	when a
	      transfer has failed with a transient error (it changes  the  de-
	      fault  backoff  time  algorithm between retries).	This option is
	      only interesting if --retry is also used.	Setting	this delay  to
	      zero will	make curl use the default backoff time.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --retry-delay 5 --retry https://example.com

	      Added in 7.12.3.

       --retry-max-time	<seconds>
	      The  retry timer is reset	before the first transfer attempt. Re-
	      tries will be done as usual (see --retry)	as long	as  the	 timer
	      hasn't reached this given	limit. Notice that if the timer	hasn't
	      reached the limit, the request will be made and  while  perform-
	      ing,  it may take	longer than this given time period. To limit a
	      single request's maximum time, use -m, --max-time.  Set this op-
	      tion to zero to not timeout retries.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --retry-max-time 30	--retry	10 https://example.com

	      Added in 7.12.3.

       --retry <num>
	      If  a  transient	error is returned when curl tries to perform a
	      transfer,	it will	retry this number of times before  giving  up.
	      Setting  the  number to 0	makes curl do no retries (which	is the
	      default).	Transient error	means either: a	timeout,  an  FTP  4xx
	      response code or an HTTP 408, 429, 500, 502, 503 or 504 response
	      code.

	      When curl	is about to retry a transfer, it will first  wait  one
	      second  and  then	for all	forthcoming retries it will double the
	      waiting time until it reaches 10 minutes which then will be  the
	      delay  between  the rest of the retries.	By using --retry-delay
	      you  disable  this  exponential  backoff	algorithm.  See	  also
	      --retry-max-time to limit	the total time allowed for retries.

	      Since  curl  7.66.0,  curl will comply with the Retry-After: re-
	      sponse header if one was present to know when to issue the  next
	      retry.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --retry 7 https://example.com

	      Added in 7.12.3.

       --sasl-authzid <identity>
	      Use this authorisation identity (authzid), during	SASL PLAIN au-
	      thentication, in addition	to the authentication identity	(auth-
	      cid) as specified	by -u, --user.

	      If  the  option  isn't specified,	the server will	derive the au-
	      thzid from the authcid, but if specified,	and depending  on  the
	      server  implementation,  it may be used to access	another	user's
	      inbox, that the user has been granted access  to,	 or  a	shared
	      mailbox for example.

	      Example:
	       curl --sasl-authzid zid imap://example.com/

	      Added in 7.66.0.

       --sasl-ir
	      Enable initial response in SASL authentication.

	      Example:
	       curl --sasl-ir imap://example.com/

	      Added in 7.31.0.

       --service-name <name>
	      This option allows you to	change the service name	for SPNEGO.

	      Examples:	   --negotiate	  --service-name   sockd   would   use
	      sockd/server-name.

	      Example:
	       curl --service-name sockd/server	https://example.com

	      Added in 7.43.0.

       -S, --show-error
	      When used	with -s, --silent, it makes curl show an error message
	      if it fails.

	      This option is global and	does not need to be specified for each
	      use of -:, --next.

	      Example:
	       curl --show-error --silent https://example.com

	      See also --no-progress-meter.

       -s, --silent
	      Silent or	quiet mode. Don't show progress	meter  or  error  mes-
	      sages.   Makes  Curl mute. It will still output the data you ask
	      for, potentially even to the terminal/stdout unless you redirect
	      it.

	      Use  -S,	--show-error  in  addition  to	this option to disable
	      progress meter but still show error messages.

	      Example:
	       curl -s https://example.com

	      See also -v, --verbose, --stderr and --no-progress-meter.

       --socks4	<host[:port]>
	      Use the specified	SOCKS4 proxy. If the port number is not	speci-
	      fied,  it	 is  assumed at	port 1080. Using this socket type make
	      curl resolve the host name and passing the  address  on  to  the
	      proxy.

	      This  option  overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they
	      are mutually exclusive.

	      Since 7.21.7, this option	is superfluous since you can specify a
	      socks4 proxy with	-x, --proxy using a socks4:// protocol prefix.

	      Since 7.52.0, --preproxy can be used to specify a	SOCKS proxy at
	      the same time -x,	--proxy	is used	with an	HTTP/HTTPS  proxy.  In
	      such a case curl first connects to the SOCKS proxy and then con-
	      nects (through SOCKS) to the HTTP	or HTTPS proxy.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --socks4 hostname:4096 https://example.com

	      Added in 7.15.2.

       --socks4a <host[:port]>
	      Use the specified	SOCKS4a	proxy. If the port number is not spec-
	      ified,  it  is  assumed at port 1080. This asks the proxy	to re-
	      solve the	host name.

	      This option overrides any	previous use of	-x, --proxy,  as  they
	      are mutually exclusive.

	      Since 7.21.7, this option	is superfluous since you can specify a
	      socks4a proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks4a://	protocol  pre-
	      fix.

	      Since 7.52.0, --preproxy can be used to specify a	SOCKS proxy at
	      the same time -x,	--proxy	is used	with an	HTTP/HTTPS  proxy.  In
	      such a case curl first connects to the SOCKS proxy and then con-
	      nects (through SOCKS) to the HTTP	or HTTPS proxy.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --socks4a hostname:4096 https://example.com

	      Added in 7.18.0.

       --socks5-basic
	      Tells curl to use	username/password authentication when connect-
	      ing  to a	SOCKS5 proxy.  The username/password authentication is
	      enabled by default.  Use --socks5-gssapi to  force  GSS-API  au-
	      thentication to SOCKS5 proxies.

	      Example:
	       curl --socks5-basic --socks5 hostname:4096 https://example.com

	      Added in 7.55.0.

       --socks5-gssapi-nec
	      As  part of the GSS-API negotiation a protection mode is negoti-
	      ated. RFC	1961 says in section 4.3/4.4 it	should	be  protected,
	      but  the	NEC  reference	implementation	does  not.  The	option
	      --socks5-gssapi-nec allows the unprotected exchange of the  pro-
	      tection mode negotiation.

	      Example:
	       curl --socks5-gssapi-nec	--socks5 hostname:4096 https://example.com

	      Added in 7.19.4.

       --socks5-gssapi-service <name>
	      The default service name for a socks server is rcmd/server-fqdn.
	      This option allows you to	change it.

	      Examples:	 --socks5  proxy-name  --socks5-gssapi-service	 sockd
	      would  use sockd/proxy-name --socks5 proxy-name --socks5-gssapi-
	      service sockd/real-name  would  use  sockd/real-name  for	 cases
	      where the	proxy-name does	not match the principal	name.

	      Example:
	       curl --socks5-gssapi-service sockd --socks5 hostname:4096 https://example.com

	      Added in 7.19.4.

       --socks5-gssapi
	      Tells  curl  to  use GSS-API authentication when connecting to a
	      SOCKS5 proxy.  The GSS-API authentication	is enabled by  default
	      (if  curl	is compiled with GSS-API support).  Use	--socks5-basic
	      to force username/password authentication	to SOCKS5 proxies.

	      Example:
	       curl --socks5-gssapi --socks5 hostname:4096 https://example.com

	      Added in 7.55.0.

       --socks5-hostname <host[:port]>
	      Use the specified	SOCKS5 proxy (and let the  proxy  resolve  the
	      host  name).  If the port	number is not specified, it is assumed
	      at port 1080.

	      This option overrides any	previous use of	-x, --proxy,  as  they
	      are mutually exclusive.

	      Since 7.21.7, this option	is superfluous since you can specify a
	      socks5 hostname proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks5h://	proto-
	      col prefix.

	      Since 7.52.0, --preproxy can be used to specify a	SOCKS proxy at
	      the same time -x,	--proxy	is used	with an	HTTP/HTTPS  proxy.  In
	      such a case curl first connects to the SOCKS proxy and then con-
	      nects (through SOCKS) to the HTTP	or HTTPS proxy.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --socks5-hostname proxy.example:7000 https://example.com

	      Added in 7.18.0.

       --socks5	<host[:port]>
	      Use the specified	SOCKS5 proxy - but resolve the host  name  lo-
	      cally.  If  the  port  number is not specified, it is assumed at
	      port 1080.

	      This option overrides any	previous use of	-x, --proxy,  as  they
	      are mutually exclusive.

	      Since 7.21.7, this option	is superfluous since you can specify a
	      socks5 proxy with	-x, --proxy using a socks5:// protocol prefix.

	      Since 7.52.0, --preproxy can be used to specify a	SOCKS proxy at
	      the  same	 time -x, --proxy is used with an HTTP/HTTPS proxy. In
	      such a case curl first connects to the SOCKS proxy and then con-
	      nects (through SOCKS) to the HTTP	or HTTPS proxy.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      This  option (as well as --socks4) does not work with IPV6, FTPS
	      or LDAP.

	      Example:
	       curl --socks5 proxy.example:7000	https://example.com

	      Added in 7.18.0.

       -Y, --speed-limit <speed>
	      If a download is slower than this	given speed (in	bytes per sec-
	      ond)  for	 speed-time seconds it gets aborted. speed-time	is set
	      with -y, --speed-time and	is 30 if not set.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --speed-limit 300 --speed-time 10 https://example.com

       -y, --speed-time	<seconds>
	      If a download is slower than speed-limit bytes per second	during
	      a	speed-time period, the download	gets aborted. If speed-time is
	      used, the	default	speed-limit will be  1	unless	set  with  -Y,
	      --speed-limit.

	      This  option  controls  transfers	 and thus will not affect slow
	      connects etc. If this is a concern for you, try  the  --connect-
	      timeout option.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --speed-limit 300 --speed-time 10 https://example.com

       --ssl-allow-beast
	      This option tells	curl to	not work around	a security flaw	in the
	      SSL3 and TLS1.0 protocols	known as BEAST.	 If this option	 isn't
	      used,  the SSL layer may use workarounds known to	cause interop-
	      erability	problems with some older SSL implementations.

	      WARNING: this option loosens the SSL security, and by using this
	      flag you ask for exactly that.

	      Example:
	       curl --ssl-allow-beast https://example.com

	      Added in 7.25.0.

       --ssl-auto-client-cert
	      Tell  libcurl  to	automatically locate and use a client certifi-
	      cate for authentication, when requested by the server. This  op-
	      tion  is only supported for Schannel (the	native Windows SSL li-
	      brary). Prior to 7.77.0 this was the default behavior in libcurl
	      with Schannel. Since the server can request any certificate that
	      supports client authentication in	the OS	certificate  store  it
	      could be a privacy violation and unexpected.

	      Example:
	       curl --ssl-auto-client-cert https://example.com

	      See also --proxy-ssl-auto-client-cert. Added in 7.77.0.

       --ssl-no-revoke
	      (Schannel) This option tells curl	to disable certificate revoca-
	      tion checks.  WARNING: this option loosens the SSL security, and
	      by using this flag you ask for exactly that.

	      Example:
	       curl --ssl-no-revoke https://example.com

	      Added in 7.44.0.

       --ssl-reqd
	      (FTP IMAP	POP3 SMTP) Require SSL/TLS for the connection.	Termi-
	      nates the	connection if the server doesn't support SSL/TLS.

	      This option was formerly known as	--ftp-ssl-reqd.

	      Example:
	       curl --ssl-reqd ftp://example.com

	      Added in 7.20.0.

       --ssl-revoke-best-effort
	      (Schannel) This option tells curl	to ignore certificate  revoca-
	      tion checks when they failed due to missing/offline distribution
	      points for the revocation	check lists.

	      Example:
	       curl --ssl-revoke-best-effort https://example.com

	      Added in 7.70.0.

       --ssl  (FTP IMAP	POP3 SMTP) Try to use SSL/TLS for the connection.  Re-
	      verts  to	 a non-secure connection if the	server doesn't support
	      SSL/TLS.	See also --ftp-ssl-control and --ssl-reqd for  differ-
	      ent levels of encryption required.

	      This  option  was	formerly known as --ftp-ssl (Added in 7.11.0).
	      That option name can still be used but will be removed in	a  fu-
	      ture version.

	      Example:
	       curl --ssl pop3://example.com/

	      Added in 7.20.0.

       -2, --sslv2
	      (SSL) This option	previously asked curl to use SSLv2, but	start-
	      ing in curl 7.77.0 this instruction is ignored. SSLv2 is	widely
	      considered insecure (see RFC 6176).

	      Example:
	       curl --sslv2 https://example.com

	      See  also	 --http1.1  and	--http2. -2, --sslv2 requires that the
	      underlying libcurl was built to support TLS. This	 option	 over-
	      rides -3,	--sslv3	and -1,	--tlsv1	and --tlsv1.1 and --tlsv1.2.

       -3, --sslv3
	      (SSL) This option	previously asked curl to use SSLv3, but	start-
	      ing in curl 7.77.0 this instruction is ignored. SSLv3 is	widely
	      considered insecure (see RFC 7568).

	      Example:
	       curl --sslv3 https://example.com

	      See  also	 --http1.1  and	--http2. -3, --sslv3 requires that the
	      underlying libcurl was built to support TLS. This	 option	 over-
	      rides -2,	--sslv2	and -1,	--tlsv1	and --tlsv1.1 and --tlsv1.2.

       --stderr	<file>
	      Redirect	all writes to stderr to	the specified file instead. If
	      the file name is a plain '-', it is instead written to stdout.

	      This option is global and	does not need to be specified for each
	      use of -:, --next.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --stderr output.txt	https://example.com

	      See also -v, --verbose and -s, --silent.

       --styled-output
	      Enables  the automatic use of bold font styles when writing HTTP
	      headers to the terminal. Use --no-styled-output to  switch  them
	      off.

	      This option is global and	does not need to be specified for each
	      use of -:, --next.

	      Example:
	       curl --styled-output -I https://example.com

	      Added in 7.61.0.

       --suppress-connect-headers
	      When -p, --proxytunnel is	used and a  CONNECT  request  is  made
	      don't  output  proxy  CONNECT  response  headers.	This option is
	      meant to be used with -D,	--dump-header or -i,  --include	 which
	      are  used	 to show protocol headers in the output. It has	no ef-
	      fect on debug options such as -v,	--verbose or --trace,  or  any
	      statistics.

	      Example:
	       curl --suppress-connect-headers --include -x proxy https://example.com

	      See also -D, --dump-header, -i, --include	and -p,	--proxytunnel.

       --tcp-fastopen
	      Enable use of TCP	Fast Open (RFC7413).

	      Example:
	       curl --tcp-fastopen https://example.com

	      Added in 7.49.0.

       --tcp-nodelay
	      Turn  on the TCP_NODELAY option. See the curl_easy_setopt(3) man
	      page for details about this option.

	      Since 7.50.2, curl sets this option by default and you  need  to
	      explicitly switch	it off if you don't want it on.

	      Example:
	       curl --tcp-nodelay https://example.com

	      Added in 7.11.2.

       -t, --telnet-option <opt=val>
	      Pass options to the telnet protocol. Supported options are:

	      TTYPE=<term> Sets	the terminal type.

	      XDISPLOC=<X display> Sets	the X display location.

	      NEW_ENV=<var,val>	Sets an	environment variable.

	      Example:
	       curl -t TTYPE=vt100 telnet://example.com/

       --tftp-blksize <value>
	      (TFTP) Set TFTP BLKSIZE option (must be >512). This is the block
	      size that	curl will try to use when transferring data to or from
	      a	TFTP server. By	default	512 bytes will be used.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --tftp-blksize 1024	tftp://example.com/file

	      Added in 7.20.0.

       --tftp-no-options
	      (TFTP) Tells curl	not to send TFTP options requests.

	      This  option  improves  interop with some	legacy servers that do
	      not acknowledge or properly implement TFTP  options.  When  this
	      option is	used --tftp-blksize is ignored.

	      Example:
	       curl --tftp-no-options tftp://192.168.0.1/

	      Added in 7.48.0.

       -z, --time-cond <time>
	      (HTTP  FTP) Request a file that has been modified	later than the
	      given time and date, or one that has been	modified  before  that
	      time.  The <date expression> can be all sorts of date strings or
	      if it doesn't match any internal ones, it	is taken as a filename
	      and  tries  to get the modification date (mtime) from <file> in-
	      stead. See the curl_getdate(3) man pages for date	expression de-
	      tails.

	      Start the	date expression	with a dash (-)	to make	it request for
	      a	document that is older than the	given date/time, default is  a
	      document that is newer than the specified	date/time.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Examples:
	       curl -z "Wed 01 Sep 2021	12:18:00" https://example.com
	       curl -z "-Wed 01	Sep 2021 12:18:00" https://example.com
	       curl -z file https://example.com

       --tls-max <VERSION>
	      (SSL) VERSION defines maximum supported TLS version. The minimum
	      acceptable version  is  set  by  tlsv1.0,	 tlsv1.1,  tlsv1.2  or
	      tlsv1.3.

	      If  the  connection  is done without TLS,	this option has	no ef-
	      fect. This includes QUIC-using (HTTP/3) transfers.

	      default
		     Use up to recommended TLS version.

	      1.0    Use up to TLSv1.0.

	      1.1    Use up to TLSv1.1.

	      1.2    Use up to TLSv1.2.

	      1.3    Use up to TLSv1.3.

       Examples:
	curl --tls-max 1.2 https://example.com
	curl --tls-max 1.3 --tlsv1.2 https://example.com

       See also	--tlsv1.0, --tlsv1.1, --tlsv1.2	and --tlsv1.3.	--tls-max  re-
       quires  that  the underlying libcurl was	built to support TLS. Added in
       7.54.0.

       --tls13-ciphers <ciphersuite list>
	      (TLS) Specifies which cipher suites to use in the	connection  if
	      it  negotiates  TLS 1.3. The list	of ciphers suites must specify
	      valid ciphers. Read up on	TLS 1.3	cipher suite details  on  this
	      URL:

	       https://curl.se/docs/ssl-ciphers.html

	      This  option  is	currently  used	only when curl is built	to use
	      OpenSSL 1.1.1 or later. If you are using a different SSL backend
	      you can try setting TLS 1.3 cipher suites	by using the --ciphers
	      option.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --tls13-ciphers TLS_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 https://example.com

       --tlsauthtype <type>
	      Set TLS authentication type. Currently, the only	supported  op-
	      tion  is	"SRP",	for  TLS-SRP  (RFC  5054).  If	--tlsuser  and
	      --tlspassword are	specified but --tlsauthtype is not, then  this
	      option  defaults to "SRP".  This option works only if the	under-
	      lying libcurl is built  with  TLS-SRP  support,  which  requires
	      OpenSSL or GnuTLS	with TLS-SRP support.

	      Example:
	       curl --tlsauthtype SRP https://example.com

	      Added in 7.21.4.

       --tlspassword <string>
	      Set  password  for use with the TLS authentication method	speci-
	      fied with	--tlsauthtype. Requires	that --tlsuser also be set.

	      This doesn't work	with TLS 1.3.

	      Example:
	       curl --tlspassword pwd --tlsuser	user https://example.com

	      Added in 7.21.4.

       --tlsuser <name>
	      Set username for use with	the TLS	authentication	method	speci-
	      fied  with  --tlsauthtype.  Requires  that --tlspassword also is
	      set.

	      This doesn't work	with TLS 1.3.

	      Example:
	       curl --tlspassword pwd --tlsuser	user https://example.com

	      Added in 7.21.4.

       --tlsv1.0
	      (TLS) Forces curl	to use TLS version 1.0 or later	when  connect-
	      ing to a remote TLS server.

	      In  old  versions	 of  curl  this	option was documented to allow
	      _only_ TLS 1.0, but behavior was inconsistent depending  on  the
	      TLS library. Use --tls-max if you	want to	set a maximum TLS ver-
	      sion.

	      Example:
	       curl --tlsv1.0 https://example.com

	      Added in 7.34.0.

       --tlsv1.1
	      (TLS) Forces curl	to use TLS version 1.1 or later	when  connect-
	      ing to a remote TLS server.

	      In  old  versions	 of  curl  this	option was documented to allow
	      _only_ TLS 1.1, but behavior was inconsistent depending  on  the
	      TLS library. Use --tls-max if you	want to	set a maximum TLS ver-
	      sion.

	      Example:
	       curl --tlsv1.1 https://example.com

	      Added in 7.34.0.

       --tlsv1.2
	      (TLS) Forces curl	to use TLS version 1.2 or later	when  connect-
	      ing to a remote TLS server.

	      In  old  versions	 of  curl  this	option was documented to allow
	      _only_ TLS 1.2, but behavior was inconsistent depending  on  the
	      TLS library. Use --tls-max if you	want to	set a maximum TLS ver-
	      sion.

	      Example:
	       curl --tlsv1.2 https://example.com

	      Added in 7.34.0.

       --tlsv1.3
	      (TLS) Forces curl	to use TLS version 1.3 or later	when  connect-
	      ing to a remote TLS server.

	      If  the  connection  is done without TLS,	this option has	no ef-
	      fect. This includes QUIC-using (HTTP/3) transfers.

	      Note that	TLS 1.3	is not supported by all	TLS backends.

	      Example:
	       curl --tlsv1.3 https://example.com

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       -1, --tlsv1
	      (SSL) Tells curl to use at least TLS version 1.x when  negotiat-
	      ing  with	 a  remote  TLS	 server. That means TLS	version	1.0 or
	      higher

	      Example:
	       curl --tlsv1 https://example.com

	      See also --http1.1 and --http2. -1, --tlsv1  requires  that  the
	      underlying  libcurl  was built to	support	TLS. This option over-
	      rides --tlsv1.1 and --tlsv1.2 and	--tlsv1.3.

       --tr-encoding
	      (HTTP) Request a compressed Transfer-Encoding response using one
	      of  the  algorithms curl supports, and uncompress	the data while
	      receiving	it.

	      Example:
	       curl --tr-encoding https://example.com

	      Added in 7.21.6.

       --trace-ascii <file>
	      Enables a	full trace dump	of all incoming	and outgoing data, in-
	      cluding  descriptive  information, to the	given output file. Use
	      "-" as filename to have the output sent to stdout.

	      This is very similar to --trace, but leaves out the hex part and
	      only  shows  the ASCII part of the dump. It makes	smaller	output
	      that might be easier to read for untrained humans.

	      This option is global and	does not need to be specified for each
	      use of -:, --next.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --trace-ascii log.txt https://example.com

	      This option overrides --trace and	-v, --verbose.

       --trace-time
	      Prepends	a  time	 stamp to each trace or	verbose	line that curl
	      displays.

	      This option is global and	does not need to be specified for each
	      use of -:, --next.

	      Example:
	       curl --trace-time --trace-ascii output https://example.com

	      Added in 7.14.0.

       --trace <file>
	      Enables a	full trace dump	of all incoming	and outgoing data, in-
	      cluding descriptive information, to the given output  file.  Use
	      "-"  as  filename	 to have the output sent to stdout. Use	"%" as
	      filename to have the output sent to stderr.

	      This option is global and	does not need to be specified for each
	      use of -:, --next.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --trace log.txt https://example.com

	      This option overrides -v,	--verbose and --trace-ascii.

       --unix-socket <path>
	      (HTTP) Connect through this Unix domain socket, instead of using
	      the network.

	      Example:
	       curl --unix-socket socket-path https://example.com

	      Added in 7.40.0.

       -T, --upload-file <file>
	      This transfers the specified local file to the  remote  URL.  If
	      there is no file part in the specified URL, curl will append the
	      local file name. NOTE that you must use a	trailing / on the last
	      directory	 to really prove to Curl that there is no file name or
	      curl will	think that your	last directory name is the remote file
	      name to use. That	will most likely cause the upload operation to
	      fail. If this is used on an HTTP(S) server, the PUT command will
	      be used.

	      Use  the file name "-" (a	single dash) to	use stdin instead of a
	      given file.  Alternately,	the file name "."  (a  single  period)
	      may  be  specified  instead  of "-" to use stdin in non-blocking
	      mode to allow reading server output while	 stdin	is  being  up-
	      loaded.

	      You  can	specify	one -T,	--upload-file for each URL on the com-
	      mand line. Each -T, --upload-file	+ URL pair specifies  what  to
	      upload  and  to  where. curl also	supports "globbing" of the -T,
	      --upload-file argument, meaning that  you	 can  upload  multiple
	      files  to	a single URL by	using the same URL globbing style sup-
	      ported in	the URL.

	      When uploading to	an SMTP	server:	the uploaded data  is  assumed
	      to be RFC	5322 formatted.	It has to feature the necessary	set of
	      headers and mail body formatted correctly	by the	user  as  curl
	      will not transcode nor encode it further in any way.

	      Examples:
	       curl -T file https://example.com
	       curl -T "img[1-1000].png" ftp://ftp.example.com/
	       curl --upload-file "{file1,file2}" https://example.com

       --url <url>
	      Specify  a  URL  to  fetch. This option is mostly	handy when you
	      want to specify URL(s) in	a config file.

	      If the given URL is missing a scheme name	(such as "http://"  or
	      "ftp://"	etc) then curl will make a guess based on the host. If
	      the outermost sub-domain name matches  DICT,  FTP,  IMAP,	 LDAP,
	      POP3  or	SMTP  then  that protocol will be used,	otherwise HTTP
	      will be used. Since 7.45.0 guessing can be disabled by setting a
	      default protocol,	see --proto-default for	details.

	      This  option  may	 be used any number of times. To control where
	      this URL is written, use the -o, --output	or the	-O,  --remote-
	      name options.

	      WARNING:	On  Windows,  particular  file:// accesses can be con-
	      verted to	network	accesses by the	operating system. Beware!

	      Example:
	       curl --url https://example.com

       -B, --use-ascii
	      (FTP LDAP) Enable	ASCII transfer.	For FTP, this can also be  en-
	      forced  by  using	 a  URL	 that ends with	";type=A". This	option
	      causes data sent to stdout to be in text mode for	win32 systems.

	      Example:
	       curl -B ftp://example.com/README

       -A, --user-agent	<name>
	      (HTTP) Specify the User-Agent string to send to the HTTP server.
	      To  encode blanks	in the string, surround	the string with	single
	      quote marks. This	header can also	be set with the	 -H,  --header
	      or the --proxy-header options.

	      If  you give an empty argument to	-A, --user-agent (""), it will
	      remove the header	completely from	the request. If	you  prefer  a
	      blank header, you	can set	it to a	single space ("	").

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl -A "Agent 007" https://example.com

       -u, --user <user:password>
	      Specify the user name and	password to use	for server authentica-
	      tion. Overrides -n, --netrc and --netrc-optional.

	      If you simply specify the	user name,  curl  will	prompt	for  a
	      password.

	      The  user	 name  and  passwords are split	up on the first	colon,
	      which makes it impossible	to use a colon in the user  name  with
	      this option. The password	can, still.

	      On systems where it works, curl will hide	the given option argu-
	      ment from	process	listings. This is not enough to	 protect  cre-
	      dentials	from  possibly getting seen by other users on the same
	      system as	they will still	be visible for a brief	moment	before
	      cleared. Such sensitive data should be retrieved from a file in-
	      stead or similar and never used in clear text in a command line.

	      When using Kerberos V5 with a Windows based  server  you	should
	      include  the  Windows domain name	in the user name, in order for
	      the server to successfully obtain	 a  Kerberos  Ticket.  If  you
	      don't then the initial authentication handshake may fail.

	      When  using  NTLM,  the user name	can be specified simply	as the
	      user name, without the domain, if	there is a single  domain  and
	      forest in	your setup for example.

	      To  specify  the domain name use either Down-Level Logon Name or
	      UPN (User	Principal Name)	formats. For example, EXAMPLE\user and
	      user@example.com respectively.

	      If  you  use a Windows SSPI-enabled curl binary and perform Ker-
	      beros V5,	Negotiate, NTLM	or Digest authentication then you  can
	      tell  curl  to select the	user name and password from your envi-
	      ronment by specifying a single colon with	this option: "-u :".

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl -u user:secret https://example.com

       -v, --verbose
	      Makes curl verbose during	the operation.	Useful	for  debugging
	      and  seeing  what's  going  on "under the	hood". A line starting
	      with '>' means "header data" sent	by  curl,  '<'	means  "header
	      data"  received  by  curl	 that is hidden	in normal cases, and a
	      line starting with '*' means additional info provided by curl.

	      If you only want HTTP headers in the output, -i, --include might
	      be the option you're looking for.

	      If  you think this option	still doesn't give you enough details,
	      consider using --trace or	--trace-ascii instead.

	      This option is global and	does not need to be specified for each
	      use of -:, --next.

	      Use -s, --silent to make curl really quiet.

	      Example:
	       curl --verbose https://example.com

	      See  also	 -i,  --include.  This	option	overrides  --trace and
	      --trace-ascii.

       -V, --version
	      Displays information about curl and the libcurl version it uses.

	      The first	line includes the full version of  curl,  libcurl  and
	      other 3rd	party libraries	linked with the	executable.

	      The  second  line	(starts	with "Protocols:") shows all protocols
	      that libcurl reports to support.

	      The third	line (starts with "Features:") shows specific features
	      libcurl reports to offer.	Available features include:

	      alt-svc
		     Support for the Alt-Svc: header is	provided.

	      AsynchDNS
		     This  curl	 uses asynchronous name	resolves. Asynchronous
		     name resolves can be done using either the	c-ares or  the
		     threaded resolver backends.

	      brotli Support for automatic brotli compression over HTTP(S).

	      CharConv
		     curl was built with support for character set conversions
		     (like EBCDIC)

	      Debug  This curl uses a libcurl built with Debug.	 This  enables
		     more  error-tracking  and memory debugging	etc. For curl-
		     developers	only!

	      gsasl  The built-in SASL authentication includes	extensions  to
		     support SCRAM because libcurl was built with libgsasl.

	      GSS-API
		     GSS-API is	supported.

	      HSTS   HSTS support is present.

	      HTTP2  HTTP/2 support has	been built-in.

	      HTTP3  HTTP/3 support has	been built-in.

	      HTTPS-proxy
		     This curl is built	to support HTTPS proxy.

	      IDN    This curl supports	IDN - international domain names.

	      IPv6   You can use IPv6 with this.

	      Kerberos
		     Kerberos V5 authentication	is supported.

	      Largefile
		     This curl supports	transfers of large files, files	larger
		     than 2GB.

	      libz   Automatic decompression (via gzip,	deflate) of compressed
		     files over	HTTP is	supported.

	      MultiSSL
		     This curl supports	multiple TLS backends.

	      NTLM   NTLM authentication is supported.

	      NTLM_WB
		     NTLM delegation to	winbind	helper is supported.

	      PSL    PSL  is  short for	Public Suffix List and means that this
		     curl has been built with  knowledge  about	 "public  suf-
		     fixes".

	      SPNEGO SPNEGO authentication is supported.

	      SSL    SSL  versions of various protocols	are supported, such as
		     HTTPS, FTPS, POP3S	and so on.

	      SSPI   SSPI is supported.

	      TLS-SRP
		     SRP (Secure Remote	Password) authentication is  supported
		     for TLS.

	      TrackMemory
		     Debug memory tracking is supported.

	      Unicode
		     Unicode support on	Windows.

	      UnixSockets
		     Unix sockets support is provided.

	      zstd   Automatic	decompression  (via  zstd) of compressed files
		     over HTTP is supported.

       Example:
	curl --version

       -w, --write-out <format>
	      Make curl	display	information on stdout after a completed	trans-
	      fer.  The	 format	 is a string that may contain plain text mixed
	      with any number of variables. The	format can be specified	 as  a
	      literal  "string",  or  you can have curl	read the format	from a
	      file with	"@filename" and	to tell	curl to	read the  format  from
	      stdin you	write "@-".

	      The  variables  present in the output format will	be substituted
	      by the value or text that	curl thinks fit, as  described	below.
	      All  variables are specified as %{variable_name} and to output a
	      normal % you just	write them as %%. You can output a newline  by
	      using \n,	a carriage return with \r and a	tab space with \t.

	      The  output  will	be written to standard output, but this	can be
	      switched to standard error by using %{stderr}.

	      NOTE: The	%-symbol is a special symbol in	the win32-environment,
	      where  all  occurrences of % must	be doubled when	using this op-
	      tion.

	      The variables available are:

	      content_type   The Content-Type of the  requested	 document,  if
			     there was any.

	      errormsg	     The error message.	(Added in 7.75.0)

	      exitcode	     The numerical exitcode of the transfer. (Added in
			     7.75.0)

	      filename_effective
			     The ultimate filename that	curl  writes  out  to.
			     This  is only meaningful if curl is told to write
			     to	a file	with  the  -O,	--remote-name  or  -o,
			     --output  option. It's most useful	in combination
			     with the -J, --remote-header-name option.	(Added
			     in	7.26.0)

	      ftp_entry_path The initial path curl ended up in when logging on
			     to	the remote FTP server. (Added in 7.15.4)

	      http_code	     The numerical response code that was found	in the
			     last  retrieved  HTTP(S)  or  FTP(s) transfer. In
			     7.18.2 the	alias response_code was	added to  show
			     the same info.

	      http_connect   The numerical code	that was found in the last re-
			     sponse (from a proxy) to a	curl CONNECT  request.
			     (Added in 7.12.4)

	      http_version   The  http	version	 that  was  effectively	 used.
			     (Added in 7.50.0)

	      json	     A JSON object with	all available keys.

	      local_ip	     The IP address of the local end of	the  most  re-
			     cently  done  connection  - can be	either IPv4 or
			     IPv6. (Added in 7.29.0)

	      local_port     The local port number of the most	recently  done
			     connection. (Added	in 7.29.0)

	      method	     The  http method used in the most recent HTTP re-
			     quest. (Added in 7.72.0)

	      num_connects   Number of new connects made in the	recent	trans-
			     fer. (Added in 7.12.3)

	      num_headers    The number	of response headers in the most	recent
			     request (restarted	at each
			      redirect). Note that the status line  IS	NOT  a
			     header. (Added in 7.73.0)

	      num_redirects  Number of redirects that were followed in the re-
			     quest. (Added in 7.12.3)

	      onerror	     The rest of the  output  is  only	shown  if  the
			     transfer  returned	 a  non-zero  error  (Added in
			     7.75.0)

	      proxy_ssl_verify_result
			     The result	of the HTTPS proxy's SSL peer certifi-
			     cate verification that was	requested. 0 means the
			     verification was successful. (Added in 7.52.0)

	      redirect_url   When an HTTP request was made without -L, --loca-
			     tion to follow redirects (or when --max-redirs is
			     met), this	variable will show the	actual	URL  a
			     redirect would have gone to. (Added in 7.18.2)

	      referer	     The  Referer: header, if there was	any. (Added in
			     7.76.0)

	      remote_ip	     The remote	IP address of the most	recently  done
			     connection	 -  can	be either IPv4 or IPv6.	(Added
			     in	7.29.0)

	      remote_port    The remote	port number of the most	recently  done
			     connection. (Added	in 7.29.0)

	      response_code  The numerical response code that was found	in the
			     last transfer (formerly  known  as	 "http_code").
			     (Added in 7.18.2)

	      scheme	     The  URL  scheme (sometimes called	protocol) that
			     was effectively used. (Added in 7.52.0)

	      size_download  The total amount of bytes that  were  downloaded.
			     This is the size of the body/data that was	trans-
			     fered, excluding headers.

	      size_header    The total amount of bytes of the downloaded head-
			     ers.

	      size_request   The  total	 amount	of bytes that were sent	in the
			     HTTP request.

	      size_upload    The total amount of  bytes	 that  were  uploaded.
			     This is the size of the body/data that was	trans-
			     fered, excluding headers.

	      speed_download The average download speed	that curl measured for
			     the complete download. Bytes per second.

	      speed_upload   The  average  upload speed	that curl measured for
			     the complete upload. Bytes	per second.

	      ssl_verify_result
			     The result	of the SSL peer	certificate  verifica-
			     tion that was requested. 0	means the verification
			     was successful. (Added in 7.19.0)

	      stderr	     From this point on, the  -w,  --write-out	output
			     will  be  written	to  standard  error. (Added in
			     7.63.0)

	      stdout	     From this point on, the  -w,  --write-out	output
			     will  be written to standard output.  This	is the
			     default, but can be used  to  switch  back	 after
			     switching to stderr.  (Added in 7.63.0)

	      time_appconnect
			     The  time,	in seconds, it took from the start un-
			     til the SSL/SSH/etc connect/handshake to the  re-
			     mote host was completed. (Added in	7.19.0)

	      time_connect   The  time,	in seconds, it took from the start un-
			     til the TCP connect to the	remote host (or	proxy)
			     was completed.

	      time_namelookup
			     The  time,	in seconds, it took from the start un-
			     til the name resolving was	completed.

	      time_pretransfer
			     The time, in seconds, it took from	the start  un-
			     til  the  file  transfer was just about to	begin.
			     This includes all pre-transfer commands and nego-
			     tiations that are specific	to the particular pro-
			     tocol(s) involved.

	      time_redirect  The time, in seconds, it took for all redirection
			     steps including name lookup, connect, pretransfer
			     and transfer before  the  final  transaction  was
			     started.  time_redirect shows the complete	execu-
			     tion time for multiple  redirections.  (Added  in
			     7.12.3)

	      time_starttransfer
			     The  time,	in seconds, it took from the start un-
			     til the first byte	was just about	to  be	trans-
			     ferred.  This  includes time_pretransfer and also
			     the time the server needed	to calculate  the  re-
			     sult.

	      time_total     The  total	time, in seconds, that the full	opera-
			     tion lasted.

	      url	     The URL that was fetched. (Added in 7.75.0)

	      urlnum	     The URL index number of this transfer, 0-indexed.
			     De-globbed	 URLs  share  the same index number as
			     the origin	globbed	URL. (Added in 7.75.0)

	      url_effective  The URL that was fetched last. This is most mean-
			     ingful  if	 you've	 told curl to follow location:
			     headers.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl -w '%{http_code}\n'	https://example.com

       --xattr
	      When saving output to a file, this option	tells  curl  to	 store
	      certain  file  metadata  in extended file	attributes. Currently,
	      the URL is stored	in the xdg.origin.url attribute	and, for HTTP,
	      the  content  type  is stored in the mime_type attribute.	If the
	      file system does not support extended attributes,	a  warning  is
	      issued.

	      Example:
	       curl --xattr -o storage https://example.com

FILES
       ~/.curlrc
	      Default config file, see -K, --config for	details.

ENVIRONMENT
       The environment variables can be	specified in lower case	or upper case.
       The lower case version has precedence. http_proxy is an exception as it
       is only available in lower case.

       Using  an  environment variable to set the proxy	has the	same effect as
       using the -x, --proxy option.

       http_proxy [protocol://]<host>[:port]
	      Sets the proxy server to use for HTTP.

       HTTPS_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
	      Sets the proxy server to use for HTTPS.

       [url-protocol]_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
	      Sets the proxy server to use for [url-protocol], where the  pro-
	      tocol  is	 a  protocol  that curl	supports and as	specified in a
	      URL. FTP,	FTPS, POP3, IMAP, SMTP,	LDAP, etc.

       ALL_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
	      Sets the proxy server to use if no  protocol-specific  proxy  is
	      set.

       NO_PROXY	<comma-separated list of hosts/domains>
	      list  of	host names that	shouldn't go through any proxy.	If set
	      to an asterisk '*' only, it matches all hosts. Each name in this
	      list is matched as either	a domain name which contains the host-
	      name, or the hostname itself.

	      This environment variable	disables use of	the  proxy  even  when
	      specified	 with  the  -x,	 --proxy  option. That is NO_PROXY=di-
	      rect.example.com	curl  -x  http://proxy.example.com  http://di-
	      rect.example.com	 accesses   the	  target   URL	directly,  and
	      NO_PROXY=direct.example.com  curl	 -x   http://proxy.example.com
	      http://somewhere.example.com accesses the	target URL through the
	      proxy.

	      The list of host names can also  be  include  numerical  IP  ad-
	      dresses,	and IPv6 versions should then be given without enclos-
	      ing brackets.

	      IPv6 numerical addresses are compared as strings,	so  they  will
	      only  match  if  the  representations are	the same: "::1"	is the
	      same as "::0:1" but they don't match.

       CURL_SSL_BACKEND	<TLS backend>
	      If curl was built	with support for "MultiSSL", meaning  that  it
	      has  built-in  support for more than one TLS backend, this envi-
	      ronment variable can be set to the case insensitive name of  the
	      particular  backend  to use when curl is invoked.	Setting	a name
	      that isn't a built-in alternative	will make curl stay  with  the
	      default.

	      SSL  backend  names  (case-insensitive): bearssl,	gnutls,	gskit,
	      mbedtls, mesalink, nss, openssl, rustls, schannel, secure-trans-
	      port, wolfssl

       QLOGDIR <directory name>
	      If  curl was built with HTTP/3 support, setting this environment
	      variable to a local directory will make curl  produce  qlogs  in
	      that  directory,	using  file  names named after the destination
	      connection id (in	hex). Do note  that  these  files  can	become
	      rather large. Works with both QUIC backends.

       SSLKEYLOGFILE <file name>
	      If  you  set this	environment variable to	a file name, curl will
	      store TLS	secrets	from its connections in	that file when invoked
	      to enable	you to analyze the TLS traffic in real time using net-
	      work analyzing tools such	as Wireshark. This works with the fol-
	      lowing  TLS  backends: OpenSSL, libressl,	BoringSSL, GnuTLS, NSS
	      and wolfSSL.

PROXY PROTOCOL PREFIXES
       Since curl version 7.21.7, the proxy string may	be  specified  with  a
       protocol:// prefix to specify alternative proxy protocols.

       If  no  protocol	 is  specified	in  the	 proxy string or if the	string
       doesn't match a supported one, the proxy	will be	 treated  as  an  HTTP
       proxy.

       The supported proxy protocol prefixes are as follows:

       http://
	      Makes  it	use it as an HTTP proxy. The default if	no scheme pre-
	      fix is used.

       https://
	      Makes it treated as an HTTPS proxy.

       socks4://
	      Makes it the equivalent of --socks4

       socks4a://
	      Makes it the equivalent of --socks4a

       socks5://
	      Makes it the equivalent of --socks5

       socks5h://
	      Makes it the equivalent of --socks5-hostname

EXIT CODES
       There are a bunch of different error codes and their corresponding  er-
       ror  messages  that  may	 appear	under error conditions.	At the time of
       this writing, the exit codes are:

       1      Unsupported protocol. This build of curl has no support for this
	      protocol.

       2      Failed to	initialize.

       3      URL malformed. The syntax	was not	correct.

       4      A	 feature  or option that was needed to perform the desired re-
	      quest was	not enabled or was explicitly disabled at  build-time.
	      To make curl able	to do this, you	probably need another build of
	      libcurl!

       5      Couldn't resolve proxy. The given	proxy host could  not  be  re-
	      solved.

       6      Couldn't	resolve	 host.	The given remote host could not	be re-
	      solved.

       7      Failed to	connect	to host.

       8      Weird server reply. The server sent data curl couldn't parse.

       9      FTP access denied. The server denied login or denied  access  to
	      the  particular  resource	or directory you wanted	to reach. Most
	      often you	tried to change	to a directory that doesn't  exist  on
	      the server.

       10     FTP  accept failed. While	waiting	for the	server to connect back
	      when an active FTP session is used, an error code	was sent  over
	      the control connection or	similar.

       11     FTP  weird PASS reply. Curl couldn't parse the reply sent	to the
	      PASS request.

       12     During an	active FTP session while waiting  for  the  server  to
	      connect back to curl, the	timeout	expired.

       13     FTP  weird PASV reply, Curl couldn't parse the reply sent	to the
	      PASV request.

       14     FTP weird	227 format.  Curl  couldn't  parse  the	 227-line  the
	      server sent.

       15     FTP  can't  get host. Couldn't resolve the host IP we got	in the
	      227-line.

       16     HTTP/2 error. A problem was detected in the HTTP2	framing	layer.
	      This is somewhat generic and can be one out of several problems,
	      see the error message for	details.

       17     FTP couldn't set binary. Couldn't	change transfer	method to  bi-
	      nary.

       18     Partial file. Only a part	of the file was	transferred.

       19     FTP  couldn't download/access the	given file, the	RETR (or simi-
	      lar) command failed.

       21     FTP quote	error. A quote command returned	error from the server.

       22     HTTP page	not retrieved. The requested url was not found or  re-
	      turned  another  error  with  the	 HTTP  error code being	400 or
	      above. This return code only appears if -f, --fail is used.

       23     Write error. Curl	couldn't write data to a local	filesystem  or
	      similar.

       25     FTP  couldn't  STOR  file. The server denied the STOR operation,
	      used for FTP uploading.

       26     Read error. Various reading problems.

       27     Out of memory. A memory allocation request failed.

       28     Operation	timeout. The specified time-out	period was reached ac-
	      cording to the conditions.

       30     FTP  PORT	 failed.  The PORT command failed. Not all FTP servers
	      support the PORT command,	try doing a transfer  using  PASV  in-
	      stead!

       31     FTP  couldn't use	REST. The REST command failed. This command is
	      used for resumed FTP transfers.

       33     HTTP range error.	The range "command" didn't work.

       34     HTTP post	error. Internal	post-request generation	error.

       35     SSL connect error. The SSL handshaking failed.

       36     Bad download resume. Couldn't continue an	earlier	aborted	 down-
	      load.

       37     FILE couldn't read file. Failed to open the file.	Permissions?

       38     LDAP cannot bind.	LDAP bind operation failed.

       39     LDAP search failed.

       41     Function not found. A required LDAP function was not found.

       42     Aborted by callback. An application told curl to abort the oper-
	      ation.

       43     Internal error. A	function was called with a bad parameter.

       45     Interface	error. A specified outgoing  interface	could  not  be
	      used.

       47     Too many redirects. When following redirects, curl hit the maxi-
	      mum amount.

       48     Unknown option specified to libcurl.  This  indicates  that  you
	      passed  a	weird option to	curl that was passed on	to libcurl and
	      rejected.	Read up	in the manual!

       49     Malformed	telnet option.

       51     The peer's SSL certificate or SSH	MD5 fingerprint	was not	OK.

       52     The server didn't	reply anything,	which here  is	considered  an
	      error.

       53     SSL crypto engine	not found.

       54     Cannot set SSL crypto engine as default.

       55     Failed sending network data.

       56     Failure in receiving network data.

       58     Problem with the local certificate.

       59     Couldn't use specified SSL cipher.

       60     Peer  certificate	cannot be authenticated	with known CA certifi-
	      cates.

       61     Unrecognized transfer encoding.

       62     Invalid LDAP URL.

       63     Maximum file size	exceeded.

       64     Requested	FTP SSL	level failed.

       65     Sending the data requires	a rewind that failed.

       66     Failed to	initialise SSL Engine.

       67     The user name, password, or similar was not  accepted  and  curl
	      failed to	log in.

       68     File not found on	TFTP server.

       69     Permission problem on TFTP server.

       70     Out of disk space	on TFTP	server.

       71     Illegal TFTP operation.

       72     Unknown TFTP transfer ID.

       73     File already exists (TFTP).

       74     No such user (TFTP).

       75     Character	conversion failed.

       76     Character	conversion functions required.

       77     Problem reading the SSL CA cert (path? access rights?).

       78     The resource referenced in the URL does not exist.

       79     An unspecified error occurred during the SSH session.

       80     Failed to	shut down the SSL connection.

       82     Could  not  load	CRL  file,  missing  or	wrong format (added in
	      7.19.0).

       83     Issuer check failed (added in 7.19.0).

       84     The FTP PRET command failed.

       85     Mismatch of RTSP CSeq numbers.

       86     Mismatch of RTSP Session Identifiers.

       87     Unable to	parse FTP file list.

       88     FTP chunk	callback reported error.

       89     No connection available, the session will	be queued.

       90     SSL public key does not matched pinned public key.

       91     Invalid SSL certificate status.

       92     Stream error in HTTP/2 framing layer.

       93     An API function was called from inside a callback.

       94     An authentication	function returned an error.

       95     A	problem	was detected in	the HTTP/3  layer.  This  is  somewhat
	      generic  and  can	 be one	out of several problems, see the error
	      message for details.

       96     QUIC connection error. This error	may be caused by  an  SSL  li-
	      brary error. QUIC	is the protocol	used for HTTP/3	transfers.

       XX     More error codes will appear here	in future releases. The	exist-
	      ing ones are meant to never change.

AUTHORS	/ CONTRIBUTORS
       Daniel Stenberg is the main author, but the whole list of  contributors
       is found	in the separate	THANKS file.

WWW
       https://curl.se

SEE ALSO
       ftp(1), wget(1)

Curl 7.79.1		       November	16, 2016		       curl(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | URL | OUTPUT | PROTOCOLS | PROGRESS METER | OPTIONS | FILES | ENVIRONMENT | PROXY PROTOCOL PREFIXES | EXIT CODES | AUTHORS / CONTRIBUTORS | WWW | SEE ALSO

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