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NAMED(8)			    BIND 9			      NAMED(8)

NAME
       named - Internet	domain name server

SYNOPSIS
       named [ [-4] | [-6] ] [-c config-file] [-d debug-level] [-D string] [-E
       engine-name] [-f] [-g] [-L logfile] [-M option] [-m  flag]  [-n	#cpus]
       [-p port] [-s] [-S #max-socks] [-t directory] [-U #listeners] [-u user]
       [-v] [-V] [-X lock-file]	[-x cache-file]

DESCRIPTION
       named is	a Domain Name System (DNS) server, part	of the BIND 9  distri-
       bution  from  ISC.  For	more information on the	DNS, see RFC 1033, RFC
       1034, and RFC 1035.

       When invoked without arguments, named reads the	default	 configuration
       file /usr/local/etc/namedb/named.conf, reads any	initial	data, and lis-
       tens for	queries.

OPTIONS
       -4     This option tells	named to use only IPv4,	even if	the  host  ma-
	      chine is capable of IPv6.	-4 and -6 are mutually exclusive.

       -6     This  option  tells named	to use only IPv6, even if the host ma-
	      chine is capable of IPv4.	-4 and -6 are mutually exclusive.

       -c config-file
	      This option tells	named to use config-file as its	 configuration
	      file  instead  of	the default, /usr/local/etc/namedb/named.conf.
	      To ensure	that the configuration file can	be reloaded after  the
	      server  has  changed  its	working	directory due to to a possible
	      directory	option in the configuration file,  config-file	should
	      be an absolute pathname.

       -d debug-level
	      This option sets the daemon's debug level	to debug-level.	Debug-
	      ging traces from named become more verbose as  the  debug	 level
	      increases.

       -D string
	      This  option  specifies  a string	that is	used to	identify a in-
	      stance of	named in a process listing. The	contents of string are
	      not examined.

       -E engine-name
	      When  applicable,	 this option specifies the hardware to use for
	      cryptographic operations,	such as	a secure key  store  used  for
	      signing.

	      When  BIND  9 is built with OpenSSL, this	needs to be set	to the
	      OpenSSL engine identifier	that drives the	cryptographic acceler-
	      ator  or	hardware service module	(usually pkcs11). When BIND is
	      built with native	PKCS#11	cryptography (--enable-native-pkcs11),
	      it  defaults  to the path	of the PKCS#11 provider	library	speci-
	      fied via --with-pkcs11.

       -f     This option runs the server in the foreground (i.e., do not dae-
	      monize).

       -g     This  option  runs  the  server in the foreground	and forces all
	      logging to stderr.

       -L logfile
	      This option sets the log to the file logfile by default, instead
	      of the system log.

       -M option
	      This  option  sets the default memory context options. If	set to
	      external,	the internal memory manager is bypassed	 in  favor  of
	      system-provided  memory  allocation  functions.  If set to fill,
	      blocks of	memory are filled with tag values  when	 allocated  or
	      freed,  to  assist debugging of memory problems. nofill disables
	      this behavior, and is the	default	unless named has been compiled
	      with developer options.

       -m flag
	      This  option  turns  on  memory  usage debugging flags. Possible
	      flags are	usage, trace, record, size, and	mctx. These correspond
	      to the ISC_MEM_DEBUGXXXX flags described in <isc/mem.h>.

       -n #cpus
	      This  option  creates  #cpus worker threads to take advantage of
	      multiple CPUs. If	not specified, named tries  to	determine  the
	      number  of CPUs present and creates one thread per CPU. If it is
	      unable to	determine the number of	CPUs, a	single	worker	thread
	      is created.

       -p port
	      This  option  listens for	queries	on port. If not	specified, the
	      default is port 53.

       -s     This option writes memory	usage statistics to stdout on exit.

       NOTE:
	  This option is mainly	of interest to BIND 9 developers  and  may  be
	  removed or changed in	a future release.

       -S #max-socks
	      This  option  allows  named to use up to #max-socks sockets. The
	      default value is 21000 on	systems	built with default  configura-
	      tion   options,	and  4096  on  systems	built  with  configure
	      --with-tuning=small.

       WARNING:
	  This option should be	unnecessary for	the vast  majority  of	users.
	  The  use of this option could	even be	harmful, because the specified
	  value	may exceed the limitation of the underlying system API.	It  is
	  therefore  set only when the default configuration causes exhaustion
	  of file descriptors and the operational environment is known to sup-
	  port the specified number of sockets.	Note also that the actual max-
	  imum number is normally slightly fewer than the specified value, be-
	  cause	named reserves some file descriptors for its internal use.

       -t directory
	      This  option tells named to chroot to directory after processing
	      the command-line arguments, but before reading the configuration
	      file.

       WARNING:
	  This option should be	used in	conjunction with the -u	option,	as ch-
	  rooting a process running as root doesn't enhance security  on  most
	  systems; the way chroot is defined allows a process with root	privi-
	  leges	to escape a chroot jail.

       -U #listeners
	      This option tells	named the number of #listeners worker  threads
	      to  listen  on, for incoming UDP packets on each address.	If not
	      specified, named calculates a default value based	on the	number
	      of  detected  CPUs: 1 for	1 CPU, and the number of detected CPUs
	      minus one	for machines with more than 1 CPU.  This cannot	be in-
	      creased  to  a  value higher than	the number of CPUs.  If	-n has
	      been set to a higher value than the  number  of  detected	 CPUs,
	      then  -U	may be increased as high as that value,	but no higher.
	      On Windows, the number of	UDP listeners is hardwired  to	1  and
	      this option has no effect.

       -u user
	      This  option sets	the setuid to user after completing privileged
	      operations, such as creating sockets that	listen	on  privileged
	      ports.

       NOTE:
	  On  Linux,  named uses the kernel's capability mechanism to drop all
	  root privileges except the ability to	bind to	a privileged port  and
	  set  process	resource limits. Unfortunately,	this means that	the -u
	  option only works when named is run on kernel	2.2.18	or  later,  or
	  kernel  2.3.99-pre3  or  later, since	previous kernels did not allow
	  privileges to	be retained after setuid.

       -v     This option reports the version number and exits.

       -V     This option reports the version number and  build	 options,  and
	      exits.

       -X lock-file
	      This  option  acquires  a	lock on	the specified file at runtime;
	      this helps to prevent duplicate named instances from running si-
	      multaneously.  Use of this option	overrides the lock-file	option
	      in named.conf. If	set to none, the lock file check is disabled.

       -x cache-file
	      This option loads	data from cache-file into the cache of the de-
	      fault view.

       WARNING:
	  This option must not be used in normal operations. It	is only	of in-
	  terest to BIND 9 developers and may be removed or changed in	a  fu-
	  ture release.

SIGNALS
       In  routine  operation, signals should not be used to control the name-
       server; rndc should be used instead.

       SIGHUP This signal forces a reload of the server.

       SIGINT, SIGTERM
	      These signals shut down the server.

       The result of sending any other signals to the server is	undefined.

CONFIGURATION
       The named configuration file is too complex to describe in detail here.
       A  complete  description	is provided in the BIND	9 Administrator	Refer-
       ence Manual.

       named inherits the umask	(file creation	mode  mask)  from  the	parent
       process.	If files created by named, such	as journal files, need to have
       custom permissions, the umask should be set explicitly  in  the	script
       used to start the named process.

FILES
       /usr/local/etc/namedb/named.conf
	      The default configuration	file.

       /var/run/named/pid
	      The default process-id file.

SEE ALSO
       RFC  1033,  RFC 1034, RFC 1035, named-checkconf(8), named-checkzone(8),
       rndc(8),	named.conf(5), BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual.

AUTHOR
       Internet	Systems	Consortium

COPYRIGHT
       2021, Internet Systems Consortium

9.16.21				  2021-09-07			      NAMED(8)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | SIGNALS | CONFIGURATION | FILES | SEE ALSO | AUTHOR | COPYRIGHT

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