22.3. 使用語系設定(Localization)

I18N 和 L10N 並非 FreeBSD 所特有的,而是共通的遊戲規則。 我們鼓勵你在 FreeBSD 世界中同樣遵守這項遊戲規則。

Locale 設定由三個部分所組成:語言代碼(Language Code)、國碼(Country Code)、編碼(Encoding)。 所以,Locale 的設定名稱就是由這三個一起組成:

語言代碼_國碼.編碼

22.3.1. 語言、國碼

使用者必須要先知道這些特定的國碼、語言代碼(國碼會告訴應用程式該使用哪一種語言), 才能讓 FreeBSD 或其他支援 I18N 的 UNIX® 類系統作 locale 相關設定。 此外,網頁瀏覽器(borwser)、SMTP/POP 主機、Web 主機等也都以這架構為主。 下面是如何使用『語言代碼、國碼』的例子:

語言代碼/國碼簡介
en_US英文(美國)
ru_RU俄文(俄國)
zh_TW正體中文(台灣)

22.3.2. 編碼

有些語言並非採用 ASCII 編碼,可能是: 8-bit、wide 或 multibyte 字元,詳情請參閱 multibyte(3)。 較古早的程式可能無法正確判別、或誤判為特殊控制字元。而較新的程式都可以辨認 8-bit 字元。 由於各程式的作法不一,使用者可能需要在編譯程式時,加上 wide 或 multibyte 字元的支援設定,或是正確調整才行。 要輸入、處理 wide 或 multibyte 字元的話,可多多利用 FreeBSD Ports Collection 內有各國語言版本的程式。 詳情請參閱 FreeBSD 各 port 中的 I18N 相關文件。

Specifically, the user needs to look at the application documentation to decide on how to configure it correctly or to pass correct values into the configure/Makefile/compiler.

Some things to keep in mind are:

  • Language specific single C chars character sets (see multibyte(3)), e.g. ISO8859-1, ISO8859-15, KOI8-R, CP437.

  • Wide or multibyte encodings, e.g. EUC, Big5.

You can check the active list of character sets at the IANA Registry.

注意:

FreeBSD use X11-compatible locale encodings instead.

22.3.3. I18N Applications

In the FreeBSD Ports and Package system, I18N applications have been named with I18N in their names for easy identification. However, they do not always support the language needed.

22.3.4. Setting Locale

Usually it is sufficient to export the value of the locale name as LANG in the login shell. This could be done in the user's ~/.login_conf file or in the startup file of the user's shell (~/.profile, ~/.bashrc, ~/.cshrc). There is no need to set the locale subsets such as LC_CTYPE, LC_CTIME. Please refer to language-specific FreeBSD documentation for more information.

You should set the following two environment variables in your configuration files:

  • LANG for POSIX® setlocale(3) family functions

  • MM_CHARSET for applications' MIME character set

This includes the user shell configuration, the specific application configuration, and the X11 configuration.

22.3.4.1. Setting Locale Methods

There are two methods for setting locale, and both are described below. The first (recommended one) is by assigning the environment variables in login class, and the second is by adding the environment variable assignments to the system's shell startup file.

22.3.4.1.1. Login Classes Method

This method allows environment variables needed for locale name and MIME character sets to be assigned once for every possible shell instead of adding specific shell assignments to each shell's startup file. User Level Setup can be done by an user himself and Administrator Level Setup require superuser privileges.

22.3.4.1.1.1. User Level Setup

Here is a minimal example of a .login_conf file in user's home directory which has both variables set for Latin-1 encoding:

me:\
	:charset=ISO-8859-1:\
	:lang=de_DE.ISO8859-1:

Here is an example of a .login_conf that sets the variables for Traditional Chinese in BIG-5 encoding. Notice the many more variables set because some software does not respect locale variables correctly for Chinese, Japanese, and Korean.

#Users who do not wish to use monetary units or time formats
#of Taiwan can manually change each variable
me:\
	:lang=zh_TW.Big5:\
	:lc_all=zh_TW.Big:\
	:lc_collate=zh_TW.Big5:\
	:lc_ctype=zh_TW.Big5:\
	:lc_messages=zh_TW.Big5:\
	:lc_monetary=zh_TW.Big5:\
	:lc_numeric=zh_TW.Big5:\
	:lc_time=zh_TW.Big5:\
	:charset=big5:\
	:xmodifiers="@im=xcin": #Setting the XIM Input Server

See Administrator Level Setup and login.conf(5) for more details.

22.3.4.1.1.2. Administrator Level Setup

Verify that the user's login class in /etc/login.conf sets the correct language. Make sure these settings appear in /etc/login.conf:

language_name:accounts_title:\
	:charset=MIME_charset:\
	:lang=locale_name:\
	:tc=default:

So sticking with our previous example using Latin-1, it would look like this:

german:German Users Accounts:\
	:charset=ISO-8859-1:\
	:lang=de_DE.ISO8859-1:\
	:tc=default:

Before changing users Login Classes execute the following command

# cap_mkdb /etc/login.conf

to make new configuration in /etc/login.conf visible to the system.

Changing Login Classes with vipw(8)

Use vipw to add new users, and make the entry look like this:

user:password:1111:11:language:0:0:User Name:/home/user:/bin/sh
Changing Login Classes with adduser(8)

Use adduser to add new users, and do the following:

  • Set defaultclass = language in /etc/adduser.conf. Keep in mind you must enter a default class for all users of other languages in this case.

  • An alternative variant is answering the specified language each time that

    Enter login class: default []: 

    appears from adduser(8).

  • Another alternative is to use the following for each user of a different language that you wish to add:

    # adduser -class language
Changing Login Classes with pw(8)

If you use pw(8) for adding new users, call it in this form:

# pw useradd user_name -L language
22.3.4.1.2. Shell Startup File Method

注意:

This method is not recommended because it requires a different setup for each possible shell program chosen. Use the Login Class Method instead.

To add the locale name and MIME character set, just set the two environment variables shown below in the /etc/profile and/or /etc/csh.login shell startup files. We will use the German language as an example below:

In /etc/profile:

LANG=de_DE.ISO8859-1; export LANG
MM_CHARSET=ISO-8859-1; export MM_CHARSET

Or in /etc/csh.login:

setenv LANG de_DE.ISO8859-1
setenv MM_CHARSET ISO-8859-1

Alternatively, you can add the above instructions to /usr/share/skel/dot.profile (similar to what was used in /etc/profile above), or /usr/share/skel/dot.login (similar to what was used in /etc/csh.login above).

For X11:

In $HOME/.xinitrc:

LANG=de_DE.ISO8859-1; export LANG

Or:

setenv LANG de_DE.ISO8859-1

Depending on your shell (see above).

22.3.5. Console Setup

For all single C chars character sets, set the correct console fonts in /etc/rc.conf for the language in question with:

font8x16=font_name
font8x14=font_name
font8x8=font_name

The font_name here is taken from the /usr/share/syscons/fonts directory, without the .fnt suffix.

Also be sure to set the correct keymap and screenmap for your single C chars character set through sysinstall (/stand/sysinstall in FreeBSD versions older than 5.2). Once inside sysinstall, choose Configure, then Console. Alternatively, you can add the following to /etc/rc.conf:

scrnmap=screenmap_name
keymap=keymap_name
keychange="fkey_number sequence"

The screenmap_name here is taken from the /usr/share/syscons/scrnmaps directory, without the .scm suffix. A screenmap with a corresponding mapped font is usually needed as a workaround for expanding bit 8 to bit 9 on a VGA adapter's font character matrix in pseudographics area, i.e., to move letters out of that area if screen font uses a bit 8 column.

If you have the moused daemon enabled by setting the following in your /etc/rc.conf:

moused_enable="YES"

then examine the mouse cursor information in the next paragraph.

By default the mouse cursor of the syscons(4) driver occupies the 0xd0-0xd3 range in the character set. If your language uses this range, you need to move the cursor's range outside of it. To enable the workaround for FreeBSD, add the following line to /etc/rc.conf:

mousechar_start=3

The keymap_name here is taken from the /usr/share/syscons/keymaps directory, without the .kbd suffix. If you are uncertain which keymap to use, you use can kbdmap(1) to test keymaps without rebooting.

The keychange is usually needed to program function keys to match the selected terminal type because function key sequences cannot be defined in the key map.

Also be sure to set the correct console terminal type in /etc/ttys for all ttyv* entries. Current pre-defined correspondences are:

Character SetTerminal Type
ISO8859-1 or ISO8859-15cons25l1
ISO8859-2cons25l2
ISO8859-7cons25l7
KOI8-Rcons25r
KOI8-Ucons25u
CP437 (VGA default)cons25
US-ASCIIcons25w

For wide or multibyte characters languages, use the correct FreeBSD port in your /usr/ports/language directory. Some ports appear as console while the system sees it as serial vtty's, hence you must reserve enough vtty's for both X11 and the pseudo-serial console. Here is a partial list of applications for using other languages in console:

LanguageLocation
Traditional Chinese (BIG-5)chinese/big5con
Japanesejapanese/kon2-16dot or japanese/mule-freewnn
Koreankorean/han

22.3.6. X11 Setup

Although X11 is not part of the FreeBSD Project, we have included some information here for FreeBSD users. For more details, refer to the Xorg web site or whichever X11 Server you use.

In ~/.Xresources, you can additionally tune application specific I18N settings (e.g., fonts, menus, etc.).

22.3.6.1. Displaying Fonts

Install Xorg server (x11-servers/xorg-server) or XFree86 server (x11-servers/XFree86-4-Server), then install the language TrueType® fonts. Setting the correct locale should allow you to view your selected language in menus and such.

22.3.6.2. Inputting Non-English Characters

The X11 Input Method (XIM) Protocol is a new standard for all X11 clients. All X11 applications should be written as XIM clients that take input from XIM Input servers. There are several XIM servers available for different languages.

22.3.7. Printer Setup

Some single C chars character sets are usually hardware coded into printers. Wide or multibyte character sets require special setup and we recommend using apsfilter. You may also convert the document to PostScript® or PDF formats using language specific converters.

22.3.8. Kernel and File Systems

The FreeBSD fast filesystem (FFS) is 8-bit clean, so it can be used with any single C chars character set (see multibyte(3)), but there is no character set name stored in the filesystem; i.e., it is raw 8-bit and does not know anything about encoding order. Officially, FFS does not support any form of wide or multibyte character sets yet. However, some wide or multibyte character sets have independent patches for FFS enabling such support. They are only temporary unportable solutions or hacks and we have decided to not include them in the source tree. Refer to respective languages' web sites for more information and the patch files.

The FreeBSD MS-DOS® filesystem has the configurable ability to convert between MS-DOS®, Unicode character sets and chosen FreeBSD filesystem character sets. See mount_msdos(8) for details.

All FreeBSD documents are available for download at http://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/doc/

Questions that are not answered by the documentation may be sent to <freebsd-questions@FreeBSD.org>.
Send questions about this document to <freebsd-doc@FreeBSD.org>.