25.3. Using Kernel PPP

Parts originally contributed by Gennady B. SorokopudRobert Huff.

25.3.1. Setting Up Kernel PPP

Before you start setting up PPP on your machine, make sure that pppd is located in /usr/sbin and the directory /etc/ppp exists.

pppd can work in two modes:

  1. As a client —— you want to connect your machine to the outside world via a PPP serial connection or modem line.

  2. As a server —— your machine is located on the network, and is used to connect other computers using PPP.

In both cases you will need to set up an options file (/etc/ppp/options or ~/.ppprc if you have more than one user on your machine that uses PPP).

You will also need some modem/serial software (preferably comms/kermit), so you can dial and establish a connection with the remote host.

25.3.2. Using pppd as a Client

Based on information provided by Trev Roydhouse.

The following /etc/ppp/options might be used to connect to a Cisco terminal server PPP line.

crtscts         # enable hardware flow control
modem           # modem control line
noipdefault     # remote PPP server must supply your IP address
                # if the remote host does not send your IP during IPCP
                # negotiation, remove this option
passive         # wait for LCP packets
domain ppp.foo.com      # put your domain name here

:<remote_ip>    # put the IP of remote PPP host here
                # it will be used to route packets via PPP link
                # if you didn't specified the noipdefault option
                # change this line to <local_ip>:<remote_ip>

defaultroute    # put this if you want that PPP server will be your
                # default router

To connect:

  1. Dial to the remote host using Kermit (or some other modem program), and enter your user name and password (or whatever is needed to enable PPP on the remote host).

  2. Exit Kermit (without hanging up the line).

  3. Enter the following:

    # /usr/src/usr.sbin/pppd.new/pppd /dev/tty01 19200

    Be sure to use the appropriate speed and device name.

Now your computer is connected with PPP. If the connection fails, you can add the debug option to the /etc/ppp/options file, and check console messages to track the problem.

Following /etc/ppp/pppup script will make all 3 stages automatic:

#!/bin/sh
ps ax |grep pppd |grep -v grep
pid=`ps ax |grep pppd |grep -v grep|awk '{print $1;}'`
if [ "X${pid}" != "X" ] ; then
        echo 'killing pppd, PID=' ${pid}
        kill ${pid}
fi
ps ax |grep kermit |grep -v grep
pid=`ps ax |grep kermit |grep -v grep|awk '{print $1;}'`
if [ "X${pid}" != "X" ] ; then
        echo 'killing kermit, PID=' ${pid}
        kill -9 ${pid}
fi

ifconfig ppp0 down
ifconfig ppp0 delete

kermit -y /etc/ppp/kermit.dial
pppd /dev/tty01 19200

/etc/ppp/kermit.dial is a Kermit script that dials and makes all necessary authorization on the remote host (an example of such a script is attached to the end of this document).

Use the following /etc/ppp/pppdown script to disconnect the PPP line:

#!/bin/sh
pid=`ps ax |grep pppd |grep -v grep|awk '{print $1;}'`
if [ X${pid} != "X" ] ; then
        echo 'killing pppd, PID=' ${pid}
        kill -TERM ${pid}
fi

ps ax |grep kermit |grep -v grep
pid=`ps ax |grep kermit |grep -v grep|awk '{print $1;}'`
if [ "X${pid}" != "X" ] ; then
        echo 'killing kermit, PID=' ${pid}
        kill -9 ${pid}
fi

/sbin/ifconfig ppp0 down
/sbin/ifconfig ppp0 delete
kermit -y /etc/ppp/kermit.hup
/etc/ppp/ppptest

Check to see if pppd is still running by executing /usr/etc/ppp/ppptest, which should look like this:

#!/bin/sh
pid=`ps ax| grep pppd |grep -v grep|awk '{print $1;}'`
if [ X${pid} != "X" ] ; then
        echo 'pppd running: PID=' ${pid-NONE}
else
        echo 'No pppd running.'
fi
set -x
netstat -n -I ppp0
ifconfig ppp0

To hang up the modem, execute /etc/ppp/kermit.hup, which should contain:

set line /dev/tty01	; put your modem device here
set speed 19200
set file type binary
set file names literal
set win 8
set rec pack 1024
set send pack 1024
set block 3
set term bytesize 8
set command bytesize 8
set flow none

pau 1
out +++
inp 5 OK
out ATH0\13
echo \13
exit

Here is an alternate method using chat instead of kermit:

The following two files are sufficient to accomplish a pppd connection.

/etc/ppp/options:

/dev/cuaa1 115200

crtscts		# enable hardware flow control
modem		# modem control line
connect "/usr/bin/chat -f /etc/ppp/login.chat.script"
noipdefault	# remote PPP serve must supply your IP address
	        # if the remote host doesn't send your IP during
                # IPCP negotiation, remove this option
passive         # wait for LCP packets
domain <your.domain>	# put your domain name here

:		# put the IP of remote PPP host here
	        # it will be used to route packets via PPP link
                # if you didn't specified the noipdefault option
                # change this line to <local_ip>:<remote_ip>

defaultroute	# put this if you want that PPP server will be
	        # your default router

/etc/ppp/login.chat.script:

注意:

The following should go on a single line.

ABORT BUSY ABORT 'NO CARRIER' "" AT OK ATDT<phone.number>
  CONNECT "" TIMEOUT 10 ogin:-\\r-ogin: <login-id>
  TIMEOUT 5 sword: <password>

Once these are installed and modified correctly, all you need to do is run pppd, like so:

# pppd

25.3.3. Using pppd as a Server

/etc/ppp/options should contain something similar to the following:

crtscts                         # Hardware flow control
netmask 255.255.255.0           # netmask (not required)
192.114.208.20:192.114.208.165  # IP's of local and remote hosts
                                # local ip must be different from one
                                # you assigned to the Ethernet (or other)
                                # interface on your machine.
                                # remote IP is IP address that will be
                                # assigned to the remote machine
domain ppp.foo.com              # your domain
passive                         # wait for LCP
modem                           # modem line

The following /etc/ppp/pppserv script will tell pppd to behave as a server:

#!/bin/sh
ps ax |grep pppd |grep -v grep
pid=`ps ax |grep pppd |grep -v grep|awk '{print $1;}'`
if [ "X${pid}" != "X" ] ; then
        echo 'killing pppd, PID=' ${pid}
        kill ${pid}
fi
ps ax |grep kermit |grep -v grep
pid=`ps ax |grep kermit |grep -v grep|awk '{print $1;}'`
if [ "X${pid}" != "X" ] ; then
        echo 'killing kermit, PID=' ${pid}
        kill -9 ${pid}
fi

# reset ppp interface
ifconfig ppp0 down
ifconfig ppp0 delete

# enable autoanswer mode
kermit -y /etc/ppp/kermit.ans

# run ppp
pppd /dev/tty01 19200

Use this /etc/ppp/pppservdown script to stop the server:

#!/bin/sh
ps ax |grep pppd |grep -v grep
pid=`ps ax |grep pppd |grep -v grep|awk '{print $1;}'`
if [ "X${pid}" != "X" ] ; then
        echo 'killing pppd, PID=' ${pid}
        kill ${pid}
fi
ps ax |grep kermit |grep -v grep
pid=`ps ax |grep kermit |grep -v grep|awk '{print $1;}'`
if [ "X${pid}" != "X" ] ; then
        echo 'killing kermit, PID=' ${pid}
        kill -9 ${pid}
fi
ifconfig ppp0 down
ifconfig ppp0 delete

kermit -y /etc/ppp/kermit.noans

The following Kermit script (/etc/ppp/kermit.ans) will enable/disable autoanswer mode on your modem. It should look like this:

set line /dev/tty01
set speed 19200
set file type binary
set file names literal
set win 8
set rec pack 1024
set send pack 1024
set block 3
set term bytesize 8
set command bytesize 8
set flow none

pau 1
out +++
inp 5 OK
out ATH0\13
inp 5 OK
echo \13
out ATS0=1\13   ; change this to out ATS0=0\13 if you want to disable
                ; autoanswer mode
inp 5 OK
echo \13
exit

A script named /etc/ppp/kermit.dial is used for dialing and authenticating on the remote host. You will need to customize it for your needs. Put your login and password in this script; you will also need to change the input statement depending on responses from your modem and remote host.

;
; put the com line attached to the modem here:
;
set line /dev/tty01
;
; put the modem speed here:
;
set speed 19200
set file type binary            ; full 8 bit file xfer
set file names literal
set win 8
set rec pack 1024
set send pack 1024
set block 3
set term bytesize 8
set command bytesize 8
set flow none
set modem hayes
set dial hangup off
set carrier auto                ; Then SET CARRIER if necessary,
set dial display on             ; Then SET DIAL if necessary,
set input echo on
set input timeout proceed
set input case ignore
def \%x 0                       ; login prompt counter
goto slhup

:slcmd                          ; put the modem in command mode
echo Put the modem in command mode.
clear                           ; Clear unread characters from input buffer
pause 1
output +++                      ; hayes escape sequence
input 1 OK\13\10                ; wait for OK
if success goto slhup
output \13
pause 1
output at\13
input 1 OK\13\10
if fail goto slcmd              ; if modem doesn't answer OK, try again

:slhup                          ; hang up the phone
clear                           ; Clear unread characters from input buffer
pause 1
echo Hanging up the phone.
output ath0\13                  ; hayes command for on hook
input 2 OK\13\10
if fail goto slcmd              ; if no OK answer, put modem in command mode

:sldial                         ; dial the number
pause 1
echo Dialing.
output atdt9,550311\13\10               ; put phone number here
assign \%x 0                    ; zero the time counter

:look
clear                           ; Clear unread characters from input buffer
increment \%x                   ; Count the seconds
input 1 {CONNECT }
if success goto sllogin
reinput 1 {NO CARRIER\13\10}
if success goto sldial
reinput 1 {NO DIALTONE\13\10}
if success goto slnodial
reinput 1 {\255}
if success goto slhup
reinput 1 {\127}
if success goto slhup
if < \%x 60 goto look
else goto slhup

:sllogin                        ; login
assign \%x 0                    ; zero the time counter
pause 1
echo Looking for login prompt.

:slloop
increment \%x                   ; Count the seconds
clear                           ; Clear unread characters from input buffer
output \13
;
; put your expected login prompt here:
;
input 1 {Username: }
if success goto sluid
reinput 1 {\255}
if success goto slhup
reinput 1 {\127}
if success goto slhup
if < \%x 10 goto slloop         ; try 10 times to get a login prompt
else goto slhup                 ; hang up and start again if 10 failures

:sluid
;
; put your userid here:
;
output ppp-login\13
input 1 {Password: }
;
; put your password here:
;
output ppp-password\13
input 1 {Entering SLIP mode.}
echo
quit

:slnodial
echo \7No dialtone.  Check the telephone line!\7
exit 1

; local variables:
; mode: csh
; comment-start: "; "
; comment-start-skip: "; "
; end:

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