27.10. File and Print Services for Microsoft® Windows® clients (Samba)

Contributed by Murray Stokely.

27.10.1. Overview

Samba is a popular open source software package that provides file and print services for Microsoft® Windows® clients. Such clients can connect to and use FreeBSD filespace as if it was a local disk drive, or FreeBSD printers as if they were local printers.

Samba software packages should be included on your FreeBSD installation media. If you did not install Samba when you first installed FreeBSD, then you can install it from the net/samba3 port or package.

27.10.2. Configuration

A default Samba configuration file is installed as /usr/local/etc/smb.conf.default. This file must be copied to /usr/local/etc/smb.conf and customized before Samba can be used.

The smb.conf file contains runtime configuration information for Samba, such as definitions of the printers and file system shares that you would like to share with Windows® clients. The Samba package includes a web based tool called swat which provides a simple way of configuring the smb.conf file.

27.10.2.1. Using the Samba Web Administration Tool (SWAT)

The Samba Web Administration Tool (SWAT) runs as a daemon from inetd. Therefore, the following line in /etc/inetd.conf should be uncommented before swat can be used to configure Samba:

swat   stream  tcp     nowait/400      root    /usr/local/sbin/swat

As explained in 範例 27.1, “Sending inetd a HangUP Signal”, a HangUP Signal must be sent to inetd after this configuration file is changed.

Once swat has been enabled in inetd.conf, you can use a browser to connect to http://localhost:901. You will first have to log on with the system root account.

Once you have successfully logged on to the main Samba configuration page, you can browse the system documentation, or begin by clicking on the Globals tab. The Globals section corresponds to the variables that are set in the [global] section of /usr/local/etc/smb.conf.

27.10.2.2. Global Settings

Whether you are using swat or editing /usr/local/etc/smb.conf directly, the first directives you are likely to encounter when configuring Samba are:

workgroup

NT Domain-Name or Workgroup-Name for the computers that will be accessing this server.

netbios name

This sets the NetBIOS name by which a Samba server is known. By default it is the same as the first component of the host's DNS name.

server string

This sets the string that will be displayed with the net view command and some other networking tools that seek to display descriptive text about the server.

27.10.2.3. Security Settings

Two of the most important settings in /usr/local/etc/smb.conf are the security model chosen, and the backend password format for client users. The following directives control these options:

security

The two most common options here are security = share and security = user. If your clients use usernames that are the same as their usernames on your FreeBSD machine then you will want to use user level security. This is the default security policy and it requires clients to first log on before they can access shared resources.

In share level security, client do not need to log onto the server with a valid username and password before attempting to connect to a shared resource. This was the default security model for older versions of Samba.

passdb backend

Samba has several different backend authentication models. You can authenticate clients with LDAP, NIS+, a SQL database, or a modified password file. The default authentication method is smbpasswd, and that is all that will be covered here.

Assuming that the default smbpasswd backend is used, the /usr/local/private/smbpasswd file must be created to allow Samba to authenticate clients. If you would like to give all of your UNIX® user accounts access from Windows® clients, use the following command:

# grep -v "^#" /etc/passwd | make_smbpasswd > /usr/local/private/smbpasswd
# chmod 600 /usr/local/private/smbpasswd

Please see the Samba documentation for additional information about configuration options. With the basics outlined here, you should have everything you need to start running Samba.

27.10.3. Starting Samba

To enable Samba when your system boots, add the following line to /etc/rc.conf:

samba_enable="YES"

You can then start Samba at any time by typing:

# /usr/local/etc/rc.d/samba.sh start
Starting SAMBA: removing stale tdbs :
Starting nmbd.
Starting smbd.

Samba actually consists of three separate daemons. You should see that both the nmbd and smbd daemons are started by the samba.sh script. If you enabled winbind name resolution services in smb.conf, then you will also see that the winbindd daemon is started.

You can stop Samba at any time by typing :

# /usr/local/etc/rc.d/samba.sh stop

Samba is a complex software suite with functionality that allows broad integration with Microsoft® Windows® networks. For more information about functionality beyond the basic installation described here, please see http://www.samba.org.

All FreeBSD documents are available for download at http://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/doc/

Questions that are not answered by the documentation may be sent to <freebsd-questions@FreeBSD.org>.
Send questions about this document to <freebsd-doc@FreeBSD.org>.