FreeBSD Glossary

This glossary contains terms and acronyms used within the FreeBSD community and documentation.

A

ACL

參見 Access Control List.

ACPI

參見 Advanced Configuration and Power Interface.

AMD

參見 Automatic Mount Daemon.

AML

參見 ACPI Machine Language.

API

參見 Application Programming Interface.

APIC

參見 Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller.

APM

參見 Advanced Power Management.

APOP

參見 Authenticated Post Office Protocol.

ASL

參見 ACPI Source Language.

ATA

參見 Advanced Technology Attachment.

ATM

參見 Asynchronous Transfer Mode.

ACPI Machine Language

Pseudocode, interpreted by a virtual machine within an ACPI-compliant operating system, providing a layer between the underlying hardware and the documented interface presented to the OS.

ACPI Source Language

The programming language AML is written in.

Access Control List

Advanced Configuration and Power Interface

A specification which provides an abstraction of the interface the hardware presents to the operating system, so that the operating system should need to know nothing about the underlying hardware to make the most of it. ACPI evolves and supercedes the functionality provided previously by APM, PNPBIOS and other technologies, and provides facilities for controlling power consumption, machine suspension, device enabling and disabling, etc.

Application Programming Interface

A set of procedures, protocols and tools that specify the canonical interaction of one or more program parts; how, when and why they do work together, and what data they share or operate on.

Advanced Power Management

Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller

Advanced Technology Attachment

Asynchronous Transfer Mode

Authenticated Post Office Protocol

Automatic Mount Daemon

A daemon that automatically mounts a filesystem when a file or directory within that filesystem is accessed.

B

BIND

參見 Berkeley Internet Name Domain.

BIOS

參見 Basic Input/Output System.

BSD

參見 Berkeley Software Distribution.

Basic Input/Output System

The definition of BIOS depends a bit on the context. Some people refer to it as the ROM chip with a basic set of routines to provide an interface between software and hardware. Others refer to it as the set of routines contained in the chip that help in bootstrapping the system. Some might also refer to it as the screen used to configure the boostrapping process. The BIOS is PC-specific but other systems have something similar.

Berkeley Internet Name Domain

An implementation of the DNS protocols.

Berkeley Software Distribution

這是由 U.C. Berkeley 的 Computer Systems Research Group(CSRG) 選來當作他們所改良、修改過的 AT&T's 32V UNIX® 名稱。FreeBSD 則是由 CSRG 的這個心血衍生出來。

Bikeshed Building

A phenomenon whereby many people will give an opinion on an uncomplicated topic, whilst a complex topic receives little or no discussion. See the FAQ for the origin of the term.

C

CD

參見 Carrier Detect.

CHAP

參見 Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol.

CLIP

參見 Classical IP over ATM.

COFF

參見 Common Object File Format.

CPU

參見 Central Processing Unit.

CTS

參見 Clear To Send.

CVS

參見 Concurrent Versions System.

Carrier Detect

An RS232C signal indicating that a carrier has been detected.

Central Processing Unit

Also known as the processor. This is the brain of the computer where all calculations take place. There are a number of different architectures with different instruction sets. Among the more well-known are the Intel-x86 and derivatives, Sun SPARC, PowerPC, and Alpha.

Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol

Classical IP over ATM

Clear To Send

An RS232C signal giving the remote system permission to send data.

Common Object File Format

Concurrent Versions System

D

DAC

參見 Discretionary Access Control.

DDB

參見 Debugger.

DES

參見 Data Encryption Standard.

DHCP

參見 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.

DNS

參見 Domain Name System.

DSDT

參見 Differentiated System Description Table.

DSR

參見 Data Set Ready.

DTR

參見 Data Terminal Ready.

DVMRP

參見 Distance-Vector Multicast Routing Protocol.

Discretionary Access Control

Data Encryption Standard

Data Set Ready

Data Terminal Ready

Debugger

Differentiated System Description Table

Distance-Vector Multicast Routing Protocol

Domain Name System

The system that converts humanly readable hostnames (i.e., mail.example.net) to Internet addresses and vice versa.

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

A protocol that dynamically assigns IP addresses to a computer (host) when it requests one from the server. The address assignment is called a lease.

E

ECOFF

參見 Extended COFF.

ELF

參見 Executable and Linking Format.

ESP

參見 Encapsulated Security Payload.

Encapsulated Security Payload

Executable and Linking Format

Extended COFF

F

FADT

參見 Fixed ACPI Description Table.

FAT

參見 File Allocation Table.

FAT16

參見 File Allocation Table (16-bit).

FTP

參見 File Transfer Protocol.

File Allocation Table

File Allocation Table (16-bit)

File Transfer Protocol

A member of the family of high-level protocols implemented on top of TCP which can be used to transfer files over a TCP/IP network.

Fixed ACPI Description Table

G

GUI

參見 Graphical User Interface.

Giant

The name of a mutual exclusion mechanism (a sleep mutex) that protects a large set of kernel resources. Although a simple locking mechanism was adequate in the days where a machine might have only a few dozen processes, one networking card, and certainly only one processor, in current times it is an unacceptable performance bottleneck. FreeBSD developers are actively working to replace it with locks that protect individual resources, which will allow a much greater degree of parallelism for both single-processor and multi-processor machines.

Graphical User Interface

A system where the user and computer interact with graphics.

H

HTML

參見 HyperText Markup Language.

HUP

參見 HangUp.

HangUp

HyperText Markup Language

The markup language used to create web pages.

I

I/O

參見 Input/Output.

IASL

參見 Intel’s ASL compiler.

IMAP

參見 Internet Message Access Protocol.

IP

參見 Internet Protocol.

IPFW

參見 IP Firewall.

IPP

參見 Internet Printing Protocol.

IPv4

參見 IP Version 4.

IPv6

參見 IP Version 6.

ISP

參見 Internet Service Provider.

IP Firewall

IP Version 4

The IP protocol version 4, which uses 32 bits for addressing. This version is still the most widely used, but it is slowly being replaced with IPv6.

另參見 IP Version 6.

IP Version 6

The new IP protocol. Invented because the address space in IPv4 is running out. Uses 128 bits for addressing.

Input/Output

Intel’s ASL compiler

Intel’s compiler for converting ASL into AML.

Internet Message Access Protocol

Internet Printing Protocol

Internet Protocol

The packet transmitting protocol that is the basic protocol on the Internet. Originally developed at the U.S. Department of Defense and an extremly important part of the TCP/IP stack. Without the Internet Protocol, the Internet would not have become what it is today. For more information, see RFC 791.

Internet Service Provider

A company that provides access to the Internet.

K

KAME

Japanese for turtle, the term KAME is used in computing circles to refer to the KAME Project, who work on an implementation of IPv6.

KDC

參見 Key Distribution Center.

KLD

參見 Kernel ld(1).

KSE

參見 Kernel Scheduler Entities.

KVA

參見 Kernel Virtual Address.

Kbps

參見 Kilo Bits Per Second.

Kernel ld(1)

Kernel Scheduler Entities

A kernel-supported threading system. See the project home page for further details.

Kernel Virtual Address

Key Distribution Center

Kilo Bits Per Second

Used to measure bandwith (how much data can pass a given point at a specified amount of time). Alternates to the Kilo prefix include Mega, Giga, Tera, and so forth.

L

LAN

參見 Local Area Network.

LOR

參見 Lock Order Reversal.

LPD

參見 Line Printer Daemon.

Line Printer Daemon

Local Area Network

A network used on a local area, e.g. office, home, or so forth.

Lock Order Reversal

The FreeBSD kernel uses a number of resource locks to arbitrate contention for those resources. A run-time lock diagnostic system found in FreeBSD-CURRENT kernels (but removed for releases), called witness(4), detects the potential for deadlocks due to locking errors. (witness(4) is actually slightly conservative, so it is possible to get false positives.) A true positive report indicates that if you were unlucky, a deadlock would have happened here.

True positive LORs tend to get fixed quickly, so check http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-current and the LORs Seen page before posting to the mailing lists.

M

MAC

參見 Mandatory Access Control.

MADT

參見 Multiple APIC Description Table.

MFC

參見 Merge From Current.

MFP4

參見 Merge From Perforce.

MFS

參見 Merge From Stable.

MIT

參見 Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

MLS

參見 Multi-Level Security.

MOTD

參見 Message Of The Day.

MTA

參見 Mail Transfer Agent.

MUA

參見 Mail User Agent.

Mail Transfer Agent

An application used to transfer email. An MTA has traditionally been part of the BSD base system. Today Sendmail is included in the base system, but there are many other MTAs, such as postfix, qmail and Exim.

Mail User Agent

An application used by users to display and write email.

Mandatory Access Control

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Merge From Current

MFC 是一個縮寫,它代表了 Merged From -CURRENT ,這字眼會在 CVS logs 中常見, 以表示這是從 -CURRENT 中整合進其他分支(通常是 -STABLE)的 patch 或功能。

Merge From Perforce

To merge functionality or a patch from the Perforce repository to the -CURRENT branch.

另參見 Perforce.

Merge From Stable

In the normal course of FreeBSD development, a change will be committed to the -CURRENT branch for testing before being merged to -STABLE. On rare occasions, a change will go into -STABLE first and then be merged to -CURRENT.

This term is also used when a patch is merged from -STABLE to a security branch.

另參見 Merge From Current.

Message Of The Day

A message, usually shown on login, often used to distribute information to users of the system.

Multi-Level Security

Multiple APIC Description Table

N

NAT

參見 Network Address Translation.

NDISulator

參見 Project Evil.

NFS

參見 Network File System.

NTFS

參見 New Technology File System.

NTP

參見 Network Time Protocol.

Network Address Translation

Network File System

New Technology File System

A filesystem developed by Microsoft and available in its New Technology operating systems, such as Windows® 2000, Windows NT® and Windows® XP.

Network Time Protocol

O

OBE

參見 Overtaken By Events.

ODMR

參見 On-Demand Mail Relay.

OS

參見 Operating System.

On-Demand Mail Relay

Operating System

A set of programs, libraries and tools that provide access to the hardware resources of a computer. Operating systems range today from simplistic designs that support only one program running at a time, accessing only one device to fully multi-user, multi-tasking and multi-process systems that can serve thousands of users simultaneously, each of them running dozens of different applications.

Overtaken By Events

Indicates a suggested change (such as a Problem Report or a feature request) which is no longer relevant or applicable due to such things as later changes to FreeBSD, changes in networking standards, the affected hardware having since become obsolete, and so forth.

P

p4

參見 Perforce.

PAE

參見 Physical Address Extensions.

PAM

參見 Pluggable Authentication Modules.

PAP

參見 Password Authentication Protocol.

PC

參見 Personal Computer.

PCNSFD

參見 Personal Computer Network File System Daemon.

PDF

參見 Portable Document Format.

PID

參見 Process ID.

POLA

參見 Principle Of Least Astonishment.

POP

參見 Post Office Protocol.

POP3

參見 Post Office Protocol Version 3.

PPD

參見 PostScript Printer Description.

PPP

參見 Point-to-Point Protocol.

PPPoA

參見 PPP over ATM.

PPPoE

參見 PPP over Ethernet.

PPP over ATM

PPP over Ethernet

PR

參見 Problem Report.

PXE

參見 Preboot eXecution Environment.

Password Authentication Protocol

Perforce

A source code control product made by Perforce Software which is more advanced than CVS. Although not open source, it use is free of charge to open-source projects such as FreeBSD.

Some FreeBSD developers use a Perforce repository as a staging area for code that is considered too experimental for the -CURRENT branch.

Personal Computer

Personal Computer Network File System Daemon

Physical Address Extensions

A method of enabling access to up to 64 GB of RAM on systems which only physically have a 32-bit wide address space (and would therefore be limited to 4 GB without PAE).

Pluggable Authentication Modules

Point-to-Point Protocol

Pointy Hat

A mythical piece of headgear, much like a dunce cap, awarded to any FreeBSD committer who breaks the build, makes revision numbers go backwards, or creates any other kind of havoc in the source base. Any committer worth his or her salt will soon accumulate a large collection. The usage is (almost always?) humorous.

Portable Document Format

Post Office Protocol

Post Office Protocol Version 3

PostScript Printer Description

Preboot eXecution Environment

Principle Of Least Astonishment

在 FreeBSD 的發展過程中,任何的改變幅度,都不該讓使用者習慣感到不適。 舉例來說:若任意調動 /etc/defaults/rc.conf 中的系統啟動順序, 就是違背 POLA 原則的精神。任何開發人員,都該在做出重大改變前, 先三思是否會與 POLA 原則有所違背。

Problem Report

A description of some kind of problem that has been found in either the FreeBSD source or documentation. See Writing FreeBSD Problem Reports.

Process ID

A number, unique to a particular process on a system, which identifies it and allows actions to be taken against it.

Project Evil

The working title for the NDISulator, written by Bill Paul, who named it referring to how awful it is (from a philosophical standpoint) to need to have something like this in the first place. The NDISulator is a special compatibility module to allow Microsoft Windows™ NDIS miniport network drivers to be used with FreeBSD/i386. This is usually the only way to use cards where the driver is closed-source. See src/sys/compat/ndis/subr_ndis.c.

R

RA

參見 Router Advertisement.

RAID

參見 Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks.

RAM

參見 Random Access Memory.

RD

參見 Received Data.

RFC

參見 Request For Comments.

RISC

參見 Reduced Instruction Set Computer.

RPC

參見 Remote Procedure Call.

RS232C

參見 Recommended Standard 232C.

RTS

參見 Request To Send.

Random Access Memory

Received Data

Recommended Standard 232C

A standard for communications between serial devices.

Reduced Instruction Set Computer

Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks

Remote Procedure Call

repocopy

參見 Repository Copy.

Repository Copy

repocopy(repository copy 的縮寫) 就是直接從 CVS repository 中複製檔案。

若不用 repocopy 的方式,那麼若要在 repository 內複製、移動檔案的話, committer 就必須執行 cvs add 來把檔案放到新位置, 並且還要執行 cvs rm 來刪除舊檔。

剛剛講的這種方式的缺點在於,該檔的之前相關紀錄 (比如在 CVS logs 中的相關項目)並不會隨之而複製到新地方去。 而 FreeBSD 計劃中認為這些歷史記錄都是相當有用的, 所以會經常採用 repository copy 的方式。 這也就是為何 repository 管理員會直接在 repository 內複製檔案的方式, 而非採取 cvs(1) 程式來進行 cvs addcvs rm之類的動作。

Request For Comments

A set of documents defining Internet standards, protocols, and so forth. See www.rfc-editor.org.

Also used as a general term when someone has a suggested change and wants feedback.

Request To Send

Router Advertisement

S

SCI

參見 System Control Interrupt.

SCSI

參見 Small Computer System Interface.

SG

參見 Signal Ground.

SMB

參見 Server Message Block.

SMP

參見 Symmetric MultiProcessor.

SMTP

參見 Simple Mail Transfer Protocol.

SMTP AUTH

參見 SMTP Authentication.

SSH

參見 Secure Shell.

STR

參見 Suspend To RAM.

SMTP Authentication

Server Message Block

Signal Ground

An RS232 pin or wire that is the ground reference for the signal.

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

Secure Shell

Small Computer System Interface

Suspend To RAM

Symmetric MultiProcessor

System Control Interrupt

T

TCP

參見 Transmission Control Protocol.

TCP/IP

參見 Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol.

TD

參見 Transmitted Data.

TFTP

參見 Trivial FTP.

TGT

參見 Ticket-Granting Ticket.

TSC

參見 Time Stamp Counter.

Ticket-Granting Ticket

Time Stamp Counter

A profiling counter internal to modern Pentium® processors that counts core frequency clock ticks.

Transmission Control Protocol

A protocol that sits on top of (e.g.) the IP protocol and guarantees that packets are delivered in a reliable, ordered, fashion.

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol

The term for the combination of the TCP protocol running over the IP protocol. Much of the Internet runs over TCP/IP.

Transmitted Data

Trivial FTP

U

UDP

參見 User Datagram Protocol.

UFS1

參見 Unix File System Version 1.

UFS2

參見 Unix File System Version 2.

UID

參見 User ID.

URL

參見 Uniform Resource Locator.

USB

參見 Universal Serial Bus.

Uniform Resource Locator

Unix File System Version 1

Unix File System Version 2

Universal Serial Bus

User ID

A unique number assigned to each user of a computer, by which the resources and permissions assigned to that user can be identified.

User Datagram Protocol

V

VPN

參見 Virtual Private Network.

Virtual Private Network

All FreeBSD documents are available for download at http://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/doc/

Questions that are not answered by the documentation may be sent to <freebsd-questions@FreeBSD.org>.
Send questions about this document to <freebsd-doc@FreeBSD.org>.