給讀者的話

若您是第一次接觸 FreeBSD 的新手,可以在本書第一部分找到 FreeBSD 的安裝方法,同時會逐步介紹 UNIX® 的基礎概念與一些常用、共通的東西。而閱讀這部分並不難,只需要您有探索的精神和接受新概念。

讀完這些之後,手冊中的第二部分花很長篇幅介紹的各種廣泛主題,相當值得系統管理者去注意。 在閱讀這些章節的內容時所需要的背景知識,都註釋在該章的大綱裡面,若不熟的話,可在閱讀前先預習一番。

延伸閱讀方面,可參閱 附錄 B, 參考文獻

第三版的主要修訂

您目前看到的這本手冊第三版是 FreeBSD 文件計劃的成員歷時兩年完成的心血之作。 新版的主要修訂部分,如下:

第二版的主要修訂

本手冊的第二版是 FreeBSD 文件計劃的成員歷時兩年完成的心血之作。第二版包含了如下的主要變動︰

本書架構

本書主要分為五大部分,第一部份『開始使用』:介紹 FreeBSD 的安裝、基本操作。 讀者可根據自己的程度,循序或者跳過一些熟悉的主題來閱讀; 第二部分『常用操作』:介紹 FreeBSD 常用功能,這部分可以不按順序來讀。 每章前面都會有概述,概述會描述本章節涵蓋的內容和讀者應該已知的, 這主要是讓讀者可以挑喜歡的章節閱讀; 第三部分『系統管理』:介紹 FreeBSD 老手所感興趣的各種專題部分; 第四部分『網路通訊』:則包括網路和各式 Server 專題;而第五部分『附錄』:是各種有關 FreeBSD 的資源。

章 1, 簡介, 簡介篇

向新手介紹 FreeBSD。該篇說明了 FreeBSD 計劃的歷史、目標和開發模式。

章 2, 安裝 FreeBSD, 安裝篇

介紹安裝程序。其中還有介紹一些進階的安裝主題,包括像是如何透過 serial console 來安裝。

章 3, UNIX 基礎概念, UNIX® 基礎概念篇

Covers the basic commands and functionality of the FreeBSD operating system. If you are familiar with Linux® or another flavor of UNIX® then you can probably skip this chapter.

章 4, 軟體套件管理篇:Packages 及 Ports 機制, 軟體套件管理篇

Covers the installation of third-party software with both FreeBSD's innovative Ports Collection and standard binary packages.

章 5, X Window 視窗系統, X Window 視窗系統篇

Describes the X Window System in general and using X11 on FreeBSD in particular. Also describes common desktop environments such as KDE and GNOME.

章 6, 桌面環境應用程式, Desktop Applications

Lists some common desktop applications, such as web browsers and productivity suites, and describes how to install them on FreeBSD.

章 7, 多媒體影音娛樂(Multimedia), Multimedia

Shows how to set up sound and video playback support for your system. Also describes some sample audio and video applications.

章 8, 設定 FreeBSD Kernel, Configuring the FreeBSD Kernel

Explains why you might need to configure a new kernel and provides detailed instructions for configuring, building, and installing a custom kernel.

章 9, 列印, 列印篇

Describes managing printers on FreeBSD, including information about banner pages, printer accounting, and initial setup.

章 10, 與 Linux Binary 的相容方面, Linux® Binary Compatibility

Describes the Linux® compatibility features of FreeBSD. Also provides detailed installation instructions for many popular Linux® applications such as Oracle®, SAP® R/3®, and Mathematica®.

章 11, 設定與效能調校(Tuning), Configuration and Tuning

Describes the parameters available for system administrators to tune a FreeBSD system for optimum performance. Also describes the various configuration files used in FreeBSD and where to find them.

章 12, FreeBSD 開機流程篇, Booting Process

Describes the FreeBSD boot process and explains how to control this process with configuration options.

章 13, 使用者與基本帳號管理, Users and Basic Account Management

Describes the creation and manipulation of user accounts. Also discusses resource limitations that can be set on users and other account management tasks.

章 14, 系統安全, Security

Describes many different tools available to help keep your FreeBSD system secure, including Kerberos, IPsec and OpenSSH.

章 16, Mandatory Access Control, Mandatory Access Control

Explains what Mandatory Access Control (MAC) is and how this mechanism can be used to secure a FreeBSD system.

章 18, 儲存設備篇, Storage

Describes how to manage storage media and filesystems with FreeBSD. This includes physical disks, RAID arrays, optical and tape media, memory-backed disks, and network filesystems.

章 19, GEOM: Modular Disk Transformation Framework, GEOM

Describes what the GEOM framework in FreeBSD is and how to configure various supported RAID levels.

章 20, The Vinum Volume Manager, Vinum

Describes how to use Vinum, a logical volume manager which provides device-independent logical disks, and software RAID-0, RAID-1 and RAID-5.

章 22, 語系設定 - I18N/L10N 用法與設定, Localization

Describes how to use FreeBSD in languages other than English. Covers both system and application level localization.

章 23, 更新、升級 FreeBSD, The Cutting Edge

Explains the differences between FreeBSD-STABLE, FreeBSD-CURRENT, and FreeBSD releases. Describes which users would benefit from tracking a development system and outlines that process.

章 24, Serial Communications, Serial Communications

Explains how to connect terminals and modems to your FreeBSD system for both dial in and dial out connections.

章 25, PPP and SLIP, PPP and SLIP

Describes how to use PPP, SLIP, or PPP over Ethernet to connect to remote systems with FreeBSD.

章 26, 電子郵件, Electronic Mail

Explains the different components of an email server and dives into simple configuration topics for the most popular mail server software: sendmail.

章 27, Network Servers, Network Servers

Provides detailed instructions and example configuration files to set up your FreeBSD machine as a network filesystem server, domain name server, network information system server, or time synchronization server.

章 28, 防火牆, Firewalls

Explains the philosophy behind software-based firewalls and provides detailed information about the configuration of the different firewalls available for FreeBSD.

章 29, 網路進階練功房, Advanced Networking

Describes many networking topics, including sharing an Internet connection with other computers on your LAN, advanced routing topics, wireless networking, bluetooth, ATM, IPv6, and much more.

附錄 A, 取得 FreeBSD 的方式, Obtaining FreeBSD

Lists different sources for obtaining FreeBSD media on CDROM or DVD as well as different sites on the Internet that allow you to download and install FreeBSD.

附錄 B, 參考文獻, Bibliography

This book touches on many different subjects that may leave you hungry for a more detailed explanation. The bibliography lists many excellent books that are referenced in the text.

附錄 C, 網際網路上的資源, Resources on the Internet

Describes the many forums available for FreeBSD users to post questions and engage in technical conversations about FreeBSD.

附錄 D, PGP Keys, PGP Keys

Lists the PGP fingerprints of several FreeBSD Developers.

本書的編排體裁

為方便閱讀本書,以下是一些本書所遵循的編排體裁:

文字編排體裁

斜體字(Italic)

斜體字型(Italic) 用於:檔名、目錄、網址(URL)、 強調語氣、以及第一次提及的技術詞彙。

定寬字(Monospace)

定寬字(Monospace) 用於: 錯誤訊息、指令、環境變數、port 名稱、主機名稱(hostname)、帳號、群組、設備(device)名稱、變數、 程式碼等。

粗體字型(Bold)

粗體字表示:應用程式、命令、按鍵。

使用者輸入

鍵盤輸入以 粗體字(Bold) 表示,以便與一般文字做區隔。 組合鍵是指同時按下一些按鍵,我們以 `+' 來表示連接,像是:

Ctrl+Alt+Del

也就是說,一起按 Ctrl 鍵、 Alt 鍵,以及 Del 鍵。

若要逐一按鍵,那麼會以逗號(,)來表示,像是:

Ctrl+X, Ctrl+S

也就是說:先同時按下 CtrlX 鍵, 然後放開後再同時按 CtrlS 鍵。

舉個實例

下面例子以 E:\> 為開頭的代表 MS-DOS® 指令部分。 若沒有特殊情況的話,這些指令應該是在 Microsoft® Windows® 環境的 命令提示字元(Command Prompt) 內執行。

E:\> tools\fdimage floppies\kern.flp A:

例子若是先以 # 為開頭再接指令的話,就是指在 FreeBSD 中以 root 權限來下命令。 你可以先以 root登入系統並下指令,或是以你自己的帳號登入,並使用 su(1) 來取得 root 權限。

# dd if=kern.flp of=/dev/fd0

例子若是先以 % 為開頭再接指令的話,就是指在 FreeBSD 中以一般帳號來下命令即可。 除非有提到其他用法,否則都是預設為 C-shell(csh/tcsh) 語法,用來設定環境變數以及下其他指令的意思。

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致謝

您所看到的這本書是經過數百個分散在世界各地的人所努力而來的結果。 無論他們只是糾正一些錯誤或提交完整的章節,所有的點滴貢獻都是非常寶貴有用的。

也有一些公司透過提供資金讓作者專注於撰稿、提供出版資金等模式來支持文件的寫作。 其中,BSDi (之後併入 Wind River Systems) 資助 FreeBSD 文件計劃成員來專職改善這本書直到 2000 年 3 月第一版的出版。(ISBN 1-57176-241-8) Wind River Systems 同時資助其他作者來對輸出架構做很多改進,以及給文章增加一些附加章節。這項工作結束於 2001 年 11 月第二版。(ISBN 1-57176-303-1) 在 2003-2004 兩年中,FreeBSD Mall 把報酬支付給改進這本手冊以使第三版印刷版本能夠出版的志工。

All FreeBSD documents are available for download at http://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/doc/

Questions that are not answered by the documentation may be sent to <freebsd-questions@FreeBSD.org>.
Send questions about this document to <freebsd-doc@FreeBSD.org>.