FreeBSD Glossary

This glossary contains terms and acronyms used within the FreeBSD community and documentation.

A

ACL

Access Control List参照

ACPI

Advanced Configuration and Power Interface参照

AMD

Automatic Mount Daemon参照

AML

ACPI Machine Language参照

API

Application Programming Interface参照

APIC

Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller参照

APM

Advanced Power Management参照

APOP

Authenticated Post Office Protocol参照

ASL

ACPI Source Language参照

ATA

Advanced Technology Attachment参照

ATM

Asynchronous Transfer Mode参照

ACPI Machine Language

Pseudocode, interpreted by a virtual machine within an ACPI-compliant operating system, providing a layer between the underlying hardware and the documented interface presented to the OS.

ACPI Source Language

The programming language AML is written in.

Access Control List

A list of permissions attached to an object, usually either a file or a network device.

Advanced Configuration and Power Interface

A specification which provides an abstraction of the interface the hardware presents to the operating system, so that the operating system should need to know nothing about the underlying hardware to make the most of it. ACPI evolves and supersedes the functionality provided previously by APM, PNPBIOS and other technologies, and provides facilities for controlling power consumption, machine suspension, device enabling and disabling, etc.

Application Programming Interface

A set of procedures, protocols and tools that specify the canonical interaction of one or more program parts; how, when and why they do work together, and what data they share or operate on.

Advanced Power Management

An API enabling the operating system to work in conjunction with the BIOS in order to achieve power management. APM has been superseded by the much more generic and powerful ACPI specification for most applications.

Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller

Advanced Technology Attachment

Asynchronous Transfer Mode

Authenticated Post Office Protocol

Automatic Mount Daemon

A daemon that automatically mounts a filesystem when a file or directory within that filesystem is accessed.

B

BAR

Base Address Register参照

BIND

Berkeley Internet Name Domain参照

BIOS

Basic Input/Output System参照

BSD

Berkeley Software Distribution参照

Base Address Register

The registers that determine which address range a PCI device will respond to.

Basic Input/Output System

The definition of BIOS depends a bit on the context. Some people refer to it as the ROM chip with a basic set of routines to provide an interface between software and hardware. Others refer to it as the set of routines contained in the chip that help in bootstrapping the system. Some might also refer to it as the screen used to configure the boostrapping process. The BIOS is PC-specific but other systems have something similar.

Berkeley Internet Name Domain

An implementation of the DNS protocols.

Berkeley Software Distribution

This is the name that the Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG) at The University of California at Berkeley gave to their improvements and modifications to AT&T's 32V UNIX®. FreeBSD is a descendant of the CSRG work.

Bikeshed Building

A phenomenon whereby many people will give an opinion on an uncomplicated topic, whilst a complex topic receives little or no discussion. See the FAQ for the origin of the term.

C

CD

Carrier Detect参照

CHAP

Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol参照

CLIP

Classical IP over ATM参照

COFF

Common Object File Format参照

CPU

Central Processing Unit参照

CTS

Clear To Send参照

CVS

Concurrent Versions System参照

Carrier Detect

An RS232C signal indicating that a carrier has been detected.

Central Processing Unit

Also known as the processor. This is the brain of the computer where all calculations take place. There are a number of different architectures with different instruction sets. Among the more well-known are the Intel-x86 and derivatives, Sun SPARC, PowerPC, and Alpha.

Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol

A method of authenticating a user, based on a secret shared between client and server.

Classical IP over ATM

Clear To Send

An RS232C signal giving the remote system permission to send data.

Request To Send参照

Common Object File Format

Concurrent Versions System

A version control system, providing a method of working with and keeping track of many different revisions of files. CVS provides the ability to extract, merge and revert individual changes or sets of changes, and offers the ability to keep track of which changes were made, by who and for what reason.

D

DAC

Discretionary Access Control参照

DDB

Debugger参照

DES

Data Encryption Standard参照

DHCP

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol参照

DNS

Domain Name System参照

DSDT

Differentiated System Description Table参照

DSR

Data Set Ready参照

DTR

Data Terminal Ready参照

DVMRP

Distance-Vector Multicast Routing Protocol参照

Discretionary Access Control

Data Encryption Standard

A method of encrypting information, traditionally used as the method of encryption for UNIX® passwords and the crypt(3) function.

Data Set Ready

An RS232C signal sent from the modem to the computer or terminal indicating a readiness to send and receive data.

Data Terminal Ready参照

Data Terminal Ready

An RS232C signal sent from the computer or terminal to the modem indicating a readiness to send and receive data.

Debugger

An interactive in-kernel facility for examining the status of a system, often used after a system has crashed to establish the events surrounding the failure.

Differentiated System Description Table

An ACPI table, supplying basic configuration information about the base system.

Distance-Vector Multicast Routing Protocol

Domain Name System

The system that converts humanly readable hostnames (i.e., mail.example.net) to Internet addresses and vice versa.

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

A protocol that dynamically assigns IP addresses to a computer (host) when it requests one from the server. The address assignment is called a lease.

E

ECOFF

Extended COFF参照

ELF

Executable and Linking Format参照

ESP

Encapsulated Security Payload参照

Encapsulated Security Payload

Executable and Linking Format

Extended COFF

F

FADT

Fixed ACPI Description Table参照

FAT

File Allocation Table参照

FAT16

File Allocation Table (16-bit)参照

FTP

File Transfer Protocol参照

File Allocation Table

File Allocation Table (16-bit)

File Transfer Protocol

A member of the family of high-level protocols implemented on top of TCP which can be used to transfer files over a TCP/IP network.

Fixed ACPI Description Table

G

GUI

Graphical User Interface参照

Giant

The name of a mutual exclusion mechanism (a sleep mutex) that protects a large set of kernel resources. Although a simple locking mechanism was adequate in the days where a machine might have only a few dozen processes, one networking card, and certainly only one processor, in current times it is an unacceptable performance bottleneck. FreeBSD developers are actively working to replace it with locks that protect individual resources, which will allow a much greater degree of parallelism for both single-processor and multi-processor machines.

Graphical User Interface

A system where the user and computer interact with graphics.

H

HTML

HyperText Markup Language参照

HUP

HangUp参照

HangUp

HyperText Markup Language

The markup language used to create web pages.

I

I/O

Input/Output参照

IASL

Intel’s ASL compiler参照

IMAP

Internet Message Access Protocol参照

IP

Internet Protocol参照

IPFW

IP Firewall参照

IPP

Internet Printing Protocol参照

IPv4

IP Version 4参照

IPv6

IP Version 6参照

ISP

Internet Service Provider参照

IP Firewall

IP Version 4

The IP protocol version 4, which uses 32 bits for addressing. This version is still the most widely used, but it is slowly being replaced with IPv6.

IP Version 6参照

IP Version 6

The new IP protocol. Invented because the address space in IPv4 is running out. Uses 128 bits for addressing.

Input/Output

Intel’s ASL compiler

Intel’s compiler for converting ASL into AML.

Internet Message Access Protocol

A protocol for accessing email messages on a mail server, characterised by the messages usually being kept on the server as opposed to being downloaded to the mail reader client.

Post Office Protocol Version 3参照

Internet Printing Protocol

Internet Protocol

The packet transmitting protocol that is the basic protocol on the Internet. Originally developed at the U.S. Department of Defense and an extremely important part of the TCP/IP stack. Without the Internet Protocol, the Internet would not have become what it is today. For more information, see RFC 791.

Internet Service Provider

A company that provides access to the Internet.

K

KAME

Japanese for turtle, the term KAME is used in computing circles to refer to the KAME Project, who work on an implementation of IPv6.

KDC

Key Distribution Center参照

KLD

Kernel ld(1)参照

KSE

Kernel Scheduler Entities参照

KVA

Kernel Virtual Address参照

Kbps

Kilo Bits Per Second参照

Kernel ld(1)

A method of dynamically loading functionality into a FreeBSD kernel without rebooting the system.

Kernel Scheduler Entities

A kernel-supported threading system. See the project home page for further details.

Kernel Virtual Address

Key Distribution Center

Kilo Bits Per Second

Used to measure bandwidth (how much data can pass a given point at a specified amount of time). Alternates to the Kilo prefix include Mega, Giga, Tera, and so forth.

L

LAN

Local Area Network参照

LOR

Lock Order Reversal参照

LPD

Line Printer Daemon参照

Line Printer Daemon

Local Area Network

A network used on a local area, e.g. office, home, or so forth.

Lock Order Reversal

The FreeBSD kernel uses a number of resource locks to arbitrate contention for those resources. A run-time lock diagnostic system found in FreeBSD-CURRENT kernels (but removed for releases), called witness(4), detects the potential for deadlocks due to locking errors. (witness(4) is actually slightly conservative, so it is possible to get false positives.) A true positive report indicates that if you were unlucky, a deadlock would have happened here.

True positive LORs tend to get fixed quickly, so check http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-current and the LORs Seen page before posting to the mailing lists.

M

MAC

Mandatory Access Control参照

MADT

Multiple APIC Description Table参照

MFC

Merge From Current参照

MFP4

Merge From Perforce参照

MFS

Merge From Stable参照

MIT

Massachusetts Institute of Technology参照

MLS

Multi-Level Security参照

MOTD

Message Of The Day参照

MTA

Mail Transfer Agent参照

MUA

Mail User Agent参照

Mail Transfer Agent

An application used to transfer email. An MTA has traditionally been part of the BSD base system. Today Sendmail is included in the base system, but there are many other MTAs, such as postfix, qmail and Exim.

Mail User Agent

An application used by users to display and write email.

Mandatory Access Control

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Merge From Current

To merge functionality or a patch from the -CURRENT branch to another, most often -STABLE.

Merge From Perforce

To merge functionality or a patch from the Perforce repository to the -CURRENT branch.

Perforce参照

Merge From Stable

In the normal course of FreeBSD development, a change will be committed to the -CURRENT branch for testing before being merged to -STABLE. On rare occasions, a change will go into -STABLE first and then be merged to -CURRENT.

This term is also used when a patch is merged from -STABLE to a security branch.

Merge From Current参照

Message Of The Day

A message, usually shown on login, often used to distribute information to users of the system.

Multi-Level Security

Multiple APIC Description Table

N

NAT

Network Address Translation参照

NDISulator

Project Evil参照

NFS

Network File System参照

NTFS

New Technology File System参照

NTP

Network Time Protocol参照

Network Address Translation

A technique where IP packets are rewritten on the way through a gateway, enabling many machines behind the gateway to effectively share a single IP address.

Network File System

New Technology File System

A filesystem developed by Microsoft and available in its New Technology operating systems, such as Windows® 2000, Windows NT® and Windows® XP.

Network Time Protocol

A means of synchronizing clocks over a network.

O

OBE

Overtaken By Events参照

ODMR

On-Demand Mail Relay参照

OS

Operating System参照

On-Demand Mail Relay

Operating System

A set of programs, libraries and tools that provide access to the hardware resources of a computer. Operating systems range today from simplistic designs that support only one program running at a time, accessing only one device to fully multi-user, multi-tasking and multi-process systems that can serve thousands of users simultaneously, each of them running dozens of different applications.

Overtaken By Events

Indicates a suggested change (such as a Problem Report or a feature request) which is no longer relevant or applicable due to such things as later changes to FreeBSD, changes in networking standards, the affected hardware having since become obsolete, and so forth.

P

p4

Perforce参照

PAE

Physical Address Extensions参照

PAM

Pluggable Authentication Modules参照

PAP

Password Authentication Protocol参照

PC

Personal Computer参照

PCNSFD

Personal Computer Network File System Daemon参照

PDF

Portable Document Format参照

PID

Process ID参照

POLA

Principle Of Least Astonishment参照

POP

Post Office Protocol参照

POP3

Post Office Protocol Version 3参照

PPD

PostScript Printer Description参照

PPP

Point-to-Point Protocol参照

PPPoA

PPP over ATM参照

PPPoE

PPP over Ethernet参照

PPP over ATM

PPP over Ethernet

PR

Problem Report参照

PXE

Preboot eXecution Environment参照

Password Authentication Protocol

Perforce

A source code control product made by Perforce Software which is more advanced than CVS. Although not open source, its use is free of charge to open-source projects such as FreeBSD.

Some FreeBSD developers use a Perforce repository as a staging area for code that is considered too experimental for the -CURRENT branch.

Personal Computer

Personal Computer Network File System Daemon

Physical Address Extensions

A method of enabling access to up to 64 GB of RAM on systems which only physically have a 32-bit wide address space (and would therefore be limited to 4 GB without PAE).

Pluggable Authentication Modules

Point-to-Point Protocol

Pointy Hat

A mythical piece of headgear, much like a dunce cap, awarded to any FreeBSD committer who breaks the build, makes revision numbers go backwards, or creates any other kind of havoc in the source base. Any committer worth his or her salt will soon accumulate a large collection. The usage is (almost always?) humorous.

Portable Document Format

Post Office Protocol

Post Office Protocol Version 3参照

Post Office Protocol Version 3

A protocol for accessing email messages on a mail server, characterised by the messages usually being downloaded from the server to the client, as opposed to remaining on the server.

Internet Message Access Protocol参照

PostScript Printer Description

Preboot eXecution Environment

Principle Of Least Astonishment

As FreeBSD evolves, changes visible to the user should be kept as unsurprising as possible. For example, arbitrarily rearranging system startup variables in /etc/defaults/rc.conf violates POLA. Developers consider POLA when contemplating user-visible system changes.

Problem Report

A description of some kind of problem that has been found in either the FreeBSD source or documentation. See Writing FreeBSD Problem Reports.

Process ID

A number, unique to a particular process on a system, which identifies it and allows actions to be taken against it.

Project Evil

The working title for the NDISulator, written by Bill Paul, who named it referring to how awful it is (from a philosophical standpoint) to need to have something like this in the first place. The NDISulator is a special compatibility module to allow Microsoft Windows™ NDIS miniport network drivers to be used with FreeBSD/i386. This is usually the only way to use cards where the driver is closed-source. See src/sys/compat/ndis/subr_ndis.c.

R

RA

Router Advertisement参照

RAID

Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks参照

RAM

Random Access Memory参照

RD

Received Data参照

RFC

Request For Comments参照

RISC

Reduced Instruction Set Computer参照

RPC

Remote Procedure Call参照

RS232C

Recommended Standard 232C参照

RTS

Request To Send参照

Random Access Memory

Revision Control System

The Revision Control System (RCS) is one of the oldest software suites that implement revision control for plain files. It allows the storage, retrieval, archival, logging, identification and merging of multiple revisions for each file. RCS consists of many small tools that work together. It lacks some of the features found in more modern revision control systems, like CVS or Subversion, but it is very simple to install, configure, and start using for a small set of files. Implementations of RCS can be found on every major UNIX-like OS.

Concurrent Versions System, Subversion参照

Received Data

An RS232C pin or wire that data is received on.

Transmitted Data参照

Recommended Standard 232C

A standard for communications between serial devices.

Reduced Instruction Set Computer

An approach to processor design where the operations the hardware can perform are simplified but made as general purpose as possible. This can lead to lower power consumption, fewer transistors and in some cases, better performance and increased code density. Examples of RISC processors include the Alpha, SPARC®, ARM® and PowerPC®.

Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks

Remote Procedure Call

repocopy

Repository Copy参照

Repository Copy

A direct copying of files within the CVS repository.

Without a repocopy, if a file needed to be copied or moved to another place in the repository, the committer would run cvs add to put the file in its new location, and then cvs rm on the old file if the old copy was being removed.

The disadvantage of this method is that the history (i.e. the entries in the CVS logs) of the file would not be copied to the new location. As the FreeBSD Project considers this history very useful, a repository copy is often used instead. This is a process where one of the repository meisters will copy the files directly within the repository, rather than using the cvs(1) program.

Request For Comments

A set of documents defining Internet standards, protocols, and so forth. See www.rfc-editor.org.

Also used as a general term when someone has a suggested change and wants feedback.

Request To Send

An RS232C signal requesting that the remote system commences transmission of data.

Clear To Send参照

Router Advertisement

S

SCI

System Control Interrupt参照

SCSI

Small Computer System Interface参照

SG

Signal Ground参照

SMB

Server Message Block参照

SMP

Symmetric MultiProcessor参照

SMTP

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol参照

SMTP AUTH

SMTP Authentication参照

SSH

Secure Shell参照

STR

Suspend To RAM参照

SVN

Subversion参照

SMTP Authentication

Server Message Block

Signal Ground

An RS232 pin or wire that is the ground reference for the signal.

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

Secure Shell

Small Computer System Interface

Subversion

Subversion is a version control system, similar to CVS, but with an expanded feature list.

Concurrent Versions System参照

Suspend To RAM

Symmetric MultiProcessor

System Control Interrupt

T

TCP

Transmission Control Protocol参照

TCP/IP

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol参照

TD

Transmitted Data参照

TFTP

Trivial FTP参照

TGT

Ticket-Granting Ticket参照

TSC

Time Stamp Counter参照

Ticket-Granting Ticket

Time Stamp Counter

A profiling counter internal to modern Pentium® processors that counts core frequency clock ticks.

Transmission Control Protocol

A protocol that sits on top of (e.g.) the IP protocol and guarantees that packets are delivered in a reliable, ordered, fashion.

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol

The term for the combination of the TCP protocol running over the IP protocol. Much of the Internet runs over TCP/IP.

Transmitted Data

An RS232C pin or wire that data is transmitted on.

Received Data参照

Trivial FTP

U

UDP

User Datagram Protocol参照

UFS1

Unix File System Version 1参照

UFS2

Unix File System Version 2参照

UID

User ID参照

URL

Uniform Resource Locator参照

USB

Universal Serial Bus参照

Uniform Resource Locator

A method of locating a resource, such as a document on the Internet and a means to identify that resource.

Unix File System Version 1

The original UNIX® file system, sometimes called the Berkeley Fast File System.

Unix File System Version 2

An extension to UFS1, introduced in FreeBSD 5-CURRENT. UFS2 adds 64 bit block pointers (breaking the 1T barrier), support for extended file storage and other features.

Universal Serial Bus

A hardware standard used to connect a wide variety of computer peripherals to a universal interface.

User ID

A unique number assigned to each user of a computer, by which the resources and permissions assigned to that user can be identified.

User Datagram Protocol

A simple, unreliable datagram protocol which is used for exchanging data on a TCP/IP network. UDP does not provide error checking and correction like TCP.

V

VPN

Virtual Private Network参照

Virtual Private Network

A method of using a public telecommunication such as the Internet, to provide remote access to a localized network, such as a corporate LAN.

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