3.10. Post-installation

Configuration of various options can be performed after a successful installation. An option can be configured by re-entering the configuration menus before booting the new FreeBSD system or after boot using sysinstall(8) and then selecting the Configure menu.

3.10.1. Network Device Configuration

If PPP was previously configured for an FTP install, this screen will not display and can be configured after boot as described above.

For detailed information on Local Area Networks and configuring FreeBSD as a gateway/router refer to the Advanced Networking chapter.

                      User Confirmation Requested
   Would you like to configure any Ethernet or PPP network devices?

                             [ Yes ]   No

To configure a network device, select [ Yes ] and press Enter. Otherwise, select [ No ] to continue.

Figure 3.28. Selecting an Ethernet Device
Selecting an Ethernet Device

Select the interface to be configured with the arrow keys and press Enter.

                      User Confirmation Requested
       Do you want to try IPv6 configuration of the interface?

                              Yes   [ No ]

In this private local area network, the current Internet type protocol (IPv4) was sufficient and [ No ] was selected with the arrow keys and Enter pressed.

If connected to an existing IPv6 network with an RA server, choose [ Yes ] and press Enter. It will take several seconds to scan for RA servers.

                             User Confirmation Requested
        Do you want to try DHCP configuration of the interface?

                              Yes   [ No ]

If Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol DHCP) is not required, select [ No ] with the arrow keys and press Enter.

Selecting [ Yes ] will execute dhclient(8) and, if successful, will fill in the network configuration information automatically. Refer to Section 28.6, “Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)” for more information.

The following Network Configuration screen shows the configuration of the Ethernet device for a system that will act as the gateway for a Local Area Network.

Figure 3.29. Set Network Configuration for ed0
Set Network Configuration for ed0

Use Tab to select the information fields and fill in appropriate information:

Host

The fully-qualified hostname, such as k6-2.example.com in this case.

Domain

The name of the domain that the machine is in, such as example.com for this case.

IPv4 Gateway

IP address of host forwarding packets to non-local destinations. This must be filled in if the machine is a node on the network. Leave this field blank if the machine is the gateway to the Internet for the network. The IPv4 Gateway is also known as the default gateway or default route.

Name server

IP address of the local DNS server. There is no local DNS server on this private local area network so the IP address of the provider's DNS server (208.163.10.2) was used.

IPv4 address

The IP address to be used for this interface was 192.168.0.1

Netmask

The address block being used for this local area network is 192.168.0.0 - 192.168.0.255 with a netmask of 255.255.255.0.

Extra options to ifconfig(8)

Any additional interface-specific options to ifconfig(8). There were none in this case.

Use Tab to select [ OK ] when finished and press Enter.

                      User Confirmation Requested
        Would you like to bring the ed0 interface up right now?

                             [ Yes ]   No

Choosing [ Yes ] and pressing Enter will bring the machine up on the network so it is ready for use. However, this does not accomplish much during installation, since the machine still needs to be rebooted.

3.10.2. Configure Gateway

                       User Confirmation Requested
       Do you want this machine to function as a network gateway?

                              [ Yes ]    No

If the machine will be acting as the gateway for a local area network and forwarding packets between other machines, select [ Yes ] and press Enter. If the machine is a node on a network, select [ No ] and press Enter to continue.

3.10.3. Configure Internet Services

                      User Confirmation Requested
Do you want to configure inetd and the network services that it provides?

                               Yes   [ No ]

If [ No ] is selected, various services will not be enabled. These services can be enabled after installation by editing /etc/inetd.conf with a text editor. See Section 28.2.1, “Configuration File” for more information.

Otherwise, select [ Yes ] to configure these services during install. An additional confirmation will display:

                      User Confirmation Requested
The Internet Super Server (inetd) allows a number of simple Internet
services to be enabled, including finger, ftp and telnetd.  Enabling
these services may increase risk of security problems by increasing
the exposure of your system.

With this in mind, do you wish to enable inetd?

                             [ Yes ]   No

Select [ Yes ] to continue.

                      User Confirmation Requested
inetd(8) relies on its configuration file, /etc/inetd.conf, to determine
which of its Internet services will be available.  The default FreeBSD
inetd.conf(5) leaves all services disabled by default, so they must be
specifically enabled in the configuration file before they will
function, even once inetd(8) is enabled.  Note that services for
IPv6 must be separately enabled from IPv4 services.

Select [Yes] now to invoke an editor on /etc/inetd.conf, or [No] to
use the current settings.

                             [ Yes ]   No

Selecting [ Yes ] allows services to be enabled by deleting the # at the beginning of the lines representing those services.

Figure 3.30. Editing inetd.conf
Editing inetd.conf

Once the edits are complete, press Esc to display a menu which will exit the editor and save the changes.

3.10.4. Enabling SSH Login

                      User Confirmation Requested
                  Would you like to enable SSH login?
                           Yes        [  No  ]

Selecting [ Yes ] will enable sshd(8), the daemon for OpenSSH. This allows secure remote access to the machine. For more information about OpenSSH, see Section 14.8, “OpenSSH”.

3.10.5. Anonymous FTP

                      User Confirmation Requested
 Do you want to have anonymous FTP access to this machine?

                              Yes    [ No ]

3.10.5.1. Deny Anonymous FTP

Selecting the default [ No ] and pressing Enter will still allow users who have accounts with passwords to use FTP to access the machine.

3.10.5.2. Allow Anonymous FTP

Anyone can access the machine if anonymous FTP connections are allowed. The security implications should be considered before enabling this option. For more information about security, see Chapter 14, Security.

To allow anonymous FTP, use the arrow keys to select [ Yes ] and press Enter. An additional confirmation will display:

                       User Confirmation Requested
 Anonymous FTP permits un-authenticated users to connect to the system
 FTP server, if FTP service is enabled.  Anonymous users are
 restricted to a specific subset of the file system, and the default
 configuration provides a drop-box incoming directory to which uploads
 are permitted.  You must separately enable both inetd(8), and enable
 ftpd(8) in inetd.conf(5) for FTP services to be available.  If you
 did not do so earlier, you will have the opportunity to enable inetd(8)
 again later.

 If you want the server to be read-only you should leave the upload
 directory option empty and add the -r command-line option to ftpd(8)
 in inetd.conf(5)

 Do you wish to continue configuring anonymous FTP?

                          [ Yes ]         No

This message indicates that the FTP service will also have to be enabled in /etc/inetd.conf to allow anonymous FTP connections. Select [ Yes ] and press Enter to continue. The following screen will display:

Figure 3.31. Default Anonymous FTP Configuration
Default Anonymous FTP Configuration

Use Tab to select the information fields and fill in appropriate information:

UID

The user ID to assign to the anonymous FTP user. All files uploaded will be owned by this ID.

Group

Which group to place the anonymous FTP user into.

Comment

String describing this user in /etc/passwd.

FTP Root Directory

Where files available for anonymous FTP will be kept.

Upload Subdirectory

Where files uploaded by anonymous FTP users will go.

The FTP root directory will be put in /var by default. If there is not enough room there for the anticipated FTP needs, use /usr instead by setting the FTP root directory to /usr/ftp.

Once satisfied with the values, press Enter to continue.

                          User Confirmation Requested
         Create a welcome message file for anonymous FTP users?

                              [ Yes ]    No

If [ Yes ] is selected, press Enter and the ee(1) editor will automatically start.

Figure 3.32. Edit the FTP Welcome Message
Edit the FTP Welcome Message

Use the instructions to change the message. Note the file name location at the bottom of the editor screen.

Press Esc and a pop-up menu will default to a) leave editor. Press Enter to exit and continue. Press Enter again to save any changes.

3.10.6. Configure the Network File System

The Network File System (NFS) allows sharing of files across a network. A machine can be configured as a server, a client, or both. Refer to Section 28.3, “Network File System (NFS)” for more information.

3.10.6.1. NFS Server

                       User Confirmation Requested
 Do you want to configure this machine as an NFS server?

                              Yes    [ No ]

If there is no need for a NFS server, select [ No ] and press Enter.

If [ Yes ] is chosen, a message will pop-up indicating that /etc/exports must be created.

                               Message
Operating as an NFS server means that you must first configure an
/etc/exports file to indicate which hosts are allowed certain kinds of
access to your local filesystems.
Press [Enter] now to invoke an editor on /etc/exports
                               [ OK ]

Press Enter to continue. A text editor will start, allowing /etc/exports to be edited.

Figure 3.33. Editing exports
Editing exports

Use the instructions to add the exported filesystems. Note the file name location at the bottom of the editor screen.

Press Esc and a pop-up menu will default to a) leave editor. Press Enter to exit and continue.

3.10.6.2. NFS Client

The NFS client allows the machine to access NFS servers.

                       User Confirmation Requested
 Do you want to configure this machine as an NFS client?

                              Yes   [ No ]

With the arrow keys, select [ Yes ] or [ No ] as appropriate and press Enter.

3.10.7. System Console Settings

There are several options available to customize the system console.

                      User Confirmation Requested
       Would you like to customize your system console settings?

                              [ Yes ]  No

To view and configure the options, select [ Yes ] and press Enter.

Figure 3.34. System Console Configuration Options
System Console Configuration Options

A commonly used option is the screen saver. Use the arrow keys to select Saver and then press Enter.

Figure 3.35. Screen Saver Options
Screen Saver Options

Select the desired screen saver using the arrow keys and then press Enter. The System Console Configuration menu will redisplay.

The default time interval is 300 seconds. To change the time interval, select Saver again. At the Screen Saver Options menu, select Timeout using the arrow keys and press Enter. A pop-up menu will appear:

Figure 3.36. Screen Saver Timeout
Screen Saver Timeout

The value can be changed, then select [ OK ] and press Enter to return to the System Console Configuration menu.

Figure 3.37. System Console Configuration Exit
System Console Configuration Exit

Select Exit and press Enter to continue with the post-installation configuration.

3.10.8. Setting the Time Zone

Setting the time zone allows the system to automatically correct for any regional time changes and perform other time zone related functions properly.

The example shown is for a machine located in the Eastern time zone of the United States. The selections will vary according to the geographic location.

                      User Confirmation Requested
          Would you like to set this machine's time zone now?

                            [ Yes ]   No

Select [ Yes ] and press Enter to set the time zone.

                       User Confirmation Requested
 Is this machine's CMOS clock set to UTC? If it is set to local time
 or you don't know, please choose NO here!

                              Yes   [ No ]

Select [ Yes ] or [ No ] according to how the machine's clock is configured, then press Enter.

Figure 3.38. Select the Region
Select the Region

The appropriate region is selected using the arrow keys and then pressing Enter.

Figure 3.39. Select the Country
Select the Country

Select the appropriate country using the arrow keys and press Enter.

Figure 3.40. Select the Time Zone
Select the Time Zone

The appropriate time zone is selected using the arrow keys and pressing Enter.

                            Confirmation
            Does the abbreviation 'EDT' look reasonable?

                            [ Yes ]   No

Confirm that the abbreviation for the time zone is correct. If it looks okay, press Enter to continue with the post-installation configuration.

3.10.9. Mouse Settings

This option allows cut and paste in the console and user programs using a 3-button mouse. If using a 2-button mouse, refer to moused(8) for details on emulating the 3-button style. This example depicts a non-USB mouse configuration:

                      User Confirmation Requested
         Does this system have a PS/2, serial, or bus mouse?

                            [ Yes ]    No 

Select [ Yes ] for a PS/2, serial, or bus mouse, or [ No ] for a USB mouse, then press Enter.

Figure 3.41. Select Mouse Protocol Type
Select Mouse Protocol Type

Use the arrow keys to select Type and press Enter.

Figure 3.42. Set Mouse Protocol
Set Mouse Protocol

The mouse used in this example is a PS/2 type, so the default Auto is appropriate. To change the mouse protocol, use the arrow keys to select another option. Ensure that [ OK ] is highlighted and press Enter to exit this menu.

Figure 3.43. Configure Mouse Port
Configure Mouse Port

Use the arrow keys to select Port and press Enter.

Figure 3.44. Setting the Mouse Port
Setting the Mouse Port

This system had a PS/2 mouse, so the default PS/2 is appropriate. To change the port, use the arrow keys and then press Enter.

Figure 3.45. Enable the Mouse Daemon
Enable the Mouse Daemon

Last, use the arrow keys to select Enable, and press Enter to enable and test the mouse daemon.

Figure 3.46. Test the Mouse Daemon
Test the Mouse Daemon

Move the mouse around the screen to verify that the cursor responds properly. If it does, select [ Yes ] and press Enter. If not, the mouse has not been configured correctly. Select [ No ] and try using different configuration options.

Select Exit with the arrow keys and press Enter to continue with the post-installation configuration.

3.10.10. Install Packages

Packages are pre-compiled binaries and are a convenient way to install software.

Installation of one package is shown for purposes of illustration. Additional packages can also be added at this time if desired. After installation, sysinstall(8) can be used to add additional packages.

                     User Confirmation Requested
 The FreeBSD package collection is a collection of hundreds of
 ready-to-run applications, from text editors to games to WEB servers
 and more. Would you like to browse the collection now?

                            [ Yes ]   No

Select [ Yes ] and press Enter to be presented with the Package Selection screens:

Figure 3.47. Select Package Category
Select Package Category

Only packages on the current installation media are available for installation at any given time.

All packages available will be displayed if All is selected. Otherwise, select a particular category. Highlight the selection with the arrow keys and press Enter.

A menu will display showing all the packages available for the selection made:

Figure 3.48. Select Packages
Select Packages

The bash shell is shown as selected. Select as many packages as desired by highlighting the package and pressing Space. A short description of each package will appear in the lower left corner of the screen.

Press Tab to toggle between the last selected package, [ OK ], and [ Cancel ].

Once finished marking the packages for installation, press Tab once to toggle to [ OK ] and press Enter to return to the Package Selection menu.

The left and right arrow keys will also toggle between [ OK ] and [ Cancel ]. This method can also be used to select [ OK ] and press Enter to return to the Package Selection menu.

Figure 3.49. Install Packages
Install Packages

Use the Tab and arrow keys to select [ Install ] and press Enter to see the installation confirmation message:

Figure 3.50. Confirm Package Installation
Confirm Package Installation

Select [ OK ] and press Enter to start the package installation. Installation messages will appear until all of the installations have completed. Make note if there are any error messages.

The final configuration continues after packages are installed. If no packages are selected, select Install to return to the final configuration.

3.10.11. Add Users/Groups

Add at least one user during the installation so that the system can be used without logging in as root. The root partition is generally small and running applications as root can quickly fill it. A bigger danger is noted below:

                     User Confirmation Requested
 Would you like to add any initial user accounts to the system? Adding
 at least one account for yourself at this stage is suggested since
 working as the "root" user is dangerous (it is easy to do things which
 adversely affect the entire system).

                            [ Yes ]   No

Select [ Yes ] and press Enter to continue with adding a user.

Figure 3.51. Select User
Select User

Select User with the arrow keys and press Enter.

Figure 3.52. Add User Information
Add User Information

The following descriptions will appear in the lower part of the screen as the items are selected with Tab to assist with entering the required information:

Login ID

The login name of the new user (mandatory).

UID

The numerical ID for this user (leave blank for automatic choice).

Group

The login group name for this user (leave blank for automatic choice).

Password

The password for this user (enter this field with care!).

Full name

The user's full name (comment).

Member groups

The groups this user belongs to.

Home directory

The user's home directory (leave blank for default).

Login shell

The user's login shell (leave blank for default of /bin/sh).

In this example, the login shell was changed from /bin/sh to /usr/local/bin/bash to use the bash shell that was previously installed as a package. Do not use a shell that does not exist or the user will not be able to login. The most common shell used in FreeBSD is the C shell, /bin/tcsh.

The user was also added to the wheel group to be able to become a superuser with root privileges.

Once satisfied, press [ OK ] and the User and Group Management menu will redisplay:

Figure 3.53. Exit User and Group Management
Exit User and Group Management

Groups can also be added at this time. Otherwise, this menu may be accessed using sysinstall(8) at a later time.

When finished adding users, select Exit with the arrow keys and press Enter to continue the installation.

3.10.12. Set the root Password

                        Message
 Now you must set the system manager's password.
 This is the password you'll use to log in as "root".

                         [ OK ]

               [ Press enter or space ]

Press Enter to set the root password.

The password will need to be typed in twice correctly. Do not forget this password. Notice that the typed password is not echoed, nor are asterisks displayed.

New password:
Retype new password :

The installation will continue after the password is successfully entered.

3.10.13. Exiting Install

A message will ask if configuration is complete:

                     User Confirmation Requested
 Visit the general configuration menu for a chance to set any last
 options?

                              Yes   [ No ]

Select [ No ] with the arrow keys and press Enter to return to the Main Installation Menu.

Figure 3.54. Exit Install
Exit Install

Select [X Exit Install] with the arrow keys and press Enter. The installer will prompt to confirm exiting the installation:

                     User Confirmation Requested
 Are you sure you wish to exit? The system will reboot.

                            [ Yes ]   No

Select [ Yes ]. If booting from the CDROM drive, the following message will remind you to remove the disk:

                    Message
 Be sure to remove the media from the drive.

                    [ OK ]
           [ Press enter or space ]

The CDROM drive is locked until the machine starts to reboot, then the disk can quickly be removed from the drive. Press [ OK ] to reboot.

The system will reboot so watch for any error messages that may appear, see Section 3.10.15, “FreeBSD Bootup” for more details.

3.10.14. Configure Additional Network Services

Contributed by Tom Rhodes.

Configuring network services can be a daunting task for users that lack previous knowledge in this area. Since networking and the Internet are critical to all modern operating systems, it is useful to have some understanding of FreeBSD's extensive networking capabilities.

Network services are programs that accept input from anywhere on the network. Since there have been cases where bugs in network services have been exploited by attackers, it is important to only enable needed network services. If in doubt, do not enable a network service until it is needed. Services can be enabled with sysinstall(8) or by editing /etc/rc.conf.

Selecting the Networking option will display a menu similar to the one below:

Figure 3.55. Network Configuration Upper-level
Network Configuration Upper-level

The first option, Interfaces, is covered in Section 3.10.1, “Network Device Configuration”.

Selecting the AMD option adds support for amd(8). This is usually used in conjunction with NFS for automatically mounting remote filesystems.

Next is the AMD Flags option. When selected, a menu will pop up where specific AMD flags can be entered. The menu already contains a set of default options:

-a /.amd_mnt -l syslog /host /etc/amd.map /net /etc/amd.map

-a sets the default mount location which is specified here as /.amd_mnt. -l specifies the default log; however, when syslogd(8) is used, all log activity will be sent to the system log daemon. /host is used to mount an exported file system from a remote host, while /net is used to mount an exported filesystem from an IP address. The default options for AMD exports are defined in /etc/amd.map.

The Anon FTP option permits anonymous FTP connections. Select this option to make this machine an anonymous FTP server. Be aware of the security risks involved with this option. Another menu will be displayed to explain the security risks and configuration in depth.

The Gateway menu will configure the machine to be a gateway. This menu can also be used to unset the Gateway option if it was accidentally selected during installation.

The Inetd option can be used to configure or completely disable inetd(8).

The Mail option is used to configure the system's default Mail Transfer Agent (MTA). Selecting this option will bring up the following menu:

Figure 3.56. Select a Default MTA
Select a Default MTA

This menu offers a choice as to which MTA to install and set as the default. An MTA is a mail server which delivers email to users on the system or the Internet.

Select Sendmail to install Sendmail as the default MTA. Select Sendmail local to set Sendmail as the default MTA, but disable its ability to receive incoming email from the Internet. The other options, Postfix and Exim, provide alternatives to Sendmail.

The next menu after the MTA menu is NFS client. This menu is used to configure the system to communicate with a NFS server which in turn is used to make filesystems available to other machines on the network over the NFS protocol. See Section 28.3, “Network File System (NFS)” for more information about client and server configuration.

Below that option is the NFS server option, for setting the system up as an NFS server. This adds the required information to start up the Remote Procedure Call RPC services. RPC is used to coordinate connections between hosts and programs.

Next in line is the Ntpdate option, which deals with time synchronization. When selected, a menu like the one below shows up:

Figure 3.57. Ntpdate Configuration
Ntpdate Configuration

From this menu, select the server which is geographically closest. This will make the time synchronization more accurate as a farther server may have more connection latency.

The next option is the PCNFSD selection. This option will install the net/pcnfsd package from the Ports Collection. This is a useful utility which provides NFS authentication services for systems which are unable to provide their own, such as Microsoft's MS-DOS® operating system.

Now, scroll down a bit to see the other options:

Figure 3.58. Network Configuration Lower-level
Network Configuration Lower-level

RPC communication between NFS servers and clients is managed by rpcbind(8) which is required for NFS servers to operate correctly. Status monitoring is provided by rpc.statd(8) and the reported status is usually held in /var/db/statd.status. The next option is for rpc.lockd(8) which provides file locking services. This is usually used with rpc.statd(8) to monitor which hosts are requesting locks and how frequently they request them. While these last two options are useful for debugging, they are not required for NFS servers and clients to operate correctly.

The next menu, Routed, configures the routing daemon. routed(8), manages network routing tables, discovers multicast routers, and supplies a copy of the routing tables to any physically connected host on the network upon request. This is mainly used for machines which act as a gateway for the local network. If selected, a menu will request the default location of the utility. To accept the default location, press Enter. Yet another menu will ask for the flags to pass to routed(8). The default of -q should appear on the screen.

The next menu, Rwhod, starts rwhod(8) during system initialization. This utility broadcasts system messages across the network periodically, or collects them when in consumer mode. More information can be found in ruptime(1) and rwho(1).

The next to last option in the list is for sshd(8), the secure shell server for OpenSSH. It is highly recommended over the standard telnetd(8) and ftpd(8) servers as it is used to create a secure, encrypted connection from one host to another.

The final option is TCP Extensions which are defined in RFC 1323 and RFC 1644. While on many hosts this can speed up connections, it can also cause some connections to be dropped. It is not recommended for servers, but may be beneficial for stand alone machines.

Once the network services are configured, scroll up to the very top item which is X Exit and continue on to the next configuration item or simply exit sysinstall(8) by selecting X Exit twice then [X Exit Install].

3.10.15. FreeBSD Bootup

3.10.15.1. FreeBSD/i386 Bootup

If everything went well, messages will scroll along the screen and a login prompt will appear. To view these messages, press Scroll-Lock then use PgUp and PgDn. Press Scroll-Lock again to return to the prompt.

All of the messages may not display due to buffer limitations, but they can be read after logging using dmesg(8).

Login using the username and password which were set during installation. Avoid logging in as root except when necessary.

Typical boot messages (version information omitted):

Copyright (c) 1992-2002 The FreeBSD Project.
Copyright (c) 1979, 1980, 1983, 1986, 1988, 1989, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994
        The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.

Timecounter "i8254"  frequency 1193182 Hz
CPU: AMD-K6(tm) 3D processor (300.68-MHz 586-class CPU)
  Origin = "AuthenticAMD"  Id = 0x580  Stepping = 0
  Features=0x8001bf<FPU,VME,DE,PSE,TSC,MSR,MCE,CX8,MMX>
  AMD Features=0x80000800<SYSCALL,3DNow!>
real memory  = 268435456 (262144K bytes)
config> di sn0
config> di lnc0
config> di le0
config> di ie0
config> di fe0
config> di cs0
config> di bt0
config> di aic0
config> di aha0
config> di adv0
config> q
avail memory = 256311296 (250304K bytes)
Preloaded elf kernel "kernel" at 0xc0491000.
Preloaded userconfig_script "/boot/kernel.conf" at 0xc049109c.
md0: Malloc disk
Using $PIR table, 4 entries at 0xc00fde60
npx0: <math processor> on motherboard
npx0: INT 16 interface
pcib0: <Host to PCI bridge> on motherboard
pci0: <PCI bus> on pcib0
pcib1: <VIA 82C598MVP (Apollo MVP3) PCI-PCI (AGP) bridge> at device 1.0 on pci0
pci1: <PCI bus> on pcib1
pci1: <Matrox MGA G200 AGP graphics accelerator> at 0.0 irq 11
isab0: <VIA 82C586 PCI-ISA bridge> at device 7.0 on pci0
isa0: <ISA bus> on isab0
atapci0: <VIA 82C586 ATA33 controller> port 0xe000-0xe00f at device 7.1 on pci0
ata0: at 0x1f0 irq 14 on atapci0
ata1: at 0x170 irq 15 on atapci0
uhci0: <VIA 83C572 USB controller> port 0xe400-0xe41f irq 10 at device 7.2 on pci0
usb0: <VIA 83C572 USB controller> on uhci0
usb0: USB revision 1.0
uhub0: VIA UHCI root hub, class 9/0, rev 1.00/1.00, addr 1
uhub0: 2 ports with 2 removable, self powered
chip1: <VIA 82C586B ACPI interface> at device 7.3 on pci0
ed0: <NE2000 PCI Ethernet (RealTek 8029)> port 0xe800-0xe81f irq 9 at
device 10.0 on pci0
ed0: address 52:54:05:de:73:1b, type NE2000 (16 bit)
isa0: too many dependant configs (8)
isa0: unexpected small tag 14
fdc0: <NEC 72065B or clone> at port 0x3f0-0x3f5,0x3f7 irq 6 drq 2 on isa0
fdc0: FIFO enabled, 8 bytes threshold
fd0: <1440-KB 3.5" drive> on fdc0 drive 0
atkbdc0: <keyboard controller (i8042)> at port 0x60-0x64 on isa0
atkbd0: <AT Keyboard> flags 0x1 irq 1 on atkbdc0
kbd0 at atkbd0
psm0: <PS/2 Mouse> irq 12 on atkbdc0
psm0: model Generic PS/2 mouse, device ID 0
vga0: <Generic ISA VGA> at port 0x3c0-0x3df iomem 0xa0000-0xbffff on isa0
sc0: <System console> at flags 0x1 on isa0
sc0: VGA <16 virtual consoles, flags=0x300>
sio0 at port 0x3f8-0x3ff irq 4 flags 0x10 on isa0
sio0: type 16550A
sio1 at port 0x2f8-0x2ff irq 3 on isa0
sio1: type 16550A
ppc0: <Parallel port> at port 0x378-0x37f irq 7 on isa0
ppc0: SMC-like chipset (ECP/EPP/PS2/NIBBLE) in COMPATIBLE mode
ppc0: FIFO with 16/16/15 bytes threshold
ppbus0: IEEE1284 device found /NIBBLE
Probing for PnP devices on ppbus0:
plip0: <PLIP network interface> on ppbus0
lpt0: <Printer> on ppbus0
lpt0: Interrupt-driven port
ppi0: <Parallel I/O> on ppbus0
ad0: 8063MB <IBM-DHEA-38451> [16383/16/63] at ata0-master using UDMA33
ad2: 8063MB <IBM-DHEA-38451> [16383/16/63] at ata1-master using UDMA33
acd0: CDROM <DELTA OTC-H101/ST3 F/W by OIPD> at ata0-slave using PIO4
Mounting root from ufs:/dev/ad0s1a
swapon: adding /dev/ad0s1b as swap device
Automatic boot in progress...
/dev/ad0s1a: FILESYSTEM CLEAN; SKIPPING CHECKS
/dev/ad0s1a: clean, 48752 free (552 frags, 6025 blocks, 0.9% fragmentation)
/dev/ad0s1f: FILESYSTEM CLEAN; SKIPPING CHECKS
/dev/ad0s1f: clean, 128997 free (21 frags, 16122 blocks, 0.0% fragmentation)
/dev/ad0s1g: FILESYSTEM CLEAN; SKIPPING CHECKS
/dev/ad0s1g: clean, 3036299 free (43175 frags, 374073 blocks, 1.3% fragmentation)
/dev/ad0s1e: filesystem CLEAN; SKIPPING CHECKS
/dev/ad0s1e: clean, 128193 free (17 frags, 16022 blocks, 0.0% fragmentation)
Doing initial network setup: hostname.
ed0: flags=8843<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
        inet 192.168.0.1 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 192.168.0.255
        inet6 fe80::5054::5ff::fede:731b%ed0 prefixlen 64 tentative scopeid 0x1
        ether 52:54:05:de:73:1b
lo0: flags=8049<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING,MULTICAST> mtu 16384
        inet6 fe80::1%lo0 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x8
        inet6 ::1 prefixlen 128
        inet 127.0.0.1 netmask 0xff000000
Additional routing options: IP gateway=YES TCP keepalive=YES
routing daemons:.
additional daemons: syslogd.
Doing additional network setup:.
Starting final network daemons: creating ssh RSA host key
Generating public/private rsa1 key pair.
Your identification has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key.
Your public key has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key.pub.
The key fingerprint is:
cd:76:89:16:69:0e:d0:6e:f8:66:d0:07:26:3c:7e:2d root@k6-2.example.com
 creating ssh DSA host key
Generating public/private dsa key pair.
Your identification has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key.
Your public key has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key.pub.
The key fingerprint is:
f9:a1:a9:47:c4:ad:f9:8d:52:b8:b8:ff:8c:ad:2d:e6 root@k6-2.example.com.
setting ELF ldconfig path: /usr/lib /usr/lib/compat /usr/X11R6/lib
/usr/local/lib
a.out ldconfig path: /usr/lib/aout /usr/lib/compat/aout /usr/X11R6/lib/aout
starting standard daemons: inetd cron sshd usbd sendmail.
Initial rc.i386 initialization:.
rc.i386 configuring syscons: blank_time screensaver moused.
Additional ABI support: linux.
Local package initialization:.
Additional TCP options:.

FreeBSD/i386 (k6-2.example.com) (ttyv0)

login: rpratt
Password:

Generating the RSA and DSA keys may take some time on slower machines. This happens only on the initial boot-up of a new installation. Subsequent boots will be faster.

If Xorg has been configured and a default desktop chosen, it can be started by typing startx at the command line.

3.10.16. FreeBSD Shutdown

It is important to properly shutdown the operating system. Do not just turn off the power. First, become the superuser using su(1) and entering the root password. This will work only if the user is a member of wheel. Otherwise, login as root. To shutdown the system, type shutdown -h now.

The operating system has halted.
Please press any key to reboot.

It is safe to turn off the power after the shutdown command has been issued and the message Please press any key to reboot appears. If any key is pressed instead of turning off the power switch, the system will reboot.

The Ctrl+Alt+Del key combination can also be used to reboot the system; however, this is not recommended.

All FreeBSD documents are available for download at http://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/doc/

Questions that are not answered by the documentation may be sent to <freebsd-questions@FreeBSD.org>.
Send questions about this document to <freebsd-doc@FreeBSD.org>.