A.4. Using Subversion

A.4.1. Introduction

As of July 2012, FreeBSD uses Subversion as the only version control system for storing all of FreeBSD's source code, documentation, and the Ports Collection.


Subversion is generally a developer tool. Users may prefer to use freebsd-update (Section 23.2, “FreeBSD Update”) to update the FreeBSD base system, and portsnap (Section 4.5, “Using the Ports Collection”) to update the FreeBSD Ports Collection.

This chapter demonstrates how to install Subversion on a FreeBSD system and then use it to create a local copy of a FreeBSD repository. It includes additional information on how to use Subversion.

A.4.2. Svnlite

A fully functional but light weight version of Subversion may be already installed on your FreeBSD system as svnlite. You do not have to install a separate copy if svnlite is sufficient for your needs.

If you wish to access HTTPS servers with svnlite then a root certificate bundle should be installed:

# pkg install ca_root_nss

Installing a certificate bundle allows svnlite to verify that it is securely communicating with the repository server without tampering.

If you are using svnlite then you should adjust the examples below.

A.4.3. Installation

If the svnlite is unavailable or you wish to use the full version of Subversion then it must be installed.

If a copy of the ports tree is already present, one can install Subversion like this:

# cd /usr/ports/devel/subversion
# make install clean
# cd /usr/ports/security/ca_root_nss
# make install clean

Subversion can easily be installed as a package:

# pkg install subversion
# pkg install ca_root_nss

A.4.4. Running Subversion

To fetch a clean copy of the sources into a local directory, use svn. The files in this directory are called a local working copy.


Move or delete the local directory before using checkout.

Checkout over an existing non-svn directory can cause conflicts between the existing files and those brought in from the repository.

Subversion uses URLs to designate a repository, taking the form of protocol://hostname/path. Mirrors may support different protocols as specified below. The first component of the path is the FreeBSD repository to access. There are three different repositories, base for the FreeBSD base system source code, ports for the Ports Collection, and doc for documentation. For example, the URL https://svn.FreeBSD.org/ports/head/ specifies the main branch of the ports repository, using the https protocol.

A checkout from a given repository is performed with a command like this:

# svn checkout svn-mirror/repository/branch lwcdir


  • svn-mirror is a URL for one of the Subversion mirror sites.

  • repository is one of the Project repositories, i.e., base, ports, or doc.

  • branch depends on the repository used. ports and doc are mostly updated in the head branch, while base maintains the latest version of -CURRENT under head and the respective latest versions of the -STABLE branches under stable/8 (for 8.x), stable/9 (9.x) and stable/10 (10.x).

  • lwcdir is the target directory where the contents of the specified branch should be placed. This is usually /usr/ports for ports, /usr/src for base, and /usr/doc for doc.

This example checks out the Ports Collection from the FreeBSD repository using the HTTPS protocol, placing the local working copy in /usr/ports. If /usr/ports is already present but was not created by svn, remember to rename or delete it before the checkout.

# svn checkout https://svn.FreeBSD.org/ports/head /usr/ports

Because the initial checkout has to download the full branch of the remote repository, it can take a while. Please be patient.

After the initial checkout, the local working copy can be updated by running:

# svn update lwcdir

To update /usr/ports created in the example above, use:

# svn update /usr/ports

The update is much quicker than a checkout, only transferring files that have changed.

An alternate way of updating the local working copy after checkout is provided by the Makefile in the /usr/ports, /usr/src, and /usr/doc directories. Set SVN_UPDATE and use the update target. For example, to update /usr/src:

# cd /usr/src
# make update SVN_UPDATE=yes

A.4.5. Subversion Mirror Sites

The FreeBSD Subversion repository, svn.FreeBSD.org, is a publicly accessible mirror network that uses GeoDNS to select an appropriate back end server. To view the FreeBSD Subversion repositories through a browser, use http://svnweb.FreeBSD.org/.


The FreeBSD Subversion mirrors previously used self-signed SSL certificates documented in this chapter. As of July 14, 2015, all mirrors now use an official SSL certificate that will be recognized by Subversion if the security/ca_root_nss port is installed. The legacy self-signed certificates and server names are still available but are deprecated and no longer supported.

For those without the security/ca_root_nss port installed, the SHA1 and SHA256 fingerprints are:


HTTPS is the preferred protocol, providing protection against another computer pretending to be the FreeBSD mirror (commonly known as a man in the middle attack) or otherwise trying to send bad content to the end user.

If https cannot be used due to firewall or other problems, svn is the next choice, with slightly faster transfers. When neither can be used, use http.

For those still using deprecated server names, the SHA1 and SHA256 fingerprints will be one of:


If you are seeing one of these legacy certificate fingerprints then it is likely you are using a deprecated server name.

A.4.6. For More Information

For other information about using Subversion, please see the Subversion Book, titled Version Control with Subversion, or the Subversion Documentation.

All FreeBSD documents are available for download at http://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/doc/

Questions that are not answered by the documentation may be sent to <freebsd-questions@FreeBSD.org>.
Send questions about this document to <freebsd-doc@FreeBSD.org>.