Chapter 11. PCI Devices

Table of Contents
11.1. Probe and Attach
11.2. Bus Resources

This chapter will talk about the FreeBSD mechanisms for writing a device driver for a device on a PCI bus.

11.1. Probe and Attach

Information here about how the PCI bus code iterates through the unattached devices and see if a newly loaded kld will attach to any of them.

11.1.1. Sample Driver Source (mypci.c)

/*
 * Simple KLD to play with the PCI functions.
 *
 * Murray Stokely
 */

#include <sys/param.h>		/* defines used in kernel.h */
#include <sys/module.h>
#include <sys/systm.h>
#include <sys/errno.h>
#include <sys/kernel.h>		/* types used in module initialization */
#include <sys/conf.h>		/* cdevsw struct */
#include <sys/uio.h>		/* uio struct */
#include <sys/malloc.h>
#include <sys/bus.h>		/* structs, prototypes for pci bus stuff and DEVMETHOD macros! */

#include <machine/bus.h>
#include <sys/rman.h>
#include <machine/resource.h>

#include <dev/pci/pcivar.h>	/* For pci_get macros! */
#include <dev/pci/pcireg.h>

/* The softc holds our per-instance data. */
struct mypci_softc {
	device_t	my_dev;
	struct cdev	*my_cdev;
};

/* Function prototypes */
static d_open_t		mypci_open;
static d_close_t	mypci_close;
static d_read_t		mypci_read;
static d_write_t	mypci_write;

/* Character device entry points */

static struct cdevsw mypci_cdevsw = {
	.d_version =	D_VERSION,
	.d_open =	mypci_open,
	.d_close =	mypci_close,
	.d_read =	mypci_read,
	.d_write =	mypci_write,
	.d_name =	"mypci",
};

/*
 * In the cdevsw routines, we find our softc by using the si_drv1 member
 * of struct cdev.  We set this variable to point to our softc in our
 * attach routine when we create the /dev entry.
 */

int
mypci_open(struct cdev *dev, int oflags, int devtype, d_thread_t *td)
{
	struct mypci_softc *sc;

	/* Look up our softc. */
	sc = dev->si_drv1;
	device_printf(sc->my_dev, "Opened successfully.\n");
	return (0);
}

int
mypci_close(struct cdev *dev, int fflag, int devtype, d_thread_t *td)
{
	struct mypci_softc *sc;

	/* Look up our softc. */
	sc = dev->si_drv1;
	device_printf(sc->my_dev, "Closed.\n");
	return (0);
}

int
mypci_read(struct cdev *dev, struct uio *uio, int ioflag)
{
	struct mypci_softc *sc;

	/* Look up our softc. */
	sc = dev->si_drv1;
	device_printf(sc->my_dev, "Asked to read %d bytes.\n", uio->uio_resid);
	return (0);
}

int
mypci_write(struct cdev *dev, struct uio *uio, int ioflag)
{
	struct mypci_softc *sc;

	/* Look up our softc. */
	sc = dev->si_drv1;
	device_printf(sc->my_dev, "Asked to write %d bytes.\n", uio->uio_resid);
	return (0);
}

/* PCI Support Functions */

/*
 * Compare the device ID of this device against the IDs that this driver
 * supports.  If there is a match, set the description and return success.
 */
static int
mypci_probe(device_t dev)
{

	device_printf(dev, "MyPCI Probe\nVendor ID : 0x%x\nDevice ID : 0x%x\n",
	    pci_get_vendor(dev), pci_get_device(dev));

	if (pci_get_vendor(dev) == 0x11c1) {
		printf("We've got the Winmodem, probe successful!\n");
		device_set_desc(dev, "WinModem");
		return (BUS_PROBE_DEFAULT);
	}
	return (ENXIO);
}

/* Attach function is only called if the probe is successful. */

static int
mypci_attach(device_t dev)
{
	struct mypci_softc *sc;

	printf("MyPCI Attach for : deviceID : 0x%x\n", pci_get_devid(dev));

	/* Look up our softc and initialize its fields. */
	sc = device_get_softc(dev);
	sc->my_dev = dev;

	/*
	 * Create a /dev entry for this device.  The kernel will assign us
	 * a major number automatically.  We use the unit number of this
	 * device as the minor number and name the character device
	 * "mypci<unit>".
	 */
	sc->my_cdev = make_dev(&mypci_cdevsw, device_get_unit(dev),
	    UID_ROOT, GID_WHEEL, 0600, "mypci%u", device_get_unit(dev));
	sc->my_cdev->si_drv1 = sc;
	printf("Mypci device loaded.\n");
	return (0);
}

/* Detach device. */

static int
mypci_detach(device_t dev)
{
	struct mypci_softc *sc;

	/* Teardown the state in our softc created in our attach routine. */
	sc = device_get_softc(dev);
	destroy_dev(sc->my_cdev);
	printf("Mypci detach!\n");
	return (0);
}

/* Called during system shutdown after sync. */

static int
mypci_shutdown(device_t dev)
{

	printf("Mypci shutdown!\n");
	return (0);
}

/*
 * Device suspend routine.
 */
static int
mypci_suspend(device_t dev)
{

	printf("Mypci suspend!\n");
	return (0);
}

/*
 * Device resume routine.
 */
static int
mypci_resume(device_t dev)
{

	printf("Mypci resume!\n");
	return (0);
}

static device_method_t mypci_methods[] = {
	/* Device interface */
	DEVMETHOD(device_probe,		mypci_probe),
	DEVMETHOD(device_attach,	mypci_attach),
	DEVMETHOD(device_detach,	mypci_detach),
	DEVMETHOD(device_shutdown,	mypci_shutdown),
	DEVMETHOD(device_suspend,	mypci_suspend),
	DEVMETHOD(device_resume,	mypci_resume),

	DEVMETHOD_END
};

static devclass_t mypci_devclass;

DEFINE_CLASS_0(mypci, mypci_driver, mypci_methods, sizeof(struct mypci_softc));
DRIVER_MODULE(mypci, pci, mypci_driver, mypci_devclass, 0, 0);

11.1.2. Makefile for Sample Driver

# Makefile for mypci driver

KMOD=	mypci
SRCS=	mypci.c
SRCS+=	device_if.h bus_if.h pci_if.h

.include <bsd.kmod.mk>

If you place the above source file and Makefile into a directory, you may run make to compile the sample driver. Additionally, you may run make load to load the driver into the currently running kernel and make unload to unload the driver after it is loaded.

11.1.3. Additional Resources

All FreeBSD documents are available for download at http://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/doc/

Questions that are not answered by the documentation may be sent to <freebsd-questions@FreeBSD.org>.
Send questions about this document to <freebsd-doc@FreeBSD.org>.