8. Giving more flexibility to an rc.d script

When invoked during startup or shutdown, an rc.d script is supposed to act on the entire subsystem it is responsible for. E.g., /etc/rc.d/netif should start or stop all network interfaces described by rc.conf(5). Either task can be uniquely indicated by a single command argument such as start or stop. Between startup and shutdown, rc.d scripts help the admin to control the running system, and it is when the need for more flexibility and precision arises. For instance, the admin may want to add the settings of a new network interface to rc.conf(5) and then to start it without interfering with the operation of the existing interfaces. Next time the admin may need to shut down a single network interface. In the spirit of the command line, the respective rc.d script calls for an extra argument, the interface name.

Fortunately, rc.subr(8) allows for passing any number of arguments to script's methods (within the system limits). Due to that, the changes in the script itself can be minimal.

How can rc.subr(8) gain access to the extra command-line arguments. Should it just grab them directly? Not by any means. Firstly, an sh(1) function has no access to the positional parameters of its caller, but rc.subr(8) is just a sack of such functions. Secondly, the good manner of rc.d dictates that it is for the main script to decide which arguments are to be passed to its methods.

So the approach adopted by rc.subr(8) is as follows: run_rc_command passes on all its arguments but the first one to the respective method verbatim. The first, omitted, argument is the name of the method itself: start, stop, etc. It will be shifted out by run_rc_command, so what is $2 in the original command line will be presented as $1 to the method, and so on.

To illustrate this opportunity, let us modify the primitive dummy script so that its messages depend on the additional arguments supplied. Here we go:

#!/bin/sh

. /etc/rc.subr

name="dummy"
start_cmd="${name}_start"
stop_cmd=":"
kiss_cmd="${name}_kiss"
extra_commands="kiss"

dummy_start()
{
        if [ $# -gt 0 ]; then1
                echo "Greeting message: $*"
        else
                echo "Nothing started."
        fi
}

dummy_kiss()
{
        echo -n "A ghost gives you a kiss"
        if [ $# -gt 0 ]; then2
                echo -n " and whispers: $*"
        fi
        case "$*" in
        *[.!?])
                echo
                ;;
        *)
                echo .
                ;;
        esac
}

load_rc_config $name
run_rc_command "$@"3

What essential changes can we notice in the script?

1

All arguments you type after start can end up as positional parameters to the respective method. We can use them in any way according to our task, skills, and fancy. In the current example, we just pass all of them to echo(1) as one string in the next line — note $* within the double quotes. Here is how the script can be invoked now:

# /etc/rc.d/dummy start
Nothing started.
# /etc/rc.d/dummy start Hello world!
Greeting message: Hello world!

2

The same applies to any method our script provides, not only to a standard one. We have added a custom method named kiss, and it can take advantage of the extra arguments not less than start does. E.g.:

# /etc/rc.d/dummy kiss
A ghost gives you a kiss.
# /etc/rc.d/dummy kiss Once I was Etaoin Shrdlu...
A ghost gives you a kiss and whispers: Once I was Etaoin Shrdlu...

3

If we want just to pass all extra arguments to any method, we can merely substitute "$@" for "$1" in the last line of our script, where we invoke run_rc_command.

Important:

An sh(1) programmer ought to understand the subtle difference between $* and $@ as the ways to designate all positional parameters. For its in-depth discussion, refer to a good handbook on sh(1) scripting. Do not use the expressions until you fully understand them because their misuse will result in buggy and insecure scripts.

Note:

Currently run_rc_command may have a bug that prevents it from keeping the original boundaries between arguments. That is, arguments with embedded whitespace may not be processed correctly. The bug stems from $* misuse.

All FreeBSD documents are available for download at http://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/doc/

Questions that are not answered by the documentation may be sent to <freebsd-questions@FreeBSD.org>.
Send questions about this document to <freebsd-doc@FreeBSD.org>.