FreeBSD Porter's Handbook

The FreeBSD Documentation Project

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Last modified on 2014-07-16 by wblock.
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Table of Contents
1. Introduction
2. Making a New Port
3. Quick Porting
3.1. Writing the Makefile
3.2. Writing the Description Files
3.3. Creating the Checksum File
3.4. Testing the Port
3.5. Checking the Port with portlint
3.6. Submitting the New Port
4. Slow Porting
4.1. How Things Work
4.2. Getting the Original Sources
4.3. Modifying the Port
4.4. Patching
4.5. Configuring
4.6. Handling User Input
5. Configuring the Makefile
5.1. The Original Source
5.2. Naming
5.3. Categorization
5.4. The Distribution Files
5.5. MAINTAINER
5.6. COMMENT
5.7. PORTSCOUT
5.8. Dependencies
5.9. MASTERDIR
5.10. Man Pages
5.11. Info Files
5.12. Makefile Options
5.13. Specifying the Working Directory
5.14. Conflict Handling
5.15. Installing Files
6. Special Considerations
6.1. Staging
6.2. Shared Libraries
6.3. Ports with Distribution Restrictions or Legal Concerns
6.4. Building Mechanisms
6.5. Using GNU Autotools
6.6. Using GNU gettext
6.7. Using Perl
6.8. Using X11
6.9. Using GNOME
6.10. Using Qt
6.11. Using KDE
6.12. Using Java
6.13. Web Applications, Apache and PHP
6.14. Using Python
6.15. Using Tcl/Tk
6.16. Using Emacs
6.17. Using Ruby
6.18. Using SDL
6.19. Using wxWidgets
6.20. Using Lua
6.21. Using iconv
6.22. Using Xfce
6.23. Using Mozilla
6.24. Using Databases
6.25. Starting and Stopping Services (rc Scripts)
6.26. Adding Users and Groups
6.27. Ports That Rely on Kernel Sources
7. Advanced pkg-plist Practices
7.1. Changing pkg-plist Based on Make Variables
7.2. Empty Directories
7.3. Configuration Files
7.4. Dynamic Versus Static Package List
7.5. Automated Package List Creation
7.6. Expanding Package List with Keywords
8. The pkg-* Files
8.1. pkg-message
8.2. pkg-install
8.3. pkg-deinstall
8.4. Changing the Names of pkg-* Files
8.5. Making Use of SUB_FILES and SUB_LIST
9. Testing the Port
9.1. Running make describe
9.2. Portlint
9.3. Port Tools
9.4. PREFIX and DESTDIR
9.5. Tinderbox
9.6. Poudriere
10. Upgrading a Port
10.1. Using Subversion to Make Patches
10.2. The Files UPDATING and MOVED
11. Security
11.1. Why Security is So Important
11.2. Fixing Security Vulnerabilities
11.3. Keeping the Community Informed
12. Dos and Don'ts
12.1. Introduction
12.2. WRKDIR
12.3. WRKDIRPREFIX
12.4. Differentiating Operating Systems and OS Versions
12.5. Writing Something After bsd.port.mk
12.6. Use the exec Statement in Wrapper Scripts
12.7. Do Things Rationally
12.8. Respect Both CC and CXX
12.9. Respect CFLAGS
12.10. Threading Libraries
12.11. Feedback
12.12. README.html
12.13. Marking a Port Not Installable with BROKEN, FORBIDDEN, or IGNORE
12.14. Marking a Port for Removal with DEPRECATED or EXPIRATION_DATE
12.15. Avoid Use of the .error Construct
12.16. Usage of sysctl
12.17. Rerolling Distfiles
12.18. Avoiding Linuxisms
12.19. Miscellanea
13. A Sample Makefile
14. Keeping Up
14.1. FreshPorts
14.2. The Web Interface to the Source Repository
14.3. The FreeBSD Ports Mailing List
14.4. The FreeBSD Port Building Cluster
14.5. Portscout: the FreeBSD Ports Distfile Scanner
14.6. The FreeBSD Ports Monitoring System
15. Values of USES
16. __FreeBSD_version Values
List of Tables
5.1. Popular Magic MASTER_SITES Macros
5.2. USE_GITHUB Description
5.3. The USE_* Variables
6.1. Variables for Ports That Use configure
6.2. Variables for Ports That Use cmake
6.3. Variables the Users can define for cmake builds
6.4. Variables for Ports That Use scons
6.5. Read-Only Variables for Ports That Use Perl
6.6. Variables for Ports That Use X
6.7. Variables Provided to Ports That Use Qt
6.8. Available Qt Library Components
6.9. Available Qt Tool Components
6.10. Available Qt Plugin Components
6.11. Variables for Ports That Use qmake
6.12. Available KDE 4 Components
6.13. Variables Which May be Set by Ports That Use Java
6.14. Variables Provided to Ports That Use Java
6.15. Constants Defined for Ports That Use Java
6.16. Variables for Ports That Use Apache
6.17. Useful Variables for Porting Apache Modules
6.18. Variables for Ports That Use PHP
6.19. Most Useful Variables for Ports That Use Python
6.20. The Most Useful Read-Only Variables for Ports That Use Tcl/Tk
6.21. Useful Variables for Ports That Use Ruby
6.22. Selected Read-Only Variables for Ports That Use Ruby
6.23. Variables to Select wxWidgets Versions
6.24. Available wxWidgets Versions
6.25. wxWidgets Version Specifications
6.26. Variables to Select Preferred wxWidgets Versions
6.27. Available wxWidgets Components
6.28. Available wxWidgets Dependency Types
6.29. Default wxWidgets Dependency Types
6.30. Variables to Select Unicode in wxWidgets Versions
6.31. Variables Defined for Ports That Use wxWidgets
6.32. Legal Values for WX_CONF_ARGS
6.33. Variables Defined for Ports That Use Lua
6.34. Variables for Ports That Use Mozilla
6.35. Variables for Ports Using Databases
10.1. Subversion Update File Prefixes
15.1. Values of USES
16.1. __FreeBSD_version Values
List of Examples
5.1. Simple Use of USE_GITHUB
5.2. More Complete Use of USE_GITHUB
5.3. Simplified Use of MASTER_SITES:n with One File Per Site
5.4. Simplified Use of MASTER_SITES:n with More Than One File Per Site
5.5. Detailed Use of MASTER_SITES:n in MASTER_SITE_SUBDIR
5.6. Detailed Use of MASTER_SITES:n with Comma Operator, Multiple Files, Multiple Sites and Multiple Subdirectories
5.7. Detailed Use of MASTER_SITES:n with MASTER_SITE_SOURCEFORGE
5.8. Simplified Use of MASTER_SITES:n with PATCH_SITES
5.9. Use of ALWAYS_KEEP_DISTFILES
5.10. Wrong Declaration of an Optional Dependency
5.11. Correct Declaration of an Optional Dependency
5.12. Simple Use of OPTIONS
5.13. Check for Unset Port OPTIONS
5.14. Practical Use of OPTIONS
5.15. Wrong Handling of an Option
5.16. Correct Handling of an Option
6.1. USES= cmake Example
6.2. Perl Dependency Example
6.3. USE_XORG Example
6.4. Using X11-Related Variables
6.5. Selecting Qt 4 Components
6.6. USES= qmake Example
6.7. USE_KDE4 Example
6.8. Example Makefile for PEAR Class
6.9. Selecting wxWidgets Components
6.10. Detecting Installed wxWidgets Versions and Components
6.11. Using wxWidgets Variables in Commands
6.12. Simple iconv Usage
6.13. iconv Usage with configure
6.14. Fixing Hardcoded -liconv
6.15. Checking for Native iconv Availability
7.1. Example of a @dirrmtryecho Keyword
7.2. Real Life Example, How the @sample Could be Implemented
12.1. How to Avoid Using .error
15.1. Typical Use

Chapter 1. Introduction

The FreeBSD Ports Collection is the way almost everyone installs applications ("ports") on FreeBSD. Like everything else about FreeBSD, it is primarily a volunteer effort. It is important to keep this in mind when reading this document.

In FreeBSD, anyone may submit a new port, or volunteer to maintain an existing port if it is unmaintained—you do not need any special commit privileges to do so.

Chapter 2. Making a New Port

So, you are interested in making your own port or upgrading an existing one? Great!

What follows are some guidelines for creating a new port for FreeBSD. If you want to upgrade an existing port, you should read this and then read Chapter 10, Upgrading a Port.

When this document is not sufficiently detailed, you should refer to /usr/ports/Mk/bsd.port.mk, which all port Makefiles include. Even if you do not hack Makefiles daily, it is well commented, and you will still gain much knowledge from it. Additionally, you may send specific questions to the FreeBSD ports mailing list.

Note:

Only a fraction of the variables (VAR) that can be overridden are mentioned in this document. Most (if not all) are documented at the start of /usr/ports/Mk/bsd.port.mk; the others probably ought to be. Note that this file uses a non-standard tab setting: Emacs and Vim should recognize the setting on loading the file. Both vi(1) and ex(1) can be set to use the correct value by typing :set tabstop=4 once the file has been loaded.

Looking for something easy to start with? Take a look at the list of requested ports and see if you can work on one (or more).

Chapter 3. Quick Porting

This section describes how to quickly create a new port. For applications where this quick method is not adequate, the full Slow Porting process is described in Chapter 4, Slow Porting.

First, get the original tarball and put it into DISTDIR, which defaults to /usr/ports/distfiles.

Note:

The following steps assume that the software compiled out-of-the-box. In other words, absolutely no changes were required for the application to work on a FreeBSD system. If anything had to be changed, refer to Chapter 4, Slow Porting.

Note:

It is recommended to set the DEVELOPER make(1) variable in /etc/make.conf before getting into porting.

# echo DEVELOPER=yes >> /etc/make.conf

This setting enables the developer mode that displays deprecation warnings and activates some further quality checks on calling make.

3.1. Writing the Makefile

The minimal Makefile would look something like this:

# $FreeBSD$

PORTNAME=	oneko
PORTVERSION=	1.1b
CATEGORIES=	games
MASTER_SITES=	ftp://ftp.cs.columbia.edu/archives/X11R5/contrib/

MAINTAINER=	youremail@example.com
COMMENT=	Cat chasing a mouse all over the screen

.include <bsd.port.mk>

Note:

In some cases, the Makefile of an existing port may contain additional lines in the header, such as the name of the port and the date it was created. This additional information has been declared obsolete, and is being phased out.

Try to figure it out. Do not worry about the contents of the $FreeBSD$ line, it will be filled in automatically by Subversion when the port is imported to our main ports tree. A more detailed example is shown in the sample Makefile section.

3.2. Writing the Description Files

There are two description files that are required for any port, whether they actually package or not. They are pkg-descr and pkg-plist. Their pkg- prefix distinguishes them from other files.

3.2.1. pkg-descr

This is a longer description of the port. One to a few paragraphs concisely explaining what the port does is sufficient.

Note:

This is not a manual or an in-depth description on how to use or compile the port! Please be careful when copying from the README or manpage; too often they are not a concise description of the port or are in an awkward format (e.g., manpages have justified spacing, which looks particularly bad with monospaced fonts).

A well-written pkg-descr describes the port completely enough that users would not have to consult the documentation or visit the website to understand what the software does, how it can be useful, or what particularly nice features it has. Mentioning certain requirements like a graphical toolkit, heavy dependencies, runtime environment, or implementation languages help users decide whether this port will work for them.

Include a URL to the official WWW homepage. Prepend one of the websites (pick the most common one) with WWW: (followed by single space) so that automated tools will work correctly. If the URI is the root of the website or directory, it should be terminated with a slash.

Note:

If the listed webpage for a port is not available, try to search the Internet first to see if the official site moved, was renamed, or is hosted elsewhere.

The following example shows how the pkg-descr should look:

This is a port of oneko, in which a cat chases a poor mouse all over
the screen.
 :
(etc.)

WWW: http://www.oneko.org/

3.2.2. pkg-plist

This file lists all the files installed by the port. It is also called the packing list because the package is generated by packing the files listed here. The pathnames are relative to the installation prefix (usually /usr/local. If the port creates directories during installation, make sure to add @dirrm lines to remove them when the package is deleted.

Here is a small example:

bin/oneko
man/man1/oneko.1.gz
lib/X11/app-defaults/Oneko
lib/X11/oneko/cat1.xpm
lib/X11/oneko/cat2.xpm
lib/X11/oneko/mouse.xpm
@dirrm lib/X11/oneko

Refer to the pkg-create(8) manual page for details on the packing list.

Note:

It is recommended to keep all the filenames in this file sorted alphabetically. It will make verifying changes when upgrading the port much easier.

Note:

Creating a packing list manually can be a very tedious task. If the port installs a large numbers of files, creating the packing list automatically might save time.

There is only one case when pkg-plist can be omitted from a port. If the port installs just a handful of files, and perhaps directories, the files and directories may be listed in the variables PLIST_FILES and PLIST_DIRS, respectively, within the port's Makefile. For instance, we could get along without pkg-plist in the above oneko port by adding the following lines to the Makefile:

PLIST_FILES=	bin/oneko \
		man/man1/oneko.1.gz \
		lib/X11/app-defaults/Oneko \
		lib/X11/oneko/cat1.xpm \
		lib/X11/oneko/cat2.xpm \
		lib/X11/oneko/mouse.xpm
PLIST_DIRS=	lib/X11/oneko

Of course, PLIST_DIRS should be left unset if a port installs no directories of its own.

Note:

Several ports can share a common directory. In that case, PLIST_DIRS should be replaced by PLIST_DIRSTRY so that the directory is removed only if empty, otherwise it is silently ignored. PLIST_DIRS and PLIST_DIRSTRY are equivalent to using @dirrm and @dirrmtry in pkg-plist, as described in Section 7.2.1, “Cleaning Up Empty Directories”.

The price for this way of listing a port's files and directories is that then command sequences described in pkg-create(8) cannot be used. Therefore, it is suitable only for simple ports and makes them even simpler. At the same time, it has the advantage of reducing the number of files in the ports collection. Please consider using this technique before resorting to pkg-plist.

Later we will see how pkg-plist and PLIST_FILES can be used to fulfill more sophisticated tasks.

3.3. Creating the Checksum File

Just type make makesum. The ports make rules will automatically generate the file distinfo.

3.4. Testing the Port

Make sure that the port rules do exactly what is desired, including packaging up the port. These are the important points to verify:

  • pkg-plist does not contain anything not installed by the port.

  • pkg-plist contains everything that is installed by the port.

  • The port can be installed using the install target. This verifies that the install script works correctly.

  • The port can be deinstalled properly using the deinstall target. This verifies that the deinstall script works correctly.

  • Make sure that make package can be run as a normal user (that is, not as root). If that fails, NEED_ROOT=yes must be added to the port Makefile.

Procedure 3.1. Recommended Test Ordering
  1. make stage

  2. make check-orphans

  3. make package

  4. make install

  5. make deinstall

  6. pkg add package-filename

  7. make package (as user)

Make certain no warnings are shown in any of the stages.

Thorough automated testing can be done with ports-mgmt/tinderbox or ports-mgmt/poudriere from the Ports Collection. These applications maintain jails where all of the steps shown above can be tested without affecting the state of the host system.

3.5. Checking the Port with portlint

Please use portlint to see if the port conforms to our guidelines. The ports-mgmt/portlint program is part of the ports collection. In particular, check that the Makefile is in the right shape and the package is named appropriately.

3.6. Submitting the New Port

Before submitting the new port, read the DOs and DON'Ts section.

Once happy with the port, the only thing remaining is to put it in the main FreeBSD ports tree and make everybody else happy about it too. We do not need the work directory or the pkgname.tgz package, so delete them now.

Next, build the shar(1) file. Assuming the port is called oneko, cd to the directory above where the oneko directory is located, and then type: shar `find oneko` > oneko.shar

Include oneko.shar in a bug report and send it with send-pr(1). See Bug Reports and General Commentary for more information about send-pr(1).

Classify the bug report as Category ports and Class change-request. Do not mark the report confidential! Add a short description of the program to the Description field of the PR (perhaps a short version of the COMMENT), and add the .shar file to the Fix field.

Note:

Giving a good description in the synopsis of the problem report makes the work of port committers a lot easier. We prefer something like New port: <category>/<portname> <short description of the port> for new ports. Using this scheme makes it easier and faster to begin the work of committing the new port.

One more time, do not include the original source distfile, the work directory, or the package built with make package; and, do use shar(1) for new ports, not diff(1).

After submitting the port, please be patient. The time needed to include a new port in FreeBSD can vary from a few days to a few months. The list of pending port PRs can be viewed at http://www.FreeBSD.org/cgi/query-pr-summary.cgi?category=ports.

After looking at the new port, we will reply if necessary, and put it in the tree. Your name will also be added to the list of Additional FreeBSD Contributors and other files.

Chapter 4. Slow Porting

Okay, so it was not that simple, and the port required some modifications to get it to work. In this section, we will explain, step by step, how to modify it to get it to work with the ports paradigm.

4.1. How Things Work

First, this is the sequence of events which occurs when the user first types make in your port's directory. You may find that having bsd.port.mk in another window while you read this really helps to understand it.

But do not worry if you do not really understand what bsd.port.mk is doing, not many people do... :-)

  1. The fetch target is run. The fetch target is responsible for making sure that the tarball exists locally in DISTDIR. If fetch cannot find the required files in DISTDIR it will look up the URL MASTER_SITES, which is set in the Makefile, as well as our FTP mirrors where we put distfiles as backup. It will then attempt to fetch the named distribution file with FETCH, assuming that the requesting site has direct access to the Internet. If that succeeds, it will save the file in DISTDIR for future use and proceed.

  2. The extract target is run. It looks for your port's distribution file (typically a gzipped tarball) in DISTDIR and unpacks it into a temporary subdirectory specified by WRKDIR (defaults to work).

  3. The patch target is run. First, any patches defined in PATCHFILES are applied. Second, if any patch files named patch-* are found in PATCHDIR (defaults to the files subdirectory), they are applied at this time in alphabetical order.

  4. The configure target is run. This can do any one of many different things.

    1. If it exists, scripts/configure is run.

    2. If HAS_CONFIGURE or GNU_CONFIGURE is set, WRKSRC/configure is run.

  5. The build target is run. This is responsible for descending into the port's private working directory (WRKSRC) and building it.

  6. The stage target is run. This puts the final set of built files into a temporary directory (STAGEDIR, see Section 6.1, “Staging”). The hierarchy of this directory mirrors that of the system on which the package will be installed.

  7. The package target is run. This creates a package using the files from the temporary directory created during the stage target and the port's pkg-plist.

  8. The install target is run. This install the package created during the package target into the host system.

The above are the default actions. In addition, you can define targets pre-something or post-something, or put scripts with those names, in the scripts subdirectory, and they will be run before or after the default actions are done.

For example, if you have a post-extract target defined in your Makefile, and a file pre-build in the scripts subdirectory, the post-extract target will be called after the regular extraction actions, and the pre-build script will be executed before the default build rules are done. It is recommended that you use Makefile targets if the actions are simple enough, because it will be easier for someone to figure out what kind of non-default action the port requires.

The default actions are done by the bsd.port.mk targets do-something. For example, the commands to extract a port are in the target do-extract. If you are not happy with the default target, you can fix it by redefining the do-something target in your Makefile.

Note:

The main targets (e.g., extract, configure, etc.) do nothing more than make sure all the stages up to that one are completed and call the real targets or scripts, and they are not intended to be changed. If you want to fix the extraction, fix do-extract, but never ever change the way extract operates! Additionally, the target post-deinstall is invalid and is not run by the ports infrastructure.

Now that you understand what goes on when the user types make install, let us go through the recommended steps to create the perfect port.

4.2. Getting the Original Sources

Get the original sources (normally) as a compressed tarball (foo.tar.gz or foo.tar.bz2) and copy it into DISTDIR. Always use mainstream sources when and where you can.

You will need to set the variable MASTER_SITES to reflect where the original tarball resides. You will find convenient shorthand definitions for most mainstream sites in bsd.sites.mk. Please use these sites—and the associated definitions—if at all possible, to help avoid the problem of having the same information repeated over again many times in the source base. As these sites tend to change over time, this becomes a maintenance nightmare for everyone involved.

If you cannot find a FTP/HTTP site that is well-connected to the net, or can only find sites that have irritatingly non-standard formats, you might want to put a copy on a reliable FTP or HTTP server that you control (e.g., your home page).

If you cannot find somewhere convenient and reliable to put the distfile we can house it ourselves on ftp.FreeBSD.org; however, this is the least-preferred solution. The distfile must be placed into ~/public_distfiles/ of someone's freefall account. Ask the person who commits your port to do this. This person will also set MASTER_SITES to MASTER_SITE_LOCAL and MASTER_SITE_SUBDIR to their freefall username.

If your port's distfile changes all the time without any kind of version update by the author, consider putting the distfile on your home page and listing it as the first MASTER_SITES. If you can, try to talk the port author out of doing this; it really does help to establish some kind of source code control. Hosting your own version will prevent users from getting checksum mismatch errors, and also reduce the workload of maintainers of our FTP site. Also, if there is only one master site for the port, it is recommended that you house a backup at your site and list it as the second MASTER_SITES.

If your port requires some additional `patches' that are available on the Internet, fetch them too and put them in DISTDIR. Do not worry if they come from a site other than where you got the main source tarball, we have a way to handle these situations (see the description of PATCHFILES below).

4.3. Modifying the Port

Unpack a copy of the tarball in a private directory and make whatever changes are necessary to get the port to compile properly under the current version of FreeBSD. Keep careful track of everything you do, as you will be automating the process shortly. Everything, including the deletion, addition, or modification of files should be doable using an automated script or patch file when your port is finished.

If your port requires significant user interaction/customization to compile or install, you should take a look at one of Larry Wall's classic Configure scripts and perhaps do something similar yourself. The goal of the new ports collection is to make each port as plug-and-play as possible for the end-user while using a minimum of disk space.

Note:

Unless explicitly stated, patch files, scripts, and other files you have created and contributed to the FreeBSD ports collection are assumed to be covered by the standard BSD copyright conditions.

4.4. Patching

In the preparation of the port, files that have been added or changed can be recorded with diff(1) for later feeding to patch(1). Doing this with a typical file involves saving a copy of the original file before making any changes.

% cp file file.orig

4.4.1. Automatic Patch Generation

When all the files have been modified, use make makepatch from the port directory to write updated patch files to the files directory of the port.

4.4.2. Manual Patch Generation

Patches are saved into files named patch-* where * indicates the pathname of the file that is patched, such as patch-Imakefile or patch-src-config.h.

After the file has been modified, diff(1) is used to record the differences between the original and the modified version. -u causes diff(1) to produce unified diffs, the preferred form.

% diff -u file.orig file > patch-pathname-file

When generating patches for new, added files, -N is added to tell diff(1) to treat the non-existent original file as if it existed but was empty:

% diff -u -N newfile.orig newfile > patch-pathname-newfile

Patch files are stored in PATCHDIR (usually files/, from where they will be automatically applied. All patches must be relative to WRKSRC (generally the directory the port's tarball unpacks itself into, that being where the build is done). To make fixes and upgrades easier, avoid having more than one patch fix the same file (that is, patch-file and patch-file2 both changing WRKSRC/foobar.c). Note that in the path of a patched file the / are to be replaced with two underscores __. For example, to patch a file named src/freeglut_joystick.c, the corresponding patch should be named patch-src__freeglut_joystick.c.

Please only use characters [-+._a-zA-Z0-9] for naming patches. Do not use any other characters besides them. Do not name patches like patch-aa or patch-ab, always mention the path and file name in patch names.

Do not put RCS strings in patches. Subversion will mangle them when we put the files into the ports tree, and when we check them out again, they will come out different and the patch will fail. RCS strings are surrounded by dollar ($) signs, and typically start with $Id or $RCS.

Using the recurse (-r) option to diff(1) to generate patches is fine, but please look at the resulting patches to make sure there is no unnecessary junk in there. In particular, diffs between two backup files, Makefiles when the port uses Imake or GNU configure, etc., are unnecessary and should be deleted. If it was necessary to edit configure.in and run autoconf to regenerate configure, do not take the diffs of configure (it often grows to a few thousand lines!). Instead, define USE_AUTOTOOLS=autoconf:261 and take the diffs of configure.in.

4.4.3. General Rules for Patching

Try to minimize the amount of non-functional whitespace changes in patches. It is common in the Open Source world for projects to share large amounts of a code base, but obey different style and indenting rules. When taking a working piece of functionality from one project to fix similar areas in another, please be careful: the resulting line patch may be full of non-functional changes. It not only increases the size of the Subversion repository but makes it hard to find out what exactly caused the problem and what was changed at all.

If a file must be deleted, do it in the post-extract target rather than as part of the patch.

4.4.4. Simple Automatic Replacements

Simple replacements can be performed directly from the port Makefile using the in-place mode of sed(1). This is useful when changes use the value of a variable:

post-patch:
      @${REINPLACE_CMD} -e 's|for Linux|for FreeBSD|g' ${WRKSRC}/README

Quite often, software being ported uses the CR/LF convention in source files. This may cause problems with further patching, compiler warnings, or script execution (like /bin/sh^M not found.) To quickly convert all files from CR/LF to just LF, add this entry to the port Makefile:

USES=	dos2unix

A list of specific files to convert can be given:

USES=	dos2unix
DOS2UNIX_FILES=	util.c util.h

Use DOS2UNIX_REGEX to convert a group of files across subdirectories. Its argument is a find(1)-compatible regular expression. More on the format is in re_format(7). This option is useful for converting all files of a given extension. For example, convert all source code files, leaving binary files intact:

USES=	dos2unix
DOS2UNIX_REGEX=	.*\.([ch]|cpp)

A similar option is DOS2UNIX_GLOB, which invokes find for each element listed in it.

USES=	dos2unix
DOS2UNIX_GLOB=	*.c *.cpp *.h

4.5. Configuring

Include any additional customization commands in your configure script and save it in the scripts subdirectory. As mentioned above, you can also do this with Makefile targets and/or scripts with the name pre-configure or post-configure.

4.6. Handling User Input

If your port requires user input to build, configure, or install, you must set IS_INTERACTIVE in your Makefile. This will allow overnight builds to skip your port if the user sets the variable BATCH in his environment (and if the user sets the variable INTERACTIVE, then only those ports requiring interaction are built). This will save a lot of wasted time on the set of machines that continually build ports (see below).

It is also recommended that if there are reasonable default answers to the questions, you check the PACKAGE_BUILDING variable and turn off the interactive script when it is set. This will allow us to build the packages for CDROMs and FTP.

Chapter 5. Configuring the Makefile

Configuring the Makefile is pretty simple, and again we suggest that you look at existing examples before starting. Also, there is a sample Makefile in this handbook, so take a look and please follow the ordering of variables and sections in that template to make your port easier for others to read.

Now, consider the following problems in sequence as you design your new Makefile:

5.1. The Original Source

Does it live in DISTDIR as a standard gzipped tarball named something like foozolix-1.2.tar.gz? If so, you can go on to the next step. If not, you should look at overriding any of the DISTVERSION, DISTNAME, EXTRACT_CMD, EXTRACT_BEFORE_ARGS, EXTRACT_AFTER_ARGS, EXTRACT_SUFX, or DISTFILES variables, depending on how alien a format your port's distribution file is.

In the worst case, you can simply create your own do-extract target to override the default, though this should be rarely, if ever, necessary.

5.2. Naming

The first part of the port's Makefile names the port, describes its version number, and lists it in the correct category.

5.2.1. PORTNAME and PORTVERSION

You should set PORTNAME to the base name of your port, and PORTVERSION to the version number of the port.

Warning:

Package name should be unique among all of the ports tree, check that there is not already a port with the same PORTNAME and if there is add one of PKGNAMEPREFIX or PKGNAMESUFFIX.

5.2.2. PORTREVISION and PORTEPOCH

5.2.2.1. PORTREVISION

The PORTREVISION variable is a monotonically increasing value which is reset to 0 with every increase of PORTVERSION (i.e., every time a new official vendor release is made), and appended to the package name if non-zero. Changes to PORTREVISION are used by automated tools (e.g., pkg version, see pkg-version(8)) to highlight the fact that a new package is available.

PORTREVISION should be increased each time a change is made to the port that changes the generated package in any way. That includes changes that only affect a package built with non-default options.

Examples of when PORTREVISION should be bumped:

  • Addition of patches to correct security vulnerabilities, bugs, or to add new functionality to the port.

  • Changes to the port Makefile to enable or disable compile-time options in the package.

  • Changes in the packing list or the install-time behavior of the package (e.g., change to a script which generates initial data for the package, like ssh host keys).

  • Version bump of a port's shared library dependency (in this case, someone trying to install the old package after installing a newer version of the dependency will fail since it will look for the old libfoo.x instead of libfoo.(x+1)).

  • Silent changes to the port distfile which have significant functional differences, i.e., changes to the distfile requiring a correction to distinfo with no corresponding change to PORTVERSION, where a diff -ru of the old and new versions shows non-trivial changes to the code.

Examples of changes which do not require a PORTREVISION bump:

  • Style changes to the port skeleton with no functional change to what appears in the resulting package.

  • Changes to MASTER_SITES or other functional changes to the port which do not affect the resulting package.

  • Trivial patches to the distfile such as correction of typos, which are not important enough that users of the package should go to the trouble of upgrading.

  • Build fixes which cause a package to become compilable where it was previously failing (as long as the changes do not introduce any functional change on any other platforms on which the port did previously build). Since PORTREVISION reflects the content of the package, if the package was not previously buildable then there is no need to increase PORTREVISION to mark a change.

A rule of thumb is to ask yourself whether a change committed to a port is something which everyone would benefit from having (either because of an enhancement, fix, or by virtue that the new package will actually work at all), and weigh that against that fact that it will cause everyone who regularly updates their ports tree to be compelled to update. If yes, the PORTREVISION should be bumped.

5.2.2.2. PORTEPOCH

From time to time a software vendor or FreeBSD porter will do something silly and release a version of their software which is actually numerically less than the previous version. An example of this is a port which goes from foo-20000801 to foo-1.0 (the former will be incorrectly treated as a newer version since 20000801 is a numerically greater value than 1).

Tip:

The results of version number comparisons are not always obvious. pkg version (see pkg-version(8)) can be used to test the comparison of two version number strings. For example:

% pkg version -t 0.031 0.29
>

The > output indicates that version 0.031 is considered greater than version 0.29, which may not have been obvious to the porter.

In situations such as this, the PORTEPOCH version should be increased. If PORTEPOCH is nonzero it is appended to the package name as described in section 0 above. PORTEPOCH must never be decreased or reset to zero, because that would cause comparison to a package from an earlier epoch to fail (i.e., the package would not be detected as out of date): the new version number (e.g., 1.0,1 in the above example) is still numerically less than the previous version (20000801), but the ,1 suffix is treated specially by automated tools and found to be greater than the implied suffix ,0 on the earlier package.

Dropping or resetting PORTEPOCH incorrectly leads to no end of grief; if you do not understand the above discussion, please keep after it until you do, or ask questions on the mailing lists.

It is expected that PORTEPOCH will not be used for the majority of ports, and that sensible use of PORTVERSION can often preempt it becoming necessary if a future release of the software should change the version structure. However, care is needed by FreeBSD porters when a vendor release is made without an official version number — such as a code snapshot release. The temptation is to label the release with the release date, which will cause problems as in the example above when a new official release is made.

For example, if a snapshot release is made on the date 20000917, and the previous version of the software was version 1.2, the snapshot release should be given a PORTVERSION of 1.2.20000917 or similar, not 20000917, so that the succeeding release, say 1.3, is still a numerically greater value.

5.2.2.3. Example of PORTREVISION and PORTEPOCH Usage

The gtkmumble port, version 0.10, is committed to the ports collection:

PORTNAME=	gtkmumble
PORTVERSION=	0.10

PKGNAME becomes gtkmumble-0.10.

A security hole is discovered which requires a local FreeBSD patch. PORTREVISION is bumped accordingly.

PORTNAME=	gtkmumble
PORTVERSION=	0.10
PORTREVISION=	1

PKGNAME becomes gtkmumble-0.10_1

A new version is released by the vendor, numbered 0.2 (it turns out the author actually intended 0.10 to actually mean 0.1.0, not what comes after 0.9 - oops, too late now). Since the new minor version 2 is numerically less than the previous version 10, the PORTEPOCH must be bumped to manually force the new package to be detected as newer. Since it is a new vendor release of the code, PORTREVISION is reset to 0 (or removed from the Makefile).

PORTNAME=	gtkmumble
PORTVERSION=	0.2
PORTEPOCH=	1

PKGNAME becomes gtkmumble-0.2,1

The next release is 0.3. Since PORTEPOCH never decreases, the version variables are now:

PORTNAME=	gtkmumble
PORTVERSION=	0.3
PORTEPOCH=	1

PKGNAME becomes gtkmumble-0.3,1

Note:

If PORTEPOCH were reset to 0 with this upgrade, someone who had installed the gtkmumble-0.10_1 package would not detect the gtkmumble-0.3 package as newer, since 3 is still numerically less than 10. Remember, this is the whole point of PORTEPOCH in the first place.

5.2.3. PKGNAMEPREFIX and PKGNAMESUFFIX

Two optional variables, PKGNAMEPREFIX and PKGNAMESUFFIX, are combined with PORTNAME and PORTVERSION to form PKGNAME as ${PKGNAMEPREFIX}${PORTNAME}${PKGNAMESUFFIX}-${PORTVERSION}. Make sure this conforms to our guidelines for a good package name. In particular, you are not allowed to use a hyphen (-) in PORTVERSION. Also, if the package name has the language- or the -compiled.specifics part (see below), use PKGNAMEPREFIX and PKGNAMESUFFIX, respectively. Do not make them part of PORTNAME.

5.2.4. Package Naming Conventions

These are the conventions to follow when naming packages. This is to make the package directory easy to scan, as there are already thousands of packages and users are going to turn away if they hurt their eyes!

Package names take the form of language_region-name-compiled.specifics-version.numbers.

The package name is defined as ${PKGNAMEPREFIX}${PORTNAME}${PKGNAMESUFFIX}-${PORTVERSION}. Make sure to set the variables to conform to that format.

language_region-

FreeBSD strives to support the native language of its users. The language- part is a two letter abbreviation of the natural language defined by ISO-639 when the port is specific to a certain language. Examples are ja for Japanese, ru for Russian, vi for Vietnamese, zh for Chinese, ko for Korean and de for German.

If the port is specific to a certain region within the language area, add the two letter country code as well. Examples are en_US for US English and fr_CH for Swiss French.

The language- part is set in the PKGNAMEPREFIX variable.

name

The first letter of the name part should be lowercase. (The rest of the name may contain capital letters, so use your own discretion when converting a software name that has some capital letters in it.) There is a tradition of naming Perl 5 modules by prepending p5- and converting the double-colon separator to a hyphen. For example, the Data::Dumper module becomes p5-Data-Dumper.

Make sure that the port's name and version are clearly separated and placed into the PORTNAME and PORTVERSION variables. The only reason for PORTNAME to contain a version part is if the upstream distribution is really named that way, as in the textproc/libxml2 or japanese/kinput2-freewnn ports. Otherwise, the PORTNAME should not contain any version-specific information. It is quite normal for several ports to have the same PORTNAME, as the www/apache* ports do; in that case, different versions (and different index entries) are distinguished by the PKGNAMEPREFIX and PKGNAMESUFFIX values.

-compiled.specifics

If the port can be built with different hardcoded defaults (usually part of the directory name in a family of ports), the -compiled.specifics part should state the compiled-in defaults (the hyphen is optional). Examples are paper size and font units.

The -compiled.specifics part is set in the PKGNAMESUFFIX variable.

-version.numbers

The version string follows a dash (-) and is a period-separated list of integers and single lowercase alphabetics. In particular, it is not permissible to have another dash inside the version string. The only exception is the string pl (meaning patchlevel), which can be used only when there are no major and minor version numbers in the software. If the software version has strings like alpha, beta, rc, or pre, take the first letter and put it immediately after a period. If the version string continues after those names, the numbers should follow the single alphabet without an extra period between them.

The idea is to make it easier to sort ports by looking at the version string. In particular, make sure version number components are always delimited by a period, and if the date is part of the string, use the 0.0.yyyy.mm.dd format, not dd.mm.yyyy or the non-Y2K compliant yy.mm.dd format. It is important to prefix the version with 0.0. in case a release with an actual version number is made, which would of course be numerically less than yyyy.

Warning:

Package name must be unique among all of the ports tree, check that there is not already a port with the same PORTNAME and if there is add one of PKGNAMEPREFIX or PKGNAMESUFFIX.

Here are some (real) examples on how to convert the name as called by the software authors to a suitable package name:

Distribution NamePKGNAMEPREFIXPORTNAMEPKGNAMESUFFIXPORTVERSIONReason
mule-2.2.2(empty)mule(empty)2.2.2No changes required
EmiClock-1.0.2(empty)emiclock(empty)1.0.2No uppercase names for single programs
rdist-1.3alpha(empty)rdist(empty)1.3.aNo strings like alpha allowed
es-0.9-beta1(empty)es(empty)0.9.b1No strings like beta allowed
mailman-2.0rc3(empty)mailman(empty)2.0.r3No strings like rc allowed
v3.3beta021.src(empty)tiff(empty)3.3What the heck was that anyway?
tvtwm(empty)tvtwm(empty)pl11Version string always required
piewm(empty)piewm(empty)1.0Version string always required
xvgr-2.10pl1(empty)xvgr(empty)2.10.1pl allowed only when no major/minor version numbers
gawk-2.15.6ja-gawk(empty)2.15.6Japanese language version
psutils-1.13(empty)psutils-letter1.13Paper size hardcoded at package build time
pkfonts(empty)pkfonts3001.0Package for 300dpi fonts

If there is absolutely no trace of version information in the original source and it is unlikely that the original author will ever release another version, just set the version string to 1.0 (like the piewm example above). Otherwise, ask the original author or use the date string (0.0.yyyy.mm.dd) as the version.

5.3. Categorization

5.3.1. CATEGORIES

When a package is created, it is put under /usr/ports/packages/All and links are made from one or more subdirectories of /usr/ports/packages. The names of these subdirectories are specified by the variable CATEGORIES. It is intended to make life easier for the user when he is wading through the pile of packages on the FTP site or the CDROM. Please take a look at the current list of categories and pick the ones that are suitable for your port.

This list also determines where in the ports tree the port is imported. If you put more than one category here, it is assumed that the port files will be put in the subdirectory with the name in the first category. See below for more discussion about how to pick the right categories.

5.3.2. Current List of Categories

Here is the current list of port categories. Those marked with an asterisk (*) are virtual categories—those that do not have a corresponding subdirectory in the ports tree. They are only used as secondary categories, and only for search purposes.

Note:

For non-virtual categories, you will find a one-line description in the COMMENT in that subdirectory's Makefile.

CategoryDescriptionNotes
accessibilityPorts to help disabled users. 
afterstep*Ports to support the AfterStep window manager. 
arabicArabic language support. 
archiversArchiving tools. 
astroAstronomical ports. 
audioSound support. 
benchmarksBenchmarking utilities. 
biologyBiology-related software. 
cadComputer aided design tools. 
chineseChinese language support. 
commsCommunication software.Mostly software to talk to your serial port.
convertersCharacter code converters. 
databasesDatabases. 
deskutilsThings that used to be on the desktop before computers were invented. 
develDevelopment utilities.Do not put libraries here just because they are libraries—unless they truly do not belong anywhere else, they should not be in this category.
dnsDNS-related software. 
docs*Meta-ports for FreeBSD documentation. 
editorsGeneral editors.Specialized editors go in the section for those tools (e.g., a mathematical-formula editor will go in math).
elisp*Emacs-lisp ports. 
emulatorsEmulators for other operating systems.Terminal emulators do not belong here—X-based ones should go to x11 and text-based ones to either comms or misc, depending on the exact functionality.
financeMonetary, financial and related applications. 
frenchFrench language support. 
ftpFTP client and server utilities.If your port speaks both FTP and HTTP, put it in ftp with a secondary category of www.
gamesGames. 
geography*Geography-related software. 
germanGerman language support. 
gnome*Ports from the GNOME Project. 
gnustep*Software related to the GNUstep desktop environment. 
graphicsGraphics utilities. 
hamradio*Software for amateur radio. 
haskell*Software related to the Haskell language. 
hebrewHebrew language support. 
hungarianHungarian language support. 
ipv6*IPv6 related software. 
ircInternet Relay Chat utilities. 
japaneseJapanese language support. 
javaSoftware related to the Java™ language.The java category must not be the only one for a port. Save for ports directly related to the Java language, porters are also encouraged not to use java as the main category of a port.
kde*Ports from the KDE Project. 
kld*Kernel loadable modules. 
koreanKorean language support. 
langProgramming languages. 
linux*Linux applications and support utilities. 
lisp*Software related to the Lisp language. 
mailMail software. 
mathNumerical computation software and other utilities for mathematics. 
mbone*MBone applications. 
miscMiscellaneous utilitiesBasically things that do not belong anywhere else. If at all possible, try to find a better category for your port than misc, as ports tend to get overlooked in here.
multimediaMultimedia software. 
netMiscellaneous networking software. 
net-imInstant messaging software. 
net-mgmtNetworking management software. 
net-p2pPeer to peer network applications. 
newsUSENET news software. 
palmSoftware support for the Palm™ series. 
parallel*Applications dealing with parallelism in computing. 
pear*Ports related to the Pear PHP framework. 
perl5*Ports that require Perl version 5 to run. 
plan9*Various programs from Plan9. 
polishPolish language support. 
ports-mgmtPorts for managing, installing and developing FreeBSD ports and packages. 
portuguesePortuguese language support. 
printPrinting software.Desktop publishing tools (previewers, etc.) belong here too.
python*Software related to the Python language. 
ruby*Software related to the Ruby language. 
rubygems*Ports of RubyGems packages. 
russianRussian language support. 
scheme*Software related to the Scheme language. 
scienceScientific ports that do not fit into other categories such as astro, biology and math. 
securitySecurity utilities. 
shellsCommand line shells. 
spanish*Spanish language support. 
sysutilsSystem utilities. 
tcl*Ports that use Tcl to run. 
textprocText processing utilities.It does not include desktop publishing tools, which go to print.
tk*Ports that use Tk to run. 
ukrainianUkrainian language support. 
vietnameseVietnamese language support. 
windowmaker*Ports to support the WindowMaker window manager. 
wwwSoftware related to the World Wide Web.HTML language support belongs here too.
x11The X Window System and friends.This category is only for software that directly supports the window system. Do not put regular X applications here; most of them should go into other x11-* categories (see below).
x11-clocksX11 clocks. 
x11-driversX11 drivers. 
x11-fmX11 file managers. 
x11-fontsX11 fonts and font utilities. 
x11-serversX11 servers. 
x11-themesX11 themes. 
x11-toolkitsX11 toolkits. 
x11-wmX11 window managers. 
xfce*Ports related to the Xfce desktop environment. 
zope*Zope support. 

5.3.3. Choosing the Right Category

As many of the categories overlap, you often have to choose which of the categories should be the primary category of your port. There are several rules that govern this issue. Here is the list of priorities, in decreasing order of precedence:

  • The first category must be a physical category (see above). This is necessary to make the packaging work. Virtual categories and physical categories may be intermixed after that.

  • Language specific categories always come first. For example, if your port installs Japanese X11 fonts, then your CATEGORIES line would read japanese x11-fonts.

  • Specific categories are listed before less-specific ones. For instance, an HTML editor should be listed as www editors, not the other way around. Also, you should not list net when the port belongs to any of irc, mail, news, security, or www, as net is included implicitly.

  • x11 is used as a secondary category only when the primary category is a natural language. In particular, you should not put x11 in the category line for X applications.

  • Emacs modes should be placed in the same ports category as the application supported by the mode, not in editors. For example, an Emacs mode to edit source files of some programming language should go into lang.

  • Ports which install loadable kernel modules should have the virtual category kld in their CATEGORIES line. This is one of the things handled automatically by adding kmod to the USES line.

  • misc should not appear with any other non-virtual category. If you have misc with something else in your CATEGORIES line, that means you can safely delete misc and just put the port in that other subdirectory!

  • If your port truly does not belong anywhere else, put it in misc.

If you are not sure about the category, please put a comment to that effect in your send-pr(1) submission so we can discuss it before we import it. If you are a committer, send a note to the FreeBSD ports mailing list so we can discuss it first. Too often, new ports are imported to the wrong category only to be moved right away. This causes unnecessary and undesirable bloat in the master source repository.

5.3.4. Proposing a New Category

As the Ports Collection has grown over time, various new categories have been introduced. New categories can either be virtual categories—those that do not have a corresponding subdirectory in the ports tree— or physical categories—those that do. The following text discusses the issues involved in creating a new physical category so that you can understand them before you propose one.

Our existing practice has been to avoid creating a new physical category unless either a large number of ports would logically belong to it, or the ports that would belong to it are a logically distinct group that is of limited general interest (for instance, categories related to spoken human languages), or preferably both.

The rationale for this is that such a change creates a fair amount of work for both the committers and also for all users who track changes to the Ports Collection. In addition, proposed category changes just naturally seem to attract controversy. (Perhaps this is because there is no clear consensus on when a category is too big, nor whether categories should lend themselves to browsing (and thus what number of categories would be an ideal number), and so forth.)

Here is the procedure:

  1. Propose the new category on FreeBSD ports mailing list. You should include a detailed rationale for the new category, including why you feel the existing categories are not sufficient, and the list of existing ports proposed to move. (If there are new ports pending in GNATS that would fit this category, list them too.) If you are the maintainer and/or submitter, respectively, mention that as it may help you to make your case.

  2. Participate in the discussion.

  3. If it seems that there is support for your idea, file a PR which includes both the rationale and the list of existing ports that need to be moved. Ideally, this PR should also include patches for the following:

    • Makefiles for the new ports once they are repocopied

    • Makefile for the new category

    • Makefile for the old ports' categories

    • Makefiles for ports that depend on the old ports

    • (for extra credit, you can include the other files that have to change, as per the procedure in the Committer's Guide.)

  4. Since it affects the ports infrastructure and involves not only performing repo-copies but also possibly running regression tests on the build cluster, the PR should be assigned to the Ports Management Team .

  5. If that PR is approved, a committer will need to follow the rest of the procedure that is outlined in the Committer's Guide.

Proposing a new virtual category should be similar to the above but much less involved, since no ports will actually have to move. In this case, the only patches to include in the PR would be those to add the new category to the CATEGORIES of the affected ports.

5.3.5. Proposing Reorganizing All the Categories

Occasionally someone proposes reorganizing the categories with either a 2-level structure, or some other kind of keyword structure. To date, nothing has come of any of these proposals because, while they are very easy to make, the effort involved to retrofit the entire existing ports collection with any kind of reorganization is daunting to say the very least. Please read the history of these proposals in the mailing list archives before you post this idea; furthermore, you should be prepared to be challenged to offer a working prototype.

5.4. The Distribution Files

The second part of the Makefile describes the files that must be downloaded in order to build the port, and where they can be downloaded from.

5.4.1. DISTVERSION/DISTNAME

DISTNAME is the name of the port as called by the authors of the software. DISTNAME defaults to ${PORTNAME}-${DISTVERSIONPREFIX}${DISTVERSION}${DISTVERSIONSUFFIX}, and DISTVERSION defaults to ${PORTVERSION} so override it only if necessary. DISTNAME is only used in two places. First, the distribution file list (DISTFILES) defaults to ${DISTNAME}${EXTRACT_SUFX}. Second, the distribution file is expected to extract into a subdirectory named WRKSRC, which defaults to work/${DISTNAME}.

Some vendor's distribution names which do not fit into the ${PORTNAME}-${PORTVERSION}-scheme can be handled automatically by setting DISTVERSION. PORTVERSION will be derived from it automatically.

Note:

Only one of PORTVERSION and DISTVERSION can be set at a time. If you set DISTVERSION and the derived PORTVERSION is not right, do not use DISTVERSION, set PORTVERSION to the right value and set DISTNAME with PORTNAME with either some computation of PORTVERSION or the verbatim upstream version.

The following table lists some examples of DISTVERSION and the derived PORTVERSION:

DISTVERSIONPORTVERSION
0.7.1d0.7.1.d
10Alpha310.a3
3Beta7-pre23.b7.p2
8:f_178f.17

Note:

PKGNAMEPREFIX and PKGNAMESUFFIX do not affect DISTNAME. Also note that if WRKSRC is equal to work/${DISTNAME} while the original source archive is named something other than ${PORTNAME}-${PORTVERSION}${EXTRACT_SUFX}, you should probably leave DISTNAME alone— you are better off defining DISTFILES than having to set both DISTNAME and WRKSRC (and possibly EXTRACT_SUFX).

5.4.2. MASTER_SITES

Record the directory part of the FTP/HTTP-URL pointing at the original tarball in MASTER_SITES. Do not forget the trailing slash (/)!

The make macros will try to use this specification for grabbing the distribution file with FETCH if they cannot find it already on the system.

It is recommended that you put multiple sites on this list, preferably from different continents. This will safeguard against wide-area network problems. We are even planning to add support for automatically determining the closest master site and fetching from there; having multiple sites will go a long way towards helping this effort.

If the original tarball is part of one of the popular archives such as SourceForge, GNU, or Perl CPAN, you may be able refer to those sites in an easy compact form using predefined macros (e.g., SF, GNU or CPAN). Simply set MASTER_SITES to one of these values. Here is an example:

MASTER_SITES=	GNU/make

Or you can use the older expanded format, though there really are no reason to do so:

MASTER_SITES=		${MASTER_SITE_GNU}
MASTER_SITE_SUBDIR=	make

These values and variables are defined in /usr/ports/Mk/bsd.sites.mk. There are new entries added all the time, so make sure to check the latest version of this file before submitting a port.

Several magic macros exist for popular sites with a predictable directory structure. For these, just use the abbreviation and the system will try to guess the correct subdirectory for you.

MASTER_SITES=	SF

If the guess is incorrect, it can be overridden as follows.

MASTER_SITES=	SF/stardict/WyabdcRealPeopleTTS/${PORTVERSION}

This can also be written as

MASTER_SITES=	SF
MASTER_SITE_SUBDIR=	stardict/WyabdcRealPeopleTTS/${PORTVERSION}
Table 5.1. Popular Magic MASTER_SITES Macros
MacroAssumed subdirectory
APACHE_JAKARTA/dist/jakarta/${PORTNAME:S,-,,/,}/source
BERLIOS/${PORTNAME:L}
CHEESESHOP/packages/source/source/${DISTNAME:C/(.).*/\1/}/${DISTNAME:C/(.*)-[0-9].*/\1/}
DEBIAN/debian/pool/main/${PORTNAME:C/^((lib)?.).*$/\1/}/${PORTNAME}
GCC/pub/gcc/releases/${DISTNAME}
GH/${GH_ACCOUNT}/${GH_PROJECT}/legacy.tar.gz/${GH_TAGNAME}?dummy=/
GHC/downloads/${GH_ACCOUNT}/${GH_PROJECT}/
GNOME/pub/GNOME/sources/${PORTNAME}/${PORTVERSION:C/^([0-9]+\.[0-9]+).*/\1/}
GNU/gnu/${PORTNAME}
HORDE/pub/${PORTNAME}
LOGILAB/pub/${PORTNAME}
MATE/releases/${PORTVERSION:C/^([0-9]+\.[0-9]+).*/\1/}
MOZDEV/pub/mozdev/${PORTNAME:L}
CPAN/pub/CPAN/modules/by-module/${PORTNAME:C/-.*//}
PYTHON/ftp/python/${PYTHON_PORTVERSION:C/rc[0-9]//}
RUBYFORGE/${PORTNAME:L}
SAVANNAH/${PORTNAME:L}
SF/project/${PORTNAME:L}/${PORTNAME:L}/${PORTVERSION}

5.4.2.1. USE_GITHUB

If the distribution file comes from a specific commit or tag on GitHub for which there is no officially released file, there is an easy way to set the right DISTNAME and MASTER_SITES automatically. These variables are available:

Table 5.2. USE_GITHUB Description
VariableDescriptionDefaultMandatory
GH_ACCOUNTAccount name of the GitHub user hosting the projectnoneMandatory
GH_PROJECTName of the project on GitHub${PORTNAME} 
GH_TAGNAMEName of the tag to download (2.0.1, hash, ...) Using the name of a branch here is incorrect. It is possible to do GH_TAGNAME=${GH_COMMIT} to do a snapshot${DISTVERSION} 
GH_COMMITfirst 7 digits of the commit that generated GH_TAGNAME (see git-describe(1))noneMandatory

Example 5.1. Simple Use of USE_GITHUB

While trying to make a port for version 1.2.7 of pkg from the FreeBSD user on github, at https://github.com/freebsd/pkg, The Makefile would end up looking like this (slightly stripped for the example):

PORTNAME=	pkg
PORTVERSION=	1.2.7

USE_GITHUB=	yes
GH_ACCOUNT=	freebsd
GH_COMMIT=	f53e577

It will automatically have MASTER_SITES set to GH GHC and WRKSRC to ${WRKDIR}/freebsd-pkg-f53e577.


Example 5.2. More Complete Use of USE_GITHUB

While trying to make a port for the bleeding edge version of pkg from the FreeBSD user on github, at https://github.com/freebsd/pkg, The Makefile would end up looking like this (slightly stripped for the example):

PORTNAME=	pkg-devel
PORTVERSION=	1.3.0.a.20140411

USE_GITHUB=	yes
GH_ACCOUNT=	freebsd
GH_PROJECT=	pkg
GH_TAGNAME=	${GH_COMMIT}
GH_COMMIT=	6dbb17b

It will automatically have MASTER_SITES set to GH GHC and WRKSRC to ${WRKDIR}/freebsd-pkg-6dbb17b.


5.4.3. EXTRACT_SUFX

If you have one distribution file, and it uses an odd suffix to indicate the compression mechanism, set EXTRACT_SUFX.

For example, if the distribution file was named foo.tar.gzip instead of the more normal foo.tar.gz, you would write:

DISTNAME=	foo
EXTRACT_SUFX=	.tar.gzip

The USES=tar[:xxx], USES=lha or USES=zip automatically set EXTRACT_SUFX to the most common archives extensions as necessary, see Chapter 15, Values of USES for more details. If neither of these are set then EXTRACT_SUFX defaults to .tar.gz.

Note:

You never need to set both EXTRACT_SUFX and DISTFILES.

5.4.4. DISTFILES

Sometimes the names of the files to be downloaded have no resemblance to the name of the port. For example, it might be called source.tar.gz or similar. In other cases the application's source code might be in several different archives, all of which must be downloaded.

If this is the case, set DISTFILES to be a space separated list of all the files that must be downloaded.

DISTFILES=	source1.tar.gz source2.tar.gz

If not explicitly set, DISTFILES defaults to ${DISTNAME}${EXTRACT_SUFX}.

5.4.5. EXTRACT_ONLY

If only some of the DISTFILES must be extracted—for example, one of them is the source code, while another is an uncompressed document—list the filenames that must be extracted in EXTRACT_ONLY.

DISTFILES=	source.tar.gz manual.html
EXTRACT_ONLY=	source.tar.gz

If none of the DISTFILES should be uncompressed then set EXTRACT_ONLY to the empty string.

EXTRACT_ONLY=

5.4.6. PATCHFILES

If your port requires some additional patches that are available by FTP or HTTP, set PATCHFILES to the names of the files and PATCH_SITES to the URL of the directory that contains them (the format is the same as MASTER_SITES).

If the patch is not relative to the top of the source tree (i.e., WRKSRC) because it contains some extra pathnames, set PATCH_DIST_STRIP accordingly. For instance, if all the pathnames in the patch have an extra foozolix-1.0/ in front of the filenames, then set PATCH_DIST_STRIP=-p1.

Do not worry if the patches are compressed; they will be decompressed automatically if the filenames end with .Z, .gz, .bz2 or .xz.

If the patch is distributed with some other files, such as documentation, in a gzipped tarball, you cannot just use PATCHFILES. If that is the case, add the name and the location of the patch tarball to DISTFILES and MASTER_SITES. Then, use the EXTRA_PATCHES variable to point to those files and bsd.port.mk will automatically apply them for you. In particular, do not copy patch files into the PATCHDIR directory—that directory may not be writable.

Tip:

If there are multiple patches and they need mixed values for the strip parameter, it can be added alongside the patch name in PATCHFILES, e.g:

PATCHFILES=	patch1 patch2:-p1

This does not conflict with the master site grouping feature, the following also works:

PATCHFILES=	patch2:-p1:source2

Note:

The tarball will have been extracted alongside the regular source by then, so there is no need to explicitly extract it if it is a regular gzipped or compressed tarball. If you do the latter, take extra care not to overwrite something that already exists in that directory. Also, do not forget to add a command to remove the copied patch in the pre-clean target.

5.4.7. Multiple Distribution Files or Patches from Different Sites and Subdirectories (MASTER_SITES:n)

(Consider this to be a somewhat advanced topic; those new to this document may wish to skip this section at first).

This section has information on the fetching mechanism known as both MASTER_SITES:n and MASTER_SITES_NN. We will refer to this mechanism as MASTER_SITES:n.

A little background first. OpenBSD has a neat feature inside the DISTFILES and PATCHFILES variables which allows files and patches to be postfixed with :n identifiers. Here, n can be both [0-9] and denote a group designation. For example:

DISTFILES=	alpha:0 beta:1

In OpenBSD, distribution file alpha will be associated with variable MASTER_SITES0 instead of our common MASTER_SITES and beta with MASTER_SITES1.

This is a very interesting feature which can decrease that endless search for the correct download site.

Just picture 2 files in DISTFILES and 20 sites in MASTER_SITES, the sites slow as hell where beta is carried by all sites in MASTER_SITES, and alpha can only be found in the 20th site. It would be such a waste to check all of them if the maintainer knew this beforehand, would it not? Not a good start for that lovely weekend!

Now that you have the idea, just imagine more DISTFILES and more MASTER_SITES. Surely our distfiles survey meister would appreciate the relief to network strain that this would bring.

In the next sections, information will follow on the FreeBSD implementation of this idea. We improved a bit on OpenBSD's concept.

5.4.7.1. Simplified Information

This section tells you how to quickly prepare fine grained fetching of multiple distribution files and patches from different sites and subdirectories. We describe here a case of simplified MASTER_SITES:n usage. This will be sufficient for most scenarios. However, if you need further information, you will have to refer to the next section.

Some applications consist of multiple distribution files that must be downloaded from a number of different sites. For example, Ghostscript consists of the core of the program, and then a large number of driver files that are used depending on the user's printer. Some of these driver files are supplied with the core, but many others must be downloaded from a variety of different sites.

To support this, each entry in DISTFILES may be followed by a colon and a tag name. Each site listed in MASTER_SITES is then followed by a colon, and the tag that indicates which distribution files should be downloaded from this site.

For example, consider an application with the source split in two parts, source1.tar.gz and source2.tar.gz, which must be downloaded from two different sites. The port's Makefile would include lines like Example 5.3, “Simplified Use of MASTER_SITES:n with One File Per Site”.

Example 5.3. Simplified Use of MASTER_SITES:n with One File Per Site
MASTER_SITES=	ftp://ftp.example1.com/:source1 \
		ftp://ftp.example2.com/:source2
DISTFILES=	source1.tar.gz:source1 \
		source2.tar.gz:source2

Multiple distribution files can have the same tag. Continuing the previous example, suppose that there was a third distfile, source3.tar.gz, that should be downloaded from ftp.example2.com. The Makefile would then be written like Example 5.4, “Simplified Use of MASTER_SITES:n with More Than One File Per Site”.

Example 5.4. Simplified Use of MASTER_SITES:n with More Than One File Per Site
MASTER_SITES=	ftp://ftp.example1.com/:source1 \
		ftp://ftp.example2.com/:source2
DISTFILES=	source1.tar.gz:source1 \
		source2.tar.gz:source2 \
		source3.tar.gz:source2

5.4.7.2. Detailed Information

Okay, so the previous section example did not reflect your needs? In this section we will explain in detail how the fine grained fetching mechanism MASTER_SITES:n works and how you can modify your ports to use it.

  1. Elements can be postfixed with :n where n is [^:,]+, i.e., n could conceptually be any alphanumeric string but we will limit it to [a-zA-Z_][0-9a-zA-Z_]+ for now.

    Moreover, string matching is case sensitive; i.e., n is different from N.

    However, the following words cannot be used for postfixing purposes since they yield special meaning: default, all and ALL (they are used internally in item ii). Furthermore, DEFAULT is a special purpose word (check item 3).

  2. Elements postfixed with :n belong to the group n, :m belong to group m and so forth.

  3. Elements without a postfix are groupless, i.e., they all belong to the special group DEFAULT. If you postfix any elements with DEFAULT, you are just being redundant unless you want to have an element belonging to both DEFAULT and other groups at the same time (check item 5).

    The following examples are equivalent but the first one is preferred:

    MASTER_SITES=	alpha
    MASTER_SITES=	alpha:DEFAULT
  4. Groups are not exclusive, an element may belong to several different groups at the same time and a group can either have either several different elements or none at all. Repeated elements within the same group will be simply that, repeated elements.

  5. When you want an element to belong to several groups at the same time, you can use the comma operator (,).

    Instead of repeating it several times, each time with a different postfix, we can list several groups at once in a single postfix. For instance, :m,n,o marks an element that belongs to group m, n and o.

    All the following examples are equivalent but the last one is preferred:

    MASTER_SITES=	alpha alpha:SOME_SITE
    MASTER_SITES=	alpha:DEFAULT alpha:SOME_SITE
    MASTER_SITES=	alpha:SOME_SITE,DEFAULT
    MASTER_SITES=	alpha:DEFAULT,SOME_SITE
  6. All sites within a given group are sorted according to MASTER_SORT_AWK. All groups within MASTER_SITES and PATCH_SITES are sorted as well.

  7. Group semantics can be used in any of the following variables MASTER_SITES, PATCH_SITES, MASTER_SITE_SUBDIR, PATCH_SITE_SUBDIR, DISTFILES, and PATCHFILES according to the following syntax:

    1. All MASTER_SITES, PATCH_SITES, MASTER_SITE_SUBDIR and PATCH_SITE_SUBDIR elements must be terminated with the forward slash / character. If any elements belong to any groups, the group postfix :n must come right after the terminator /. The MASTER_SITES:n mechanism relies on the existence of the terminator / to avoid confusing elements where a :n is a valid part of the element with occurrences where :n denotes group n. For compatibility purposes, since the / terminator was not required before in both MASTER_SITE_SUBDIR and PATCH_SITE_SUBDIR elements, if the postfix immediate preceding character is not a / then :n will be considered a valid part of the element instead of a group postfix even if an element is postfixed with :n. See both Example 5.5, “Detailed Use of MASTER_SITES:n in MASTER_SITE_SUBDIR and Example 5.6, “Detailed Use of MASTER_SITES:n with Comma Operator, Multiple Files, Multiple Sites and Multiple Subdirectories”.

      Example 5.5. Detailed Use of MASTER_SITES:n in MASTER_SITE_SUBDIR
      MASTER_SITE_SUBDIR=	old:n new/:NEW
      • Directories within group DEFAULT -> old:n

      • Directories within group NEW -> new


      Example 5.6. Detailed Use of MASTER_SITES:n with Comma Operator, Multiple Files, Multiple Sites and Multiple Subdirectories
      MASTER_SITES=	http://site1/%SUBDIR%/ http://site2/:DEFAULT \
      		http://site3/:group3 http://site4/:group4 \
      		http://site5/:group5 http://site6/:group6 \
      		http://site7/:DEFAULT,group6 \
      		http://site8/%SUBDIR%/:group6,group7 \
      		http://site9/:group8
      DISTFILES=	file1 file2:DEFAULT file3:group3 \
      		file4:group4,group5,group6 file5:grouping \
      		file6:group7
      MASTER_SITE_SUBDIR=	directory-trial:1 directory-n/:groupn \
      			directory-one/:group6,DEFAULT \
      			directory

      The previous example results in the following fine grained fetching. Sites are listed in the exact order they will be used.

      • file1 will be fetched from

        • MASTER_SITE_OVERRIDE

        • http://site1/directory-trial:1/

        • http://site1/directory-one/

        • http://site1/directory/

        • http://site2/

        • http://site7/

        • MASTER_SITE_BACKUP

      • file2 will be fetched exactly as file1 since they both belong to the same group

        • MASTER_SITE_OVERRIDE

        • http://site1/directory-trial:1/

        • http://site1/directory-one/

        • http://site1/directory/

        • http://site2/

        • http://site7/

        • MASTER_SITE_BACKUP

      • file3 will be fetched from

        • MASTER_SITE_OVERRIDE

        • http://site3/

        • MASTER_SITE_BACKUP

      • file4 will be fetched from

        • MASTER_SITE_OVERRIDE

        • http://site4/

        • http://site5/

        • http://site6/

        • http://site7/

        • http://site8/directory-one/

        • MASTER_SITE_BACKUP

      • file5 will be fetched from

        • MASTER_SITE_OVERRIDE

        • MASTER_SITE_BACKUP

      • file6 will be fetched from

        • MASTER_SITE_OVERRIDE

        • http://site8/

        • MASTER_SITE_BACKUP


  8. How do I group one of the special variables from bsd.sites.mk, e.g., MASTER_SITE_SOURCEFORGE?

    See Example 5.7, “Detailed Use of MASTER_SITES:n with MASTER_SITE_SOURCEFORGE.

    Example 5.7. Detailed Use of MASTER_SITES:n with MASTER_SITE_SOURCEFORGE
    MASTER_SITES=	http://site1/ ${MASTER_SITE_SOURCEFORGE:S/$/:sourceforge,TEST/}
    DISTFILES=	something.tar.gz:sourceforge

    something.tar.gz will be fetched from all sites within MASTER_SITE_SOURCEFORGE.

  9. How do I use this with PATCH* variables?

    All examples were done with MASTER* variables but they work exactly the same for PATCH* ones as can be seen in Example 5.8, “Simplified Use of MASTER_SITES:n with PATCH_SITES.

    Example 5.8. Simplified Use of MASTER_SITES:n with PATCH_SITES
    PATCH_SITES=	http://site1/ http://site2/:test
    PATCHFILES=	patch1:test

5.4.7.3. What Does Change for Ports? What Does Not?

  1. All current ports remain the same. The MASTER_SITES:n feature code is only activated if there are elements postfixed with :n like elements according to the aforementioned syntax rules, especially as shown in item 7.

  2. The port targets remain the same: checksum, makesum, patch, configure, build, etc. With the obvious exceptions of do-fetch, fetch-list, master-sites and patch-sites.

    • do-fetch: deploys the new grouping postfixed DISTFILES and PATCHFILES with their matching group elements within both MASTER_SITES and PATCH_SITES which use matching group elements within both MASTER_SITE_SUBDIR and PATCH_SITE_SUBDIR. Check Example 5.6, “Detailed Use of MASTER_SITES:n with Comma Operator, Multiple Files, Multiple Sites and Multiple Subdirectories”.

    • fetch-list: works like old fetch-list with the exception that it groups just like do-fetch.

    • master-sites and patch-sites: (incompatible with older versions) only return the elements of group DEFAULT; in fact, they execute targets master-sites-default and patch-sites-default respectively.

      Furthermore, using target either master-sites-all or patch-sites-all is preferred to directly checking either MASTER_SITES or PATCH_SITES. Also, directly checking is not guaranteed to work in any future versions. Check item B for more information on these new port targets.

  3. New port targets

    1. There are master-sites-n and patch-sites-n targets which will list the elements of the respective group n within MASTER_SITES and PATCH_SITES respectively. For instance, both master-sites-DEFAULT and patch-sites-DEFAULT will return the elements of group DEFAULT, master-sites-test and patch-sites-test of group test, and thereon.

    2. There are new targets master-sites-all and patch-sites-all which do the work of the old master-sites and patch-sites ones. They return the elements of all groups as if they all belonged to the same group with the caveat that it lists as many MASTER_SITE_BACKUP and MASTER_SITE_OVERRIDE as there are groups defined within either DISTFILES or PATCHFILES; respectively for master-sites-all and patch-sites-all.

5.4.8. DIST_SUBDIR

Do not let your port clutter /usr/ports/distfiles. If your port requires a lot of files to be fetched, or contains a file that has a name that might conflict with other ports (e.g., Makefile), set DIST_SUBDIR to the name of the port (${PORTNAME} or ${PKGNAMEPREFIX}${PORTNAME} should work fine). This will change DISTDIR from the default /usr/ports/distfiles to /usr/ports/distfiles/DIST_SUBDIR, and in effect puts everything that is required for your port into that subdirectory.

It will also look at the subdirectory with the same name on the backup master site at ftp.FreeBSD.org. (Setting DISTDIR explicitly in your Makefile will not accomplish this, so please use DIST_SUBDIR.)

Note:

This does not affect the MASTER_SITES you define in your Makefile.

5.4.9. ALWAYS_KEEP_DISTFILES

If your port uses binary distfiles and has a license that requires that the source code is provided with packages distributed in binary form, e.g., GPL, ALWAYS_KEEP_DISTFILES will instruct the FreeBSD build cluster to keep a copy of the files specified in DISTFILES. Users of these ports will generally not need these files, so it is a good idea to only add the source distfiles to DISTFILES when PACKAGE_BUILDING is defined.

Example 5.9. Use of ALWAYS_KEEP_DISTFILES
.if defined(PACKAGE_BUILDING)
DISTFILES+=		foo.tar.gz
ALWAYS_KEEP_DISTFILES=	yes
.endif

When adding extra files to DISTFILES, make sure you also add them to distinfo. Also, the additional files will normally be extracted into WRKDIR as well, which for some ports may lead to undesirable side effects and require special handling.

5.5. MAINTAINER

Set your mail-address here. Please. :-)

Only a single address without the comment part is allowed as a MAINTAINER value. The format used is user@hostname.domain. Please do not include any descriptive text such as a real name in this entry. That merely confuses the Ports infrastructure and most tools using it.

The maintainer is responsible for keeping the port up to date and making sure that it works correctly. For a detailed description of the responsibilities of a port maintainer, refer to The challenge for port maintainers.

Note:

A maintainer volunteers to keep a port in good working order. Maintainers have the primary responsibility for their ports, but not exclusive ownership. Ports exist for the benefit of the community and, in reality, belong to the community. What this means is that people other than the maintainer can make changes to a port. Large changes to the Ports Collection might require changes to many ports. The FreeBSD Ports Management Team or members of other teams might modify ports to fix dependency issues or other problems, like a version bump for a shared library update.

Some types of fixes have blanket approval from the Ports Management Team , allowing any committer to fix those categories of problems on any port. These fixes do not need approval from the maintainer. Blanket approval does not apply to ports that are maintained by teams like , , , or . These teams use external repositories and can have work that would conflict with changes that would normally fall under blanket approval.

Blanket approval for most ports applies to these types of fixes:

  • Most infrastructure changes to a port (that is, modernizing, but not changing the functionality). For example, converting to staging, USE_GMAKE to USES=gmake, the new LIB_DEPENDS format...

  • Trivial and tested build fixes.

Other changes to the port will be sent to the maintainer for review and approval before being committed. If the maintainer does not respond to an update request after two weeks (excluding major public holidays), then that is considered a maintainer timeout, and the update may be made without explicit maintainer approval. If the maintainer does not respond within three months, then that maintainer is considered absent without leave, and can be replaced as the maintainer of the particular port in question. Exceptions to this are anything maintained by the Ports Management Team , or the Security Officer Team . No unauthorized commits may ever be made to ports maintained by those groups.

We reserve the right to modify the maintainer's submission to better match existing policies and style of the Ports Collection without explicit blessing from the submitter or the maintainer. Also, large infrastructural changes can result in a port being modified without the maintainer's consent. These kinds of changes will never affect the port's functionality.

The Ports Management Team reserves the right to revoke or override anyone's maintainership for any reason, and the Security Officer Team reserves the right to revoke or override maintainership for security reasons.

5.6. COMMENT

This is a one-line description of the port. Please respect the following rules:

  1. Try to keep the COMMENT value at no longer than 70 characters, as this line will be used by pkg info (see pkg-info(8)) to display a one-line summary of the port;

  2. Do not include the package name (or version number of the software);

  3. The comment should begin with a capital and end without a period;

  4. Do not start with an indefinite article (i.e., A or An);

  5. Names are capitalized (for example, Apache, JavaScript, Perl);

  6. For lists of words, use the Oxford comma (e.g., green, red, and blue);

  7. Spell check the text.

Here is an example:

COMMENT=	Cat chasing a mouse all over the screen

The COMMENT variable should immediately follow the MAINTAINER variable in the Makefile.

5.7. PORTSCOUT

Portscout is an automated distfile check utility for the FreeBSD Ports Collection, described in detail in Section 14.5, “Portscout: the FreeBSD Ports Distfile Scanner”.

The PORTSCOUT variable defines special conditions within which the Portscout distfile scanner should be restricted.

Situations where the PORTSCOUT variable should be set include:

  • When distfiles should be ignored, whether for specific versions, or specific minor revisions. For example, to exclude version 8.2 from distfile version checks because it is known to be broken, add:

    PORTSCOUT=	ignore:8.2
  • When specific versions or specific major and minor revisions of a distfile should be checked. For example, if only version 0.6.4 should be monitored because newer versions have compatibility issues with FreeBSD, add:

    PORTSCOUT=	limit:^0\.6\.4
  • When URLs listing the available versions differ from the download URLs. For example, to limit distfile version checks to the download page for the databases/pgtune port, add:

    PORTSCOUT=	site:http://pgfoundry.org/frs/?group_id=1000416

5.8. Dependencies

Many ports depend on other ports. This is a very convenient feature of most Unix-like operating systems, including FreeBSD. Multiple ports can share a common dependency, rather than bundling that dependency with every port or package that needs it. There are seven variables that can be used to ensure that all the required bits will be on the user's machine. There are also some pre-supported dependency variables for common cases, plus a few more to control the behavior of dependencies.

5.8.1. LIB_DEPENDS

This variable specifies the shared libraries this port depends on. It is a list of lib:dir tuples where lib is the name of the shared library, dir is the directory in which to find it in case it is not available. For example,

LIB_DEPENDS=   libjpeg.so:${PORTSDIR}/graphics/jpeg

will check for a shared jpeg library with any version, and descend into the graphics/jpeg subdirectory of your ports tree to build and install it if it is not found.

The dependency is checked twice, once from within the build target and then from within the install target. Also, the name of the dependency is put into the package so that pkg install (see pkg-install(8)) will automatically install it if it is not on the user's system.

5.8.2. RUN_DEPENDS

This variable specifies executables or files this port depends on during run-time. It is a list of path:dir[:target] tuples where path is the name of the executable or file, dir is the directory in which to find it in case it is not available, and target is the target to call in that directory. If path starts with a slash (/), it is treated as a file and its existence is tested with test -e; otherwise, it is assumed to be an executable, and which -s is used to determine if the program exists in the search path.

For example,

RUN_DEPENDS=	${LOCALBASE}/news/bin/innd:${PORTSDIR}/news/inn \
		xmlcatmgr:${PORTSDIR}/textproc/xmlcatmgr

will check if the file or directory /usr/local/news/bin/innd exists, and build and install it from the news/inn subdirectory of the ports tree if it is not found. It will also see if an executable called xmlcatmgr is in the search path, and descend into the textproc/xmlcatmgr subdirectory of your ports tree to build and install it if it is not found.

Note:

In this case, innd is actually an executable; if an executable is in a place that is not expected to be in the search path, you should use the full pathname.

Note:

The official search PATH used on the ports build cluster is

/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin

The dependency is checked from within the install target. Also, the name of the dependency is put into the package so that pkg install (see pkg-install(8)) will automatically install it if it is not on the user's system. The target part can be omitted if it is the same as DEPENDS_TARGET.

A quite common situation is when RUN_DEPENDS is literally the same as BUILD_DEPENDS, especially if ported software is written in a scripted language or if it requires the same build and run-time environment. In this case, it is both tempting and intuitive to directly assign one to the other:

RUN_DEPENDS=	${BUILD_DEPENDS}

However, such assignment can pollute run-time dependencies with entries not defined in the port's original BUILD_DEPENDS. This happens because of make(1)'s lazy evaluation of variable assignment. Consider a Makefile with USE_* variables, which are processed by ports/Mk/bsd.*.mk to augment initial build dependencies. For example, USES= gmake adds devel/gmake to BUILD_DEPENDS. To prevent such additional dependencies from polluting RUN_DEPENDS, take care to assign with expansion, i.e., expand the value before assigning it to the variable:

RUN_DEPENDS:=	${BUILD_DEPENDS}

5.8.3. BUILD_DEPENDS

This variable specifies executables or files this port requires to build. Like RUN_DEPENDS, it is a list of path:dir[:target] tuples. For example,

BUILD_DEPENDS=	unzip:${PORTSDIR}/archivers/unzip

will check for an executable called unzip, and descend into the archivers/unzip subdirectory of your ports tree to build and install it if it is not found.

Note:

build here means everything from extraction to compilation. The dependency is checked from within the extract target. The target part can be omitted if it is the same as DEPENDS_TARGET

5.8.4. FETCH_DEPENDS

This variable specifies executables or files this port requires to fetch. Like the previous two, it is a list of path:dir[:target] tuples. For example,

FETCH_DEPENDS=	ncftp2:${PORTSDIR}/net/ncftp2

will check for an executable called ncftp2, and descend into the net/ncftp2 subdirectory of your ports tree to build and install it if it is not found.

The dependency is checked from within the fetch target. The target part can be omitted if it is the same as DEPENDS_TARGET.

5.8.5. EXTRACT_DEPENDS

This variable specifies executables or files this port requires for extraction. Like the previous, it is a list of path:dir[:target] tuples. For example,

EXTRACT_DEPENDS=	unzip:${PORTSDIR}/archivers/unzip

will check for an executable called unzip, and descend into the archivers/unzip subdirectory of your ports tree to build and install it if it is not found.

The dependency is checked from within the extract target. The target part can be omitted if it is the same as DEPENDS_TARGET.

Note:

Use this variable only if the extraction does not already work (the default assumes tar) and cannot be made to work using USES=tar, USES=lha or USES=zip described in Chapter 15, Values of USES.

5.8.6. PATCH_DEPENDS

This variable specifies executables or files this port requires to patch. Like the previous, it is a list of path:dir[:target] tuples. For example,

PATCH_DEPENDS=	${NONEXISTENT}:${PORTSDIR}/java/jfc:extract

will descend into the java/jfc subdirectory of your ports tree to extract it.

The dependency is checked from within the patch target. The target part can be omitted if it is the same as DEPENDS_TARGET.

5.8.7. USES

Parameters can be added to define different features and dependencies used by the port. They are specified by adding this line to the Makefile:

USES= feature[:arguments]

For the complete list of values, please see Chapter 15, Values of USES.

Warning:

USES cannot be assigned after inclusion of bsd.port.pre.mk.

5.8.8. USE_*

Several variables exist to define common dependencies shared by many ports. Their use is optional, but helps to reduce the verbosity of the port Makefiles. Each of them is styled as USE_*. These variables may be used only in the port Makefiles and ports/Mk/bsd.*.mk. They are not meant for user-settable options — use PORT_OPTIONS for that purpose.

Note:

It is always incorrect to set any USE_* in /etc/make.conf. For instance, setting

USE_GCC=X.Y

(where X.Y is version number) would add a dependency on gccXY for every port, including lang/gccXY itself!

Table 5.3. The USE_* Variables
VariableMeans
USE_GCCThe port requires GCC (gcc or g++) to build. Some ports need any GCC version, some require modern, recent versions. It is typically set to any (in this case, GCC from base would be used on versions of FreeBSD that still have it, or lang/gcc port would be installed when default C/C++ compiler is Clang); or yes (means always use stable, modern GCC from lang/gcc port). The exact version can also be specified, with a value such as 4.7. The minimal required version can be specified as 4.6+. The GCC from the base system is used when it satisfies the requested version, otherwise an appropriate compiler in built from the port, and the CC and CXX variables are adjusted accordingly.

Variables related to gmake and the configure script are described in Section 6.4, “Building Mechanisms”, while autoconf, automake and libtool are described in Section 6.5, “Using GNU Autotools”. Perl related variables are described in Section 6.7, “Using Perl. X11 variables are listed in Section 6.8, “Using X11”. Section 6.9, “Using GNOME” deals with GNOME and Section 6.11, “Using KDE” with KDE related variables. Section 6.12, “Using Java” documents Java variables, while Section 6.13, “Web Applications, Apache and PHP” contains information on Apache, PHP and PEAR modules. Python is discussed in Section 6.14, “Using Python”, while Ruby in Section 6.17, “Using Ruby”. Section 6.18, “Using SDL” provides variables used for SDL applications and finally, Section 6.22, “Using Xfce” contains information on Xfce.

5.8.9. Minimal Version of a Dependency

A minimal version of a dependency can be specified in any *_DEPENDS variable except LIB_DEPENDS using the following syntax:

p5-Spiffy>=0.26:${PORTSDIR}/devel/p5-Spiffy

The first field contains a dependent package name, which must match the entry in the package database, a comparison sign, and a package version. The dependency is satisfied if p5-Spiffy-0.26 or newer is installed on the machine.

5.8.10. Notes on Dependencies

As mentioned above, the default target to call when a dependency is required is DEPENDS_TARGET. It defaults to install. This is a user variable; it is never defined in a port's Makefile. If your port needs a special way to handle a dependency, use the :target part of the *_DEPENDS variables instead of redefining DEPENDS_TARGET.

When you type make clean, its dependencies are automatically cleaned too. If you do not wish this to happen, define the variable NOCLEANDEPENDS in your environment. This may be particularly desirable if the port has something that takes a long time to rebuild in its dependency list, such as KDE, GNOME or Mozilla.

To depend on another port unconditionally, use the variable ${NONEXISTENT} as the first field of BUILD_DEPENDS or RUN_DEPENDS. Use this only when you need to get the source of the other port. You can often save compilation time by specifying the target too. For instance

BUILD_DEPENDS=	${NONEXISTENT}:${PORTSDIR}/graphics/jpeg:extract

will always descend to the jpeg port and extract it.

5.8.11. Circular Dependencies Are Fatal

Important:

Do not introduce any circular dependencies into the ports tree!

The ports building technology does not tolerate circular dependencies. If you introduce one, you will have someone, somewhere in the world, whose FreeBSD installation will break almost immediately, with many others quickly to follow. These can really be hard to detect; if in doubt, before you make that change, make sure you have done the following: cd /usr/ports; make index. That process can be quite slow on older machines, but you may be able to save a large number of people—including yourself— a lot of grief in the process.

5.8.12. Problems Caused by Automatic Dependencies

Dependencies must be declared either explicitly or by using the OPTIONS framework. Using other methods like automatic detection complicates indexing, which causes problems for port and package management.

Example 5.10. Wrong Declaration of an Optional Dependency
.include <bsd.port.pre.mk>

.if exists(${LOCALBASE}/bin/foo)
LIB_DEPENDS=	libbar.so:${PORTSDIR}/foo/bar
.endif

The problem with trying to automatically add dependencies is that files and settings outside an individual port can change at any time. For example: an index is built, then a batch of ports are installed. But one of the ports installs the tested file. The index is now incorrect, because an installed port unexpectedly has a new dependency. The index may still be wrong even after rebuilding if other ports also determine their need for dependencies based on the existence of other files.

Example 5.11. Correct Declaration of an Optional Dependency
OPTIONS_DEFINE=	BAR
BAR_DESC=	Calling cellphones via bar

BAR_LIB_DEPENDS=	libbar.so:${PORTSDIR}/foo/bar

Testing option variables is the correct method. It will not cause inconsistencies in the index of a batch of ports, provided the options were defined prior to the index build. Simple scripts can then be used to automate the building, installation, and updating of these ports and their packages.

5.8.13. USE_ and WANT_

USE_ variables are set by the port maintainer to define software on which this port depends. A port that needs Firefox would set

USE_FIREFOX=	yes

Some USE_ variables can accept version numbers or other parameters. For example, a port that requires Apache 2.2 would set

USE_APACHE=	22

For more control over dependencies in some cases, WANT_ variables are available to more precisely specify what is needed. For example, consider the mail/squirrelmail port. This port needs some PHP modules, which are listed in the USE_PHP variable:

USE_PHP=	session mhash gettext mbstring pcre openssl xml

Those modules may be available in CLI or web versions, so the web version is selected with a WANT_ variable:

WANT_PHP_WEB=	yes

Available USE_ and WANT_ variables are defined in the files in /usr/ports/Mk.

5.9. MASTERDIR

If your port needs to build slightly different versions of packages by having a variable (for instance, resolution, or paper size) take different values, create one subdirectory per package to make it easier for users to see what to do, but try to share as many files as possible between ports. Typically you only need a very short Makefile in all but one of the directories if you use variables cleverly. In the sole Makefile, you can use MASTERDIR to specify the directory where the rest of the files are. Also, use a variable as part of PKGNAMESUFFIX so the packages will have different names.

This will be best demonstrated by an example. This is part of japanese/xdvi300/Makefile;

PORTNAME=	xdvi
PORTVERSION=	17
PKGNAMEPREFIX=	ja-
PKGNAMESUFFIX=	${RESOLUTION}
 :
# default
RESOLUTION?=	300
.if ${RESOLUTION} != 118 && ${RESOLUTION} != 240 && \
	${RESOLUTION} != 300 && ${RESOLUTION} != 400
	@${ECHO_MSG} "Error: invalid value for RESOLUTION: \"${RESOLUTION}\""
	@${ECHO_MSG} "Possible values are: 118, 240, 300 (default) and 400."
	@${FALSE}
.endif

japanese/xdvi300 also has all the regular patches, package files, etc. If you type make there, it will take the default value for the resolution (300) and build the port normally.

As for other resolutions, this is the entire xdvi118/Makefile:

RESOLUTION=	118
MASTERDIR=	${.CURDIR}/../xdvi300

.include "${MASTERDIR}/Makefile"

(xdvi240/Makefile and xdvi400/Makefile are similar). The MASTERDIR definition tells bsd.port.mk that the regular set of subdirectories like FILESDIR and SCRIPTDIR are to be found under xdvi300. The RESOLUTION=118 line will override the RESOLUTION=300 line in xdvi300/Makefile and the port will be built with resolution set to 118.

5.10. Man Pages

If your port anchors its man tree somewhere other than PREFIX, you can use MANDIRS to specify those directories. Note that the files corresponding to manual pages should be placed in pkg-plist along with the rest of the files. The purpose of MANDIRS is to enable automatic compression of manual pages, therefore the file names should be suffixed with .gz.

5.11. Info Files

If your package needs to install GNU info files, they should be listed in the INFO variable (without the trailing .info), one entry per document. These files are assumed to be installed to PREFIX/INFO_PATH. You can change INFO_PATH if your package uses a different location. However, this is not recommended. These entries contain just the path relative to PREFIX/INFO_PATH. For example, lang/gcc34 installs info files to PREFIX/INFO_PATH/gcc34, and INFO will be something like this:

INFO=	gcc34/cpp gcc34/cppinternals gcc34/g77 ...

Appropriate installation/de-installation code will be automatically added to the temporary pkg-plist before package registration.

5.12. Makefile Options

Many applications can be built with optional or differing configurations. Examples include choice of natural (human) language, GUI versus command-line, or type of database to support. Users may need a different configuration than the default, so the ports system provides hooks the port author can use to control which variant will be built. Supporting these options properly will make users happy, and effectively provide two or more ports for the price of one.

5.12.1. OPTIONS

5.12.1.1. Background

The OPTIONS_* variables give the user installing the port a dialog showing the available options, and then saves those options to /var/db/ports/${UNIQUENAME}/options. The next time the port is built, the options are reused.

When the user runs make config (or runs make build for the first time), the framework checks for /var/db/ports/${UNIQUENAME}/options. If that file does not exist, the values of OPTIONS_* are used, and a dialog box is displayed where the options can be enabled or disabled. Then the options file is saved and the configured variables are used when building the port.

If a new version of the port adds new OPTIONS, the dialog will be presented to the user with the saved values of old OPTIONS prefilled.

make showconfig shows the saved configuration. Use make rmconfig to remove the saved configuration.

5.12.1.2. Syntax

OPTIONS_DEFINE contains a list of OPTIONS to be used. These are independent of each other and are not grouped:

OPTIONS_DEFINE=	OPT1 OPT2

Once defined, OPTIONS are described (optional, but strongly recommended):

OPT1_DESC=	Describe OPT1
OPT2_DESC=	Describe OPT2
OPT3_DESC=	Describe OPT3
OPT4_DESC=	Describe OPT4
OPT5_DESC=	Describe OPT5
OPT6_DESC=	Describe OPT6

ports/Mk/bsd.options.desc.mk has descriptions for many common OPTIONS. While often useful, they should be overridden if the description is insufficient for the port.

Tip:

When describing options, view it from the perspective of the user: What functionality does it change? and Why would I want to enable this? Do not just repeat the name. For example, describing the NLS option as include NLS support does not help the user, who can already see the option name but may not know what it means. Describing it as Native Language Support via gettext utilities is much more helpful.

Note:

Option names should always be in all uppercase. They should not use mixed case or lowercase.

OPTIONS can be grouped as radio choices, where only one choice from each group is allowed:

OPTIONS_SINGLE=		SG1
OPTIONS_SINGLE_SG1=	OPT3 OPT4

OPTIONS can be grouped as radio choices, where none or only one choice from each group is allowed:

OPTIONS_RADIO=		RG1
OPTIONS_RADIO_RG1=	OPT7 OPT8

OPTIONS can also be grouped as multiple-choice lists, where at least one option must be enabled:

OPTIONS_MULTI=		MG1
OPTIONS_MULTI_MG1=	OPT5 OPT6

OPTIONS can also be grouped as multiple-choice lists, where none or any option can be enabled:

OPTIONS_GROUP=		GG1
OPTIONS_GROUP_GG1=	OPT9 OPT10

OPTIONS are unset by default, unless they are listed in OPTIONS_DEFAULT:

OPTIONS_DEFAULT=	OPT1 OPT3 OPT6

OPTIONS definitions must appear before the inclusion of bsd.port.options.mk. The PORT_OPTIONS variable can only be tested after the inclusion of bsd.port.options.mk. Inclusion of bsd.port.pre.mk can be used instead, too, and is still widely used in ports written before the introduction of bsd.port.options.mk. But be aware that some variables will not work as expected after the inclusion of bsd.port.pre.mk, typically some USE_* flags.

Example 5.12. Simple Use of OPTIONS
OPTIONS_DEFINE=	FOO BAR
FOO_DESC=	Option foo support
BAR_DESC=	Feature bar support

OPTIONS_DEFAULT=FOO

# Will add --with-foo / --without-foo
FOO_CONFIGURE_WITH=	foo
BAR_RUN_DEPENDS=	bar:${PORTSDIR}/bar/bar

.include <bsd.port.mk>

Example 5.13. Check for Unset Port OPTIONS
.if ! ${PORT_OPTIONS:MEXAMPLES}
CONFIGURE_ARGS+=--without-examples
.endif

Though, you should use the following so that the configure knob is really enabled and disabled when the option is.

# Will add --with-examples / --without-examples
EXAMPLES_CONFIGURE_WITH=	examples

Example 5.14. Practical Use of OPTIONS
OPTIONS_DEFINE=		EXAMPLES

OPTIONS_SINGLE=		BACKEND
OPTIONS_SINGLE_BACKEND=	MYSQL PGSQL BDB

OPTIONS_MULTI=		AUTH
OPTIONS_MULTI_AUTH=	LDAP PAM SSL

EXAMPLES_DESC=		Install extra examples
MYSQL_DESC=		Use MySQL as backend
PGSQL_DESC=		Use PostgreSQL as backend
BDB_DESC=		Use Berkeley DB as backend
LDAP_DESC=		Build with LDAP authentication support
PAM_DESC=		Build with PAM support
SSL_DESC=		Build with OpenSSL support

OPTIONS_DEFAULT=	PGSQL LDAP SSL

PGSQL_USE=	pgsql=yes
# Will add --enable-postgres / --disable-postgres
PGSQL_CONFIGURE_ENABLE=	postgres

ICU_LIB_DEPENDS=	libicuuc.so:${PORTSDIR}/devel/icu

# Will add --with-examples / --without-examples
EXAMPLES_CONFIGURE_WITH=	examples

# Check other OPTIONS

.include <bsd.port.mk>

5.12.1.3. Default Options

The following options are always on by default.

  • DOCS — build and install documentation.

  • NLS — Native Language Support.

  • EXAMPLES — build and install examples.

  • IPV6 — IPv6 protocol support.

Note:

There is no need to add these to OPTIONS_DEFAULT. To have them active, and show up in the options selection dialog, however, they must be added to OPTIONS_DEFINE.

5.12.2. Feature Auto-Activation

When using a GNU configure script, keep an eye on which optional features are activated by auto-detection. Explicitly disable optional features you do not wish to be used by passing respective --without-xxx or --disable-xxx in CONFIGURE_ARGS.

Example 5.15. Wrong Handling of an Option
.if ${PORT_OPTIONS:MFOO}
LIB_DEPENDS+=		libfoo.so:${PORTSDIR}/devel/foo
CONFIGURE_ARGS+=	--enable-foo
.endif

In the example above, imagine a library libfoo is installed on the system. The user does not want this application to use libfoo, so he toggled the option off in the make config dialog. But the application's configure script detects the library present in the system and includes its support in the resulting executable. Now when the user decides to remove libfoo from the system, the ports system does not protest (no dependency on libfoo was recorded) but the application breaks.

Example 5.16. Correct Handling of an Option
FOO_LIB_DEPENDS=		libfoo.so:${PORTSDIR}/devel/foo
# Will add --enable-foo / --disable-foo
FOO_CONFIGURE_ENABLE=	foo

Note:

Under some circumstances, the shorthand conditional syntax can cause problems with complex constructs. If you receive errors such as Malformed conditional, an alternative syntax can be used.

.if !empty(VARIABLE:MVALUE)
# as an alternative to
.if ${VARIABLE:MVALUE}

5.12.3. Options Helpers

There are some macros to help simplify conditional values which differ based on the options set.

5.12.3.1. OPTIONS_SUB

If OPTIONS_SUB is set to yes then each of the options added to OPTIONS_DEFINE will be added to PLIST_SUB and SUB_LIST, for example:

OPTIONS_DEFINE=	OPT1
OPTIONS_SUB=	yes

is equivalent to:

OPTIONS_DEFINE=	OPT1

.include <bsd.port.options.mk>

.if ${PORT_OPTIONS:MOPT1}
PLIST_SUB+=	OPT1="" NO_OPT1="@comment "
SUB_LIST+=	OPT1="" NO_OPT1="@comment "
.else
PLIST_SUB+=	OPT1="@comment " NO_OPT1=""
SUB_LIST+=	OPT1="@comment " NO_OPT1=""
.endif

Note:

The value of OPTIONS_SUB is ignored. Setting it to any value will add PLIST_SUB and SUB_LIST entries for all options.

5.12.3.2. OPT_USE

For each key=value pair in OPT_USE the corresponding USE_KEY variable will be set to value. If value has spaces in it, replace them with commas, they will be changed back to spaces during processing. For example:

OPTIONS_DEFINE=	OPT1
OPT1_USE=	mysql=yes xorg=x11,xextproto,xext,xrandr

is equivalent to:

OPTIONS_DEFINE=	OPT1

.include <bsd.port.options.mk>

.if ${PORT_OPTIONS:MOPT1}
USE_MYSQL=	yes
USE_XORG=	x11 xextproto xext xrandr
.endif

5.12.3.3. OPT_CONFIGURE_ENABLE

If OPT_CONFIGURE_ENABLE is set then --enable-${OPT_CONFIGURE_ENABLE} or --disable-${OPT_CONFIGURE_ENABLE} will be added to CONFIGURE_ARGS depending on the value of the option OPT, for example:

OPTIONS_DEFINE=	OPT1
OPT1_CONFIGURE_ENABLE=	test

is equivalent to:

OPTIONS_DEFINE=	OPT1

.include <bsd.port.options.mk>

.if ${PORT_OPTIONS:MOPT1}
CONFIGURE_ARGS+=	--enable-test
.else
CONFIGURE_ARGS+=	--disable-test
.endif

5.12.3.4. OPT_CONFIGURE_WITH

If OPT_CONFIGURE_WITH is set then --with-${OPT_CONFIGURE_WITH} or --without-${OPT_CONFIGURE_WITH} will be added to CONFIGURE_ARGS depending on the status of the option OPT. An optional argument can be specified with an = symbol. This argument is only appended to the --with-opt configure option. For example:

OPTIONS_DEFINE=	OPT1 OPT2
OPT1_CONFIGURE_WITH=	test1
OPT1_CONFIGURE_WITH=	test2=exhaustive

is equivalent to:

OPTIONS_DEFINE=	OPT1 OPT2

.include <bsd.port.options.mk>

.if ${PORT_OPTIONS:MOPT1}
CONFIGURE_ARGS+=	--with-test1
.else
CONFIGURE_ARGS+=	--without-test1
.endif

.if ${PORT_OPTIONS:MOPT2}
CONFIGURE_ARGS+=	--with-test2=exhaustive
.else
CONFIGURE_ARGS+=	--without-test2
.endif

5.12.3.5. OPT_CONFIGURE_ON

If OPT_CONFIGURE_ON is set then its value will be appended to CONFIGURE_ARGS depending on the status of the option OPT, for example:

OPTIONS_DEFINE=	OPT1
OPT1_CONFIGURE_ON=	--add-test

is equivalent to:

OPTIONS_DEFINE=	OPT1

.include <bsd.port.options.mk>

.if ${PORT_OPTIONS:MOPT1}
CONFIGURE_ARGS+=	--add-test
.endif

5.12.3.6. OPT_CONFIGURE_OFF

If OPT_CONFIGURE_OFF is set then its value will be appended to CONFIGURE_ARGS depending on the status of the option OPT, for example:

OPTIONS_DEFINE=	OPT1
OPT1_CONFIGURE_OFF=	--no-test

is equivalent to:

OPTIONS_DEFINE=	OPT1

.include <bsd.port.options.mk>

.if ! ${PORT_OPTIONS:MOPT1}
CONFIGURE_ARGS+=	--no-test
.endif

5.12.3.7. OPT_CMAKE_ON

If OPT_CMAKE_ON is set then its value will be appended to CMAKE_ARGS depending on the status of the option OPT, for example:

OPTIONS_DEFINE=	OPT1
OPT1_CMAKE_ON=	-DTEST:BOOL=true

is equivalent to:

OPTIONS_DEFINE=	OPT1

.include <bsd.port.options.mk>

.if ${PORT_OPTIONS:MOPT1}
CMAKE_ARGS+=	-DTEST:BOOL=true
.endif

5.12.3.8. OPT_CMAKE_OFF

If OPT_CMAKE_OFF is set then its value will be appended to CMAKE_ARGS depending on the status of the option OPT, for example:

OPTIONS_DEFINE=	OPT1
OPT1_CMAKE_OFF=	-DTEST:BOOL=false

is equivalent to:

OPTIONS_DEFINE=	OPT1

.include <bsd.port.options.mk>

.if ! ${PORT_OPTIONS:MOPT1}
CMAKE_ARGS+=	-DTEST:BOOL=false
.endif

5.12.3.9. Dependencies

For any of the following dependency type:

  • PKG_DEPENDS

  • EXTRACT_DEPENDS

  • PATCH_DEPENDS

  • FETCH_DEPENDS

  • BUILD_DEPENDS

  • LIB_DEPENDS

  • RUN_DEPENDS

5.12.3.9.1. OPT_ABOVEVARIABLE

If OPT_ABOVEVARIABLE is defined then its value will be appended to ABOVEVARIABLE depending on the status of the option OPT, for example:

OPTIONS_DEFINE=	OPT1
OPT1_LIB_DEPENDS=	liba.so:${PORTSDIR}/devel/a

is equivalent to:

OPTIONS_DEFINE=	OPT1

.include <bsd.port.options.mk>

.if ${PORT_OPTIONS:MOPT1}
LIB_DEPENDS+=	liba.so:${PORTSDIR}/devel/a
.endif
5.12.3.9.2. OPT_ABOVEVARIABLE_OFF

If OPT_ABOVEVARIABLE_OFF is set then a dependency of type ABOVEVARIABLE will be added when option OPT is not selected. For example:

OPTIONS_DEFINE=	OPT1
OPT1_LIB_DEPENDS_OFF= liba.so:${PORTSDIR}/devel/a

is equivalent to:

OPTIONS_DEFINE= OPT1

.include <bsd.port.options.mk>

. if ! ${PORT_OPTIONS:MOPT1}
LIB_DEPENDS+=	liba.so:${PORTSDIR}/devel/a
.endif

5.12.3.10. Generic Variables Replacement

For any of the following variables:

  • ALL_TARGET

  • CATEGORIES

  • CFLAGS

  • CPPFLAGS

  • CXXFLAGS

  • CONFIGURE_ENV

  • CONFLICTS

  • CONFLICTS_BUILD

  • CONFLICTS_INSTALL

  • DISTFILES

  • EXTRA_PATCHES

  • INFO

  • INSTALL_TARGET

  • LDFLAGS

  • MAKE_ARGS

  • MAKE_ENV

  • PATCH_SITES

  • PATCHFILES

  • PLIST_FILES

  • PLIST_DIRS

  • PLIST_DIRSTRY

  • USES

Warning:

Some of these variables, at least ALL_TARGET and INSTALL_TARGET, have their default values set after the options are processed.

With the following lines in the Makefile:

ALL_TARGET=	all

DOCS_ALL_TARGET=	doc

If the DOCS option is enabled, ALL_TARGET will have a final value of all doc; if the option is disabled, it would have a value of all.

With only the options helper line in the Makefile:

DOCS_ALL_TARGET=	doc

If the DOCS option is enabled, ALL_TARGET will have a final value of doc; if the option is disabled, it would have a value of all.

5.12.3.10.1. OPT_ABOVEVARIABLE

If OPT_ABOVEVARIABLE is defined then its value will be appended to ABOVEVARIABLE depending on the status of the option OPT, for example:

OPTIONS_DEFINE=	OPT1
OPT1_USES=	gmake
OPT1_CFLAGS=	-DTEST

is equivalent to:

OPTIONS_DEFINE=	OPT1

.include <bsd.port.options.mk>

.if ${PORT_OPTIONS:MOPT1}
USES+=		gmake
CFLAGS+=	-DTEST
.endif
5.12.3.10.2. OPT_ABOVEVARIABLE_OFF

If OPT_ABOVEVARIABLE_OFF is set then a flag ABOVEVARIABLE will be automatically set when option OPT is not selected. For example:

OPTIONS_DEFINE=	OPT1
OPT1_USES_OFF=gmake

is equivalent to:

OPTIONS_DEFINE=	OPT1

.include <bsd.port.options.mk>

.if ! ${PORT_OPTIONS:MOPT1}
USES+=	gmake
.endif

5.13. Specifying the Working Directory

Each port is extracted in to a working directory, which must be writable. The ports system defaults to having the DISTFILES unpack in to a directory called ${DISTNAME}. In other words, if you have set:

PORTNAME=	foo
PORTVERSION=	1.0

then the port's distribution files contain a top-level directory, foo-1.0, and the rest of the files are located under that directory.

There are a number of variables you can override if that is not the case.

5.13.1. WRKSRC

The variable lists the name of the directory that is created when the application's distfiles are extracted. If our previous example extracted into a directory called foo (and not foo-1.0) you would write:

WRKSRC=	${WRKDIR}/foo

or possibly

WRKSRC=	${WRKDIR}/${PORTNAME}

5.13.2. NO_WRKSUBDIR

If the port does not extract in to a subdirectory at all then you should set NO_WRKSUBDIR to indicate that.

NO_WRKSUBDIR=	yes

5.14. Conflict Handling

There are three different variables to register a conflict between packages and ports: CONFLICTS, CONFLICTS_INSTALL and CONFLICTS_BUILD.

Note:

The conflict variables automatically set the variable IGNORE, which is more fully documented in Section 12.13, “Marking a Port Not Installable with BROKEN, FORBIDDEN, or IGNORE.

When removing one of several conflicting ports, it is advisable to retain the CONFLICTS entries in those other ports for a few months to cater for users who only update once in a while.

5.14.1. CONFLICTS_INSTALL

If your package cannot coexist with other packages (because of file conflicts, runtime incompatibilities, etc.), list the other package names in the CONFLICTS_INSTALL variable. You can use shell globs like * and ? here. Package names should be enumerated the same way they appear in /var/db/pkg. Please make sure that CONFLICTS_INSTALL does not match this port's package itself. Otherwise enforcing its installation with FORCE_PKG_REGISTER will no longer work. The CONFLICTS_INSTALL check is done after the build stage and prior to the install stage.

5.14.2. CONFLICTS_BUILD

If your port cannot be built if a certain port is already installed, list the other port names in the CONFLICTS_BUILD variable. You can use shell globs like * and ? here. Package names should be enumerated the same way they appear in /var/db/pkg. The CONFLICTS_BUILD check is done prior to the build stage. Build conflicts are not recorded in the resulting package.

5.14.3. CONFLICTS

If your port cannot be built if a certain port is already installed and the resulting package cannot coexist with the other package, list the other package name in the CONFLICTS variable. You can use shell globs like * and ? here. Packages names should be enumerated the same way they appear in /var/db/pkg. Please make sure that CONFLICTS_INSTALL does not match this port's package itself. Otherwise enforcing its installation with FORCE_PKG_REGISTER will no longer work. The CONFLICTS check is done prior to the build stage and prior to the install stage.

5.15. Installing Files

5.15.1. INSTALL_* Macros

Use the macros provided in bsd.port.mk to ensure correct modes of files in the port's *-install targets. Set ownership directly in pkg-plist with the corresponding entries, such as @owner owner and @group group. These operators work until being overridden, or until the end of pkg-plist, so do not forget to reset them after they are no longer needed. The default ownership is root:wheel.

  • INSTALL_PROGRAM is a command to install binary executables.

  • INSTALL_SCRIPT is a command to install executable scripts.

  • INSTALL_LIB is a command to install shared libraries (but not static libraries).

  • INSTALL_KLD is a command to install kernel loadable modules. Some architectures do not like having the modules stripped, so use this command instead of INSTALL_PROGRAM.

  • INSTALL_DATA is a command to install sharable data, including static libraries.

  • INSTALL_MAN is a command to install manpages and other documentation (it does not compress anything).

These are basically the install command with all the appropriate flags.

Note:

Do not use INSTALL_LIB to install static libraries, because stripping them render them useless. Use INSTALL_DATA instead.

5.15.2. Stripping Binaries and Shared Libraries

Do not strip binaries manually unless you have to. All binaries should be stripped, but the INSTALL_PROGRAM macro will install and strip a binary at the same time (see the next section). The INSTALL_LIB macro does the same thing to shared libraries.

If you need to strip a file, but wish to use neither INSTALL_PROGRAM nor INSTALL_LIB macros, ${STRIP_CMD} will strip your program or shared library. This is typically done within the post-install target. For example:

post-install:
	  ${STRIP_CMD} ${STAGEDIR}${PREFIX}/bin/xdl

When multiple files need to be stripped:

post-install:
	  .for l in geometry media body track world
	  ${STRIP_CMD} ${STAGEDIR}${PREFIX}/lib/lib${PORTNAME}-${l}.so.0
	  .endfor

Use file(1) on a file to determine if it has been stripped. Binaries are reported by file(1) as stripped, or not stripped. Additionally, strip(1) will detect programs that have already been stripped and exit cleanly.

5.15.3. Installing a Whole Tree of Files

Sometimes, a large number of files must be installed while preserving their hierarchical organization. For example, copying over a whole directory tree from WRKSRC to a target directory under PREFIX. Note that PREFIX, EXAMPLESDIR, DATADIR, and other path variables must always be prepended with STAGEDIR to respect staging (see Section 6.1, “Staging”).

Two macros exist for this situation. The advantage of using these macros instead of cp is that they guarantee proper file ownership and permissions on target files. The first macro, COPYTREE_BIN, will set all the installed files to be executable, thus being suitable for installing into PREFIX/bin. The second macro, COPYTREE_SHARE, does not set executable permissions on files, and is therefore suitable for installing files under PREFIX/share target.

post-install:
	  ${MKDIR} ${STAGEDIR}${EXAMPLESDIR}
	  (cd ${WRKSRC}/examples && ${COPYTREE_SHARE} . ${STAGEDIR}${EXAMPLESDIR})

This example will install the contents of examples directory in the vendor distfile to the proper examples location of your port.

post-install:
	  ${MKDIR} ${STAGEDIR}${DATADIR}/summer
	  (cd ${WRKSRC}/temperatures && ${COPYTREE_SHARE} "June July August" ${STAGEDIR}${DATADIR}/summer)

And this example will install the data of summer months to the summer subdirectory of a DATADIR.

Additional find arguments can be passed via the third argument to the COPYTREE_* macros. For example, to install all files from the first example except Makefiles, one can use the following command.

post-install:
	  ${MKDIR} ${STAGEDIR}${EXAMPLESDIR}
	(cd ${WRKSRC}/examples && \
	${COPYTREE_SHARE} . ${STAGEDIR}${EXAMPLESDIR} "! -name Makefile")

These macros do not add the installed files to pkg-plist. They must be added manually. For optional documentation (PORTDOCS, see Section 5.15.4, “Install Additional Documentation”) and examples (PORTEXAMPLES), the %%PORTDOCS%% or %%PORTEXAMPLES%% prefixes must be prepended in pkg-plist.

5.15.4. Install Additional Documentation

If your software has some documentation other than the standard man and info pages that you think is useful for the user, install it under PREFIX/share/doc. This can be done, like the previous item, in the post-install target.

Create a new directory for your port. The directory name should reflect what the port is. This usually means PORTNAME. However, if you think the user might want different versions of the port to be installed at the same time, you can use the whole PKGNAME.

Since only the files listed in pkg-plist are installed, it is safe to always install documentation to STAGEDIR (see Section 6.1, “Staging”). Hence .if blocks are only needed when the installed files are large enough to cause significant I/O overhead.

post-install:
	  ${MKDIR} ${STAGEDIR}${DOCSDIR}
	  ${INSTALL_MAN} ${WRKSRC}/docs/xvdocs.ps ${STAGEDIR}${DOCSDIR}

Here are some handy variables and how they are expanded by default when used in the Makefile:

  • DATADIR gets expanded to PREFIX/share/PORTNAME.

  • DATADIR_REL gets expanded to share/PORTNAME.

  • DOCSDIR gets expanded to PREFIX/share/doc/PORTNAME.

  • DOCSDIR_REL gets expanded to share/doc/PORTNAME.

  • EXAMPLESDIR gets expanded to PREFIX/share/examples/PORTNAME.

  • EXAMPLESDIR_REL gets expanded to share/examples/PORTNAME.

Note:

The DOCS option only controls additional documentation installed in DOCSDIR. It does not apply to standard man pages and info pages. Things installed in DATADIR and EXAMPLESDIR are controlled by DATA and EXAMPLES options, respectively.

These variables are exported to PLIST_SUB. Their values will appear there as pathnames relative to PREFIX if possible. That is, share/doc/PORTNAME will be substituted for %%DOCSDIR%% in the packing list by default, and so on. (See more on pkg-plist substitution here.)

All conditionally installed documentation files and directories should be included in pkg-plist with the %%PORTDOCS%% prefix, for example:

%%PORTDOCS%%%%DOCSDIR%%/AUTHORS
%%PORTDOCS%%%%DOCSDIR%%/CONTACT
%%PORTDOCS%%@dirrm %%DOCSDIR%%

As an alternative to enumerating the documentation files in pkg-plist, a port can set the variable PORTDOCS to a list of file names and shell glob patterns to add to the final packing list. The names will be relative to DOCSDIR. Therefore, a port that utilizes PORTDOCS and uses a non-default location for its documentation should set DOCSDIR accordingly. If a directory is listed in PORTDOCS or matched by a glob pattern from this variable, the entire subtree of contained files and directories will be registered in the final packing list. If the DOCS option has been unset then files and directories listed in PORTDOCS would not be installed or added to port packing list. Installing the documentation at PORTDOCS as shown above remains up to the port itself. A typical example of utilizing PORTDOCS looks as follows:

PORTDOCS=	README.* ChangeLog docs/*

Note:

The equivalents of PORTDOCS for files installed under DATADIR and EXAMPLESDIR are PORTDATA and PORTEXAMPLES, respectively.

The contents of pkg-message are displayed upon installation. See the section on using pkg-message for details. pkg-message does not need to be added to pkg-plist.

5.15.5. Subdirectories Under PREFIX

Try to let the port put things in the right subdirectories of PREFIX. Some ports lump everything and put it in the subdirectory with the port's name, which is incorrect. Also, many ports put everything except binaries, header files and manual pages in a subdirectory of lib, which does not work well with the BSD paradigm. Many of the files should be moved to one of the following: etc (setup/configuration files), libexec (executables started internally), sbin (executables for superusers/managers), info (documentation for info browser) or share (architecture independent files). See hier(7) for details; the rules governing /usr pretty much apply to /usr/local too. The exception are ports dealing with USENET news. They may use PREFIX/news as a destination for their files.

Chapter 6. Special Considerations

There are some more things you have to take into account when you create a port. This section explains the most common of those.

6.1. Staging

bsd.port.mk expects ports to work with a stage directory. This means that a port should not install files directly to the regular destination directories (that is, under PREFIX, for example) but instead into a separate directory from which the package is then built. In many cases, this does not require root privileges, making it possible to build packages as an unprivileged user. With staging, the port is built and installed into the stage directory, STAGEDIR. A package is created from the stage directory and then installed on the system. Automake tools refer to this concept as DESTDIR, but in FreeBSD, DESTDIR has a different meaning (see Section 9.4, “PREFIX and DESTDIR).

When a port still requires system-wide privileges in order to run the stage and package targets, this line must be added to the Makefile:

NEED_ROOT=	yes

Note:

The vast majority of ports do not really need to be root. You can mostly avoid it by using USES=uidfix, and from time to time by slightly patching the port's Makefiles.

Meta ports, or ports that do not install files themselves but only depend on other ports, should avoid needlessly extracting the mtree(8) to the stage directory. This is the basic directory layout of the package, and these empty directories will be seen as orphans. To prevent mtree(8) extraction, add this line:

NO_MTREE=	yes

Staging is enabled by prepending the STAGEDIR variable to paths used in the pre-install, do-install, and post-install targets (see the examples through the book). Typically, this includes PREFIX, ETCDIR, DATADIR, EXAMPLESDIR, MANPREFIX, DOCSDIR, and so on. Directories should be created as part of the post-install target. Avoid using absolute paths whenever possible.

When creating a symlink, STAGEDIR should be prepended to the target path only. For example:

${LN} -sf libfoo.so.42 ${STAGEDIR}${PREFIX}/lib/libfoo.so

The source path ${PREFIX}/lib/libfoo.so.42 looks fine but could, in fact, be incorrect. Absolute paths can point to a wrong location, like when a remote file system has been mounted with NFS under a non-root mount point. Relative paths are less fragile, and often much shorter.

Ports that install kernel modules must prepend the STAGEDIR variable to their destination, by default /boot/modules.

6.2. Shared Libraries

If your port installs one or more shared libraries, define a USE_LDCONFIG make variable, which will instruct a bsd.port.mk to run ${LDCONFIG} -m on the directory where the new library is installed (usually PREFIX/lib) during post-install target to register it into the shared library cache. This variable, when defined, will also facilitate addition of an appropriate @exec /sbin/ldconfig -m and @unexec /sbin/ldconfig -R pair into your pkg-plist file, so that a user who installed the package can start using the shared library immediately and de-installation will not cause the system to still believe the library is there.

USE_LDCONFIG=	yes

If you need, you can override the default directory by setting the USE_LDCONFIG value to a list of directories into which shared libraries are to be installed. For example if your port installs shared libraries into PREFIX/lib/foo and PREFIX/lib/bar directories you could use the following in your Makefile:

USE_LDCONFIG=	${PREFIX}/lib/foo ${PREFIX}/lib/bar

Please double-check, often this is not necessary at all or can be avoided through -rpath or setting LD_RUN_PATH during linking (see lang/moscow_ml for an example), or through a shell-wrapper which sets LD_LIBRARY_PATH before invoking the binary, like www/seamonkey does.

When installing 32-bit libraries on 64-bit system, use USE_LDCONFIG32 instead.

If the software you are porting uses autotools, and specifically libtool, you should add USES=libtool.

When the major library version number increments in the update to the new port version, all other ports that link to the affected library should have their PORTREVISION incremented, to force recompilation with the new library version.

6.3. Ports with Distribution Restrictions or Legal Concerns

Licenses vary, and some of them place restrictions on how the application can be packaged, whether it can be sold for profit, and so on.

Important:

It is your responsibility as a porter to read the licensing terms of the software and make sure that the FreeBSD project will not be held accountable for violating them by redistributing the source or compiled binaries either via FTP/HTTP or CD-ROM. If in doubt, please contact the FreeBSD ports mailing list.

In situations like this, the variables described in the following sections can be set.

6.3.1. NO_PACKAGE

This variable indicates that we may not generate a binary package of the application. For instance, the license may disallow binary redistribution, or it may prohibit distribution of packages created from patched sources.

However, the port's DISTFILES may be freely mirrored on FTP/HTTP. They may also be distributed on a CD-ROM (or similar media) unless NO_CDROM is set as well.

NO_PACKAGE should also be used if the binary package is not generally useful, and the application should always be compiled from the source code. For example, if the application has configuration information that is site specific hard coded in to it at compile time, set NO_PACKAGE.

NO_PACKAGE should be set to a string describing the reason why the package should not be generated.

6.3.2. NO_CDROM

This variable alone indicates that, although we are allowed to generate binary packages, we may put neither those packages nor the port's DISTFILES onto a CD-ROM (or similar media) for resale. However, the binary packages and the port's DISTFILES will still be available via FTP/HTTP.

If this variable is set along with NO_PACKAGE, then only the port's DISTFILES will be available, and only via FTP/HTTP.

NO_CDROM should be set to a string describing the reason why the port cannot be redistributed on CD-ROM. For instance, this should be used if the port's license is for non-commercial use only.

6.3.3. NOFETCHFILES

Files defined in the NOFETCHFILES variable are not fetchable from any of the MASTER_SITES. An example of such a file is when the file is supplied on CD-ROM by the vendor.

Tools which check for the availability of these files on the MASTER_SITES should ignore these files and not report about them.

6.3.4. RESTRICTED

Set this variable alone if the application's license permits neither mirroring the application's DISTFILES nor distributing the binary package in any way.

NO_CDROM or NO_PACKAGE should not be set along with RESTRICTED since the latter variable implies the former ones.

RESTRICTED should be set to a string describing the reason why the port cannot be redistributed. Typically, this indicates that the port contains proprietary software and that the user will need to manually download the DISTFILES, possibly after registering for the software or agreeing to accept the terms of an EULA.

6.3.5. RESTRICTED_FILES

When RESTRICTED or NO_CDROM is set, this variable defaults to ${DISTFILES} ${PATCHFILES}, otherwise it is empty. If only some of the distribution files are restricted, then set this variable to list them.

6.3.6. LEGAL_TEXT

If the port has legal concerns not addressed by the above variables, the variable LEGAL_TEXT should be set to a string explaining the concern. For example, if special permission was obtained for FreeBSD to redistribute the binary, this variable should indicate so.

6.3.7. /usr/ports/LEGAL and LEGAL

A port which sets any of the above variables must also be added to /usr/ports/LEGAL. The first column is a glob which matches the restricted distfiles. The second column is the port's origin. The third column is the output of make -VLEGAL.

6.3.8. Examples

The preferred way to state "the distfiles for this port must be fetched manually" is as follows:

.if !exists(${DISTDIR}/${DISTNAME}${EXTRACT_SUFX})
IGNORE=	may not be redistributed because of licensing reasons. Please visit some-website to accept their license and download ${DISTFILES} into ${DISTDIR}
.endif

This both informs the user, and sets the proper metadata on the user's machine for use by automated programs.

Note that this stanza must be preceded by an inclusion of bsd.port.pre.mk.

6.4. Building Mechanisms

6.4.1. Building Ports in Parallel

The FreeBSD ports framework supports parallel building using multiple make sub-processes, which allows SMP systems to utilize all of their available CPU power, allowing port builds to be faster and more effective.

This is achieved by passing -jX flag to make(1) running on vendor code. This is the default build behavior of ports. Unfortunately, not all ports handle parallel building well and it may be required to explicitly disable this feature by adding the MAKE_JOBS_UNSAFE=yes variable. It is used when a port is known to be broken with -jX.

6.4.2. make, gmake, fmake, and imake

Several differing make implementations exist. Ported software often requires a particular implementation, like GNU make, known in FreeBSD as gmake, or fmake, the legacy FreeBSD make.

If the port uses GNU make, add gmake to USES. If the legacy FreeBSD make is needed, add fmake there.

MAKE_CMD can be used to reference the specific command configured by the USES setting in the port's Makefile. In rare cases when more than one make implementation is listed in USES, the variables GMAKE (for the GNU version) or FMAKE (for the legacy FreeBSD version) are available. Most ports should only use MAKE_CMD within the application Makefiles in WRKSRC to call the make implementation expected by the ported software.

If your port is an X application that creates Makefile files from Imakefile files using imake, then set USES= imake. This will cause the configure stage to automatically do an xmkmf -a. If the -a flag is a problem for your port, set XMKMF=xmkmf. If the port uses imake but does not understand the install.man target, NO_INSTALL_MANPAGES=yes should be set.

If your port's source Makefile has something else than all as the main build target, set ALL_TARGET accordingly. Same goes for install and INSTALL_TARGET.

6.4.3. configure Script

If your port uses the configure script to generate Makefile files from Makefile.in files, set GNU_CONFIGURE=yes. If you want to give extra arguments to the configure script (the default argument is --prefix=${PREFIX} --infodir=${PREFIX}/${INFO_PATH} --mandir=${MANPREFIX}/man --build=${CONFIGURE_TARGET}), set those extra arguments in CONFIGURE_ARGS. Extra environment variables can be passed using CONFIGURE_ENV variable.

Table 6.1. Variables for Ports That Use configure
VariableMeans
GNU_CONFIGUREThe port uses configure script to prepare build.
HAS_CONFIGURESame as GNU_CONFIGURE, except default configure target is not added to CONFIGURE_ARGS.
CONFIGURE_ARGSAdditional arguments passed to configure script.
CONFIGURE_ENVAdditional environment variables to be set for configure script run.
CONFIGURE_TARGETOverride default configure target. Default value is ${MACHINE_ARCH}-portbld-freebsd${OSREL}.

6.4.4. Using cmake

For ports that use CMake, define USES= cmake, or USES= cmake:outsource to build in a separate directory (see below).

Table 6.2. Variables for Ports That Use cmake
VariableMeans
CMAKE_ARGSPort specific CMake flags to be passed to the cmake binary.
CMAKE_BUILD_TYPEType of build (CMake predefined build profiles). Default is Release, or Debug if WITH_DEBUG is set.
CMAKE_ENVEnvironment variables to be set for the cmake binary. Default is ${CONFIGURE_ENV}.
CMAKE_SOURCE_PATHPath to the source directory. Default is ${WRKSRC}.

Table 6.3. Variables the Users can define for cmake builds
VariableMeans
CMAKE_VERBOSEEnable verbose build output. Default not set, unless BATCH or PACKAGE_BUILDING are set.
CMAKE_NOCOLORDisables colour build output. Default not set, unless BATCH or PACKAGE_BUILDING are set.

CMake supports the following build profiles: Debug, Release, RelWithDebInfo and MinSizeRel. Debug and Release profiles respect system *FLAGS, RelWithDebInfo and MinSizeRel will set CFLAGS to -O2 -g and -Os -DNDEBUG correspondingly. The lower-cased value of CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE is exported to the PLIST_SUB and should be used if port installs *.cmake files depending on the build type (see deskutils/strigi for an example). Please note that some projects may define their own build profiles and/or force particular build type by setting CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE in CMakeLists.txt files. In order to make a port for such a project respect CFLAGS and WITH_DEBUG, the CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE definitions must be removed from those files.

Most CMake-based projects support an out-of-source method of building. The out-of-source build for a port can be requested by using the :outsource suffix. When enabled, CONFIGURE_WRKSRC, BUILD_WRKSRC and INSTALL_WRKSRC will be set to ${WRKDIR}/.build and this directory will be used to keep all files generated during configuration and build stages, leaving the source directory intact.

Example 6.1. USES= cmake Example

The following snippet demonstrates the use of CMake for a port. CMAKE_SOURCE_PATH is not usually required, but can be set when the sources are not located in the top directory, or if only a subset of the project is intended to be built by the port.

USES=			cmake:outsource
CMAKE_SOURCE_PATH=	${WRKSRC}/subproject

6.4.5. Using scons

If your port uses SCons, define USE_SCONS=yes.

Table 6.4. Variables for Ports That Use scons
VariableMeans
SCONS_ARGSPort specific SCons flags passed to the SCons environment.
SCONS_BUILDENVVariables to be set in system environment.
SCONS_ENVVariables to be set in SCons environment.
SCONS_TARGETLast argument passed to SCons, similar to MAKE_TARGET.

To make third party SConstruct respect everything that is passed to SCons in SCONS_ENV (that is, most importantly, CC/CXX/CFLAGS/CXXFLAGS), patch the SConstruct so build Environment is constructed like this:

env = Environment(**ARGUMENTS)

It may be then modified with env.Append and env.Replace.

6.5. Using GNU Autotools

6.5.1. Introduction

The various GNU autotools provide an abstraction mechanism for building a piece of software over a wide variety of operating systems and machine architectures. Within the Ports Collection, an individual port can make use of these tools via a simple construct:

USE_AUTOTOOLS=	tool[:env] ...

At the time of writing, tool can be one of autoconf, autoheader, automake, aclocal, libtool (deprecated), libtoolize, libltdl. It can also be one the older legacy of autoconf213, autoheader213, automake14, aclocal14.

env is used to specify that the environmental variables are needed. It also adds a build dependency on the tool. The relevant tool is not ran as part of the run-autotools target.

Multiple tools can be specified at once, either by including them all on a single line, or using the += Makefile construct.

6.5.2. libtool

The use of USE_AUTOTOOLS=libtool is deprecated. Now all ports that ship with their own copy of libtool (search for a file named ltmain.sh) need to have USES=libtool. Also, if a port has USE_AUTOTOOLS=libtoolize it probably also needs USES=libtool.

Some ports do not ship with their own copy of libtool and expect libtool to be provided by the build system. In that case simply add:

BUILD_DEPENDS=	libtool:${PORTSDIR}/devel/libtool.

6.5.3. libltdl

Some ports make use of the libltdl library package, which is part of the libtool suite. Use of this library does not automatically necessitate the use of libtool itself, so a separate construct is provided.

USE_AUTOTOOLS=	libltdl

Currently, all this does is to bring in a LIB_DEPENDS on the appropriate libltdl port, and is provided as a convenience function to help eliminate any dependencies on the autotools ports outside of the USE_AUTOTOOLS framework. There are no optional operations for this tool.

6.5.4. autoconf and autoheader

Some ports do not contain a configure script, but do contain an autoconf template in the configure.ac file. You can use the following assignments to let autoconf create the configure script, and also have autoheader create template headers for use by the configure script.

USE_AUTOTOOLS=	autoconf[:env]

and

USE_AUTOTOOLS=	autoheader

which also implies the use of autoconf.

The additional optional variables AUTOCONF_ARGS and AUTOHEADER_ARGS can be overridden by the port Makefile if specifically requested. Most ports are unlikely to need this. See bsd.autotools.mk for further details.

6.5.5. automake and aclocal

Some packages only contain Makefile.am files. These have to be converted into Makefile.in files using automake, and the further processed by configure to generate an actual Makefile.

Similarly, packages occasionally do not ship with included aclocal.m4 files, again required to build the software. This can be achieved with aclocal, which scans configure.ac or configure.in.

aclocal has a similar relationship to automake as autoheader does to autoconf, described in the previous section. aclocal implies the use of automake, thus we have:

USE_AUTOTOOLS=	automake[:env]

and

USE_AUTOTOOLS=	aclocal

As with autoconf and autoheader, both automake and aclocal have optional argument variables, AUTOMAKE_ARGS and ACLOCAL_ARGS respectively, which may be overridden by the port Makefile if required.

6.6. Using GNU gettext

6.6.1. Basic Usage

If your port requires gettext, set USES= gettext, and your port will inherit a dependency on libintl.so from devel/gettext. Other values for gettext usage are listed in USES=gettext.

A rather common case is a port using gettext and configure. Generally, GNU configure should be able to locate gettext automatically.

USES=	gettext
GNU_CONFIGURE=	yes

If it ever fails to, hints at the location of gettext can be passed in CPPFLAGS and LDFLAGS as follows:

USES=	gettext
CPPFLAGS+=	-I${LOCALBASE}/include
LDFLAGS+=	-L${LOCALBASE}/lib

GNU_CONFIGURE=	yes

6.6.2. Optional Usage

Some software products allow for disabling NLS, e.g., through passing --disable-nls to configure. In that case, your port should use gettext conditionally, depending on the status of the NLS option. For ports of low to medium complexity, you can rely on the following idiom:

GNU_CONFIGURE=		yes

OPTIONS_DEFINE=		NLS
OPTIONS_SUB=		yes

NLS_USES=		gettext
NLS_CONFIGURE_ENABLE=	nls

.include <bsd.port.mk>

Or using the older way of using options:

GNU_CONFIGURE=		yes

OPTIONS_DEFINE=		NLS

.include <bsd.port.options.mk>

.if ${PORT_OPTIONS:MNLS}
USES+=			gettext
PLIST_SUB+=		NLS=""
.else
CONFIGURE_ARGS+=	--disable-nls
PLIST_SUB+=		NLS="@comment "
.endif

.include <bsd.port.mk>

The next item on your to-do list is to arrange so that the message catalog files are included in the packing list conditionally. The Makefile part of this task is already provided by the idiom. It is explained in the section on advanced pkg-plist practices. In a nutshell, each occurrence of %%NLS%% in pkg-plist will be replaced by @comment  if NLS is disabled, or by a null string if NLS is enabled. Consequently, the lines prefixed by %%NLS%% will become mere comments in the final packing list if NLS is off; otherwise the prefix will be just left out. All you need to do now is insert %%NLS%% before each path to a message catalog file in pkg-plist. For example:

%%NLS%%share/locale/fr/LC_MESSAGES/foobar.mo
%%NLS%%share/locale/no/LC_MESSAGES/foobar.mo

In high complexity cases, you may need to use more advanced techniques than the recipe given here, such as dynamic packing list generation.

6.6.3. Handling Message Catalog Directories

There is a point to note about installing message catalog files. The target directories for them, which reside under LOCALBASE/share/locale, should rarely be created and removed by a port. The most popular languages have their respective directories listed in PORTSDIR/Templates/BSD.local.dist. The directories for many other languages are governed by the devel/gettext port. Consult its pkg-plist and see whether the port is going to install a message catalog file for a unique language.

6.7. Using Perl

If MASTER_SITES is set to CPAN, the correct subdirectory should be selected automatically. If the default subdirectory is wrong, CPAN/Module can be used to change it. MASTER_SITES can also be set to the old MASTER_SITE_PERL_CPAN, then the preferred value of MASTER_SITE_SUBDIR is the top-level hierarchy name. For example, the recommended value for p5-Module-Name is Module. The top-level hierarchy can be examined at cpan.org. This keeps the port working when the author of the module changes.

The exception to this rule is when the relevant directory does not exist or the distfile does not exist in that directory. In such case, using author's id as MASTER_SITE_SUBDIR is allowed. The CPAN:AUTHOR macro can be used, which will be translated to the hashed author directory. (e.g., CPAN:AUTHOR will be converted to authors/id/A/AU/AUTHOR.)

When a port needs Perl support, it should use USES=perl5 with the optional USE_PERL5 like described in the perl5 USES description.

Table 6.5. Read-Only Variables for Ports That Use Perl
Read only variablesMeans
PERLThe full path of the Perl 5 interpreter, either in the system or installed from a port, but without the version number. Use this if you need to replace #!lines in scripts.
PERL_VERSIONThe full version of Perl installed (e.g., 5.8.9).
PERL_LEVELThe installed Perl version as an integer of the form MNNNPP (e.g., 500809).
PERL_ARCHWhere Perl stores architecture dependent libraries. Defaults to ${ARCH}-freebsd.
PERL_PORTName of the Perl port that is installed (e.g., perl5).
SITE_PERLDirectory name where site specific Perl packages go. This value is added to PLIST_SUB.

Note:

Ports of Perl modules which do not have an official website should link to cpan.org in the WWW line of pkg-descr. The preferred URL form is http://search.cpan.org/dist/Module-Name/ (including the trailing slash).

Note:

Do not use ${SITE_PERL} in dependency declarations. Doing so assumes that perl5.mk has been included, which is not always true. Ports depending on this port will have incorrect dependencies if this port's files move later in an upgrade. The right way to declare Perl module dependencies is shown in the example below.

Example 6.2. Perl Dependency Example
p5-IO-Tee>=0.64:${PORTSDIR}/devel/p5-IO-Tee

For Perl ports that install manual pages, the macro PERL5_MAN3 can be used inside pkg-plist. For example,

lib/perl5/5.14/man/man3/AnyEvent::I3.3.gz

can be replaced with

%%PERL5_MAN3%%/AnyEvent::I3.3.gz

Note:

There are no PERL5_MANx macros for the other sections (x in 1, 2 and 4 to 9) because those get installed in the regular directories.

6.8. Using X11

6.8.1. X.Org Components

The X11 implementation available in The Ports Collection is X.Org. If your application depends on X components, set USE_XORG to the list of required components. Available components, at the time of writing, are:

bigreqsproto compositeproto damageproto dmx dmxproto dri2proto dri3proto evieproto fixesproto fontcacheproto fontenc fontsproto fontutil glproto ice inputproto kbproto libfs oldx pciaccess pixman presentproto printproto randrproto recordproto renderproto resourceproto scrnsaverproto sm trapproto videoproto x11 xau xaw xaw6 xaw7 xbitmaps xcb xcmiscproto xcomposite xcursor xdamage xdmcp xevie xext xextproto xf86bigfontproto xf86dgaproto xf86driproto xf86miscproto xf86rushproto xf86vidmodeproto xfixes xfont xfontcache xft xi xinerama xineramaproto xkbfile xkbui xmu xmuu xorg-macros xorg-server xp xpm xprintapputil xprintutil xproto xproxymngproto xrandr xrender xres xscrnsaver xshmfence xt xtrans xtrap xtst xv xvmc xxf86dga xxf86misc xxf86vm.

Always up-to-date list can be found in /usr/ports/Mk/bsd.xorg.mk.

The Mesa Project is an effort to provide free OpenGL implementation. You can specify a dependency on various components of this project with USE_GL variable. Valid options are: egl, gl, glesv2, glew, glu, glut, glw and linux. For backwards compatibility, the value of yes maps to glu.

Example 6.3. USE_XORG Example
USE_XORG=	xrender xft xkbfile xt xaw
USE_GL=		glu

Table 6.6. Variables for Ports That Use X
USES= imakeThe port uses imake.
XMKMFSet to the path of xmkmf if not in the PATH. Defaults to xmkmf -a.

Example 6.4. Using X11-Related Variables
# Use some X11 libraries
USE_XORG=	x11 xpm

6.8.2. Ports That Require Motif

If your port requires a Motif library, define USES= motif in the Makefile. Default Motif implementation is x11-toolkits/open-motif. Users can choose x11-toolkits/lesstif instead by setting WANT_LESSTIF variable in their make.conf.

The MOTIFLIB variable will be set by motif.mk to reference the appropriate Motif library. Please patch the source of your port to use ${MOTIFLIB} wherever the Motif library is referenced in the original Makefile or Imakefile.

There are two common cases:

  • If the port refers to the Motif library as -lXm in its Makefile or Imakefile, simply substitute ${MOTIFLIB} for it.

  • If the port uses XmClientLibs in its Imakefile, change it to ${MOTIFLIB} ${XTOOLLIB} ${XLIB}.

Note that MOTIFLIB (usually) expands to -L/usr/local/lib -lXm -lXp or /usr/local/lib/libXm.a, so there is no need to add -L or -l in front.

6.8.3. X11 Fonts

If your port installs fonts for the X Window System, put them in LOCALBASE/lib/X11/fonts/local.

6.8.4. Getting a Fake DISPLAY with Xvfb

Some applications require a working X11 display for compilation to succeed. This pose a problem for machines that operate headless. When the following variable is used, the build infrastructure will start the virtual framebuffer X server. The working DISPLAY is then passed to the build. See USES=display for the possible arguments.

USES=	display

6.8.5. Desktop Entries

Desktop entries (a Freedesktop standard) provide a way to automatically adjust desktop features when a new program is installed, without requiring user intervention. For example, newly-installed programs automatically appear in the application menus of compatible desktop environments. Desktop entries originated in the GNOME desktop environment, but are now a standard and also work with KDE and Xfce. This bit of automation provides a real benefit to the user, and desktop entries are encouraged for applications which can be used in a desktop environment.

6.8.5.1. Using Predefined .desktop Files

Ports that include predefined *.desktop files should include those files in pkg-plist and install them in the $LOCALBASE/share/applications directory. The INSTALL_DATA macro is useful for installing these files.

6.8.5.2. Updating Desktop Database

If a port has a MimeType entry in its portname.desktop, the desktop database must be updated after install and deinstall. To do this, define USES= desktop-file-utils.

6.8.5.3. Creating Desktop Entries with the DESKTOP_ENTRIES Macro

Desktop entries can be easily created for applications by using the DESKTOP_ENTRIES variable. A file named name.desktop will be created, installed, and added to the pkg-plist automatically. Syntax is:

DESKTOP_ENTRIES=	"NAME" "COMMENT" "ICON" "COMMAND" "CATEGORY" StartupNotify

The list of possible categories is available on the Freedesktop website. StartupNotify indicates whether the application is compatible with startup notifications. These are typically a graphic indicator like a clock that appear at the mouse pointer, menu, or panel to give the user an indication when a program is starting. A program that is compatible with startup notifications clears the indicator after it has started. Programs that are not compatible with startup notifications would never clear the indicator (potentially confusing and infuriating the user), and should have StartupNotify set to false so the indicator is not shown at all.

Example:

DESKTOP_ENTRIES=	"ToME" "Roguelike game based on JRR Tolkien's work" \
			"${DATADIR}/xtra/graf/tome-128.png" \
			"tome -v -g" "Application;Game;RolePlaying;" \
			false

6.9. Using GNOME

The FreeBSD/GNOME project uses its own set of variables to define which GNOME components a particular port uses. A comprehensive list of these variables exists within the FreeBSD/GNOME project's homepage.

6.10. Using Qt

6.10.1. Ports That Require Qt

The Ports Collection provides support for Qt 4 and Qt 5 frameworks with the USE_QTx variable, where x is 4 or 5. USE_QTx should be set to the list of required Qt components (libraries, tools, plugins). The Qt 4 and Qt 5 frameworks are quite similar. The main difference is the set of supported components.

The Qt framework exports a number of variables which can be used by ports, some of them listed below:

Table 6.7. Variables Provided to Ports That Use Qt
QT_PREFIXSet to the path where Qt was installed (${LOCALBASE}).
QMAKEFull path to qmake binary.
LRELEASEFull path to lrelease utility.
MOCFull path to moc.
RCCFull path to rcc.
UICFull path to uic.
QT_INCDIRQt include directory.
QT_LIBDIRQt libraries path.
QT_PLUGINDIRQt plugins path.

When using the Qt framework, these settings are deployed:

CONFIGURE_ARGS+=	--with-qt-includes=${QT_INCDIR} \
			--with-qt-libraries=${QT_LIBDIR} \
			--with-extra-libs=${LOCALBASE}/lib \
			--with-extra-includes=${LOCALBASE}/include

CONFIGURE_ENV+=	QTDIR="${QT_PREFIX}" QMAKE="${QMAKE}" \
		MOC="${MOC}" RCC="${RCC}" UIC="${UIC}" \
		QMAKESPEC="${QMAKESPEC}"

PLIST_SUB+=	QT_INCDIR=${QT_INCDIR_REL} \
		QT_LIBDIR=${QT_LIBDIR_REL} \
		QT_PLUGINDIR=${QT_PLUGINDIR_REL}

Some configure scripts do not support the arguments above. To suppress modification ofCONFIGURE_ENV and CONFIGURE_ARGS, set the QT_NONSTANDARD variable.

6.10.2. Component Selection

Individual Qt tool and library dependencies must be specified in the USE_QTx variable. Every component can be suffixed with _build or _run, the suffix indicating whether the component should be depended on at buildtime or runtime. If unsuffixed, the component will be depended on at both build- and runtime. Usually, library components should be specified unsuffixed, tool components should be specified with the _build suffix and plugin components should be specified with the _run suffix. The most commonly used components are listed below (all available components are listed in _USE_QT_ALL, _USE_QT4_ONLY, and _USE_QT5_ONLY variables in /usr/ports/Mk/bsd.qt.mk):

Table 6.8. Available Qt Library Components
NameDescription
corecore library (Qt 5 only)
corelibcore library (Qt 4 only)
dbusQt DBus library
guigraphical user interface library
networknetwork library
openglQt OpenGL library
scriptscript library
sqlSQL library
testlibunit testing library
webkitQt WebKit library
xmlQt XML library

To determine the libraries an application depends on, run ldd on the main executable after a successful compilation.

Table 6.9. Available Qt Tool Components
NameDescription
qmakeMakefile generator/build utility
buildtoolsbuild tools (moc, rcc), needed for almost every Qt application (Qt 5 only)
linguisttoolslocalization tools: lrelease, lupdate (Qt 5 only)
linguistlocalization tools: lrelease, lupdate (Qt 4 only)
mocmeta object compiler, needed for almost every Qt application at buildtime (Qt 4 only)
rccresource compiler, needed if the application comes with *.rc or *.qrc files (Qt 4 only)
uicuser interface compiler, needed if the application comes with *.ui files, in practice, every Qt application with a GUI (Qt 4 only)

Table 6.10. Available Qt Plugin Components
NameDescription
iconenginesSVG icon engine plugin, needed if the application ships SVG icons (Qt 4 only)
imageformatsplugins for TGA, TIFF, and MNG image formats

Example 6.5. Selecting Qt 4 Components

In this example, the ported application uses the Qt 4 graphical user interface library, the Qt 4 core library, all of the Qt 4 code generation tools and Qt 4's Makefile generator. Since the gui library implies a dependency on the core library, corelib does not need to be specified. The Qt 4 code generation tools moc, uic and rcc, as well as the Makefile generator qmake are only needed at buildtime, thus they are specified with the _build suffix:

USE_QT4=	gui moc_build qmake_build rcc_build uic_build

6.10.3. Using qmake

If the application provides a qmake project file (*.pro), define USES= qmake along with USE_QTx. Note that USES= qmake already implies a build dependency on qmake, therefore the qmake component can be omitted from USE_QTx. Similar to CMake, qmake supports out-of-source builds, which can be enabled by specifying the outsource argument (see USES= qmake example).

Table 6.11. Variables for Ports That Use qmake
VariableMeans
QMAKE_ARGSPort specific qmake flags to be passed to the qmake binary.
QMAKE_ENVEnvironment variables to be set for the qmake binary. The default is ${CONFIGURE_ENV}.
QMAKE_SOURCE_PATHPath to qmake project files (.pro). The default is ${WRKSRC} if an out-of-source build is requested, empty otherwise.

Example 6.6. USES= qmake Example

This snippet demonstrates the use of qmake for a Qt 4 port:

USES=			qmake:outsource
USE_QT4=	moc_build

For a Qt 5 port:

USES=	qmake:outsource
USE_QT5=	buildtools_build

Qt applications are often written to be cross-platform and often X11/Unix is not the platform they are developed on, which in turn leads to certain loose ends, like:

  • Missing additional include paths. Many applications come with system tray icon support, but neglect to look for includes and/or libraries in the X11 directories. You can tell qmake to add directories to the include and library search paths via the command line, for example:

    QMAKE_ARGS+= INCLUDEPATH+=${LOCALBASE}/include \
    	LIBS+=-L${LOCALBASE}/lib
  • Bogus installation paths. Sometimes data such as icons or .desktop files are by default installed into directories which are not scanned by XDG-compatible applications. editors/texmaker is an example for this - look at patch-texmaker.pro in the files directory of that port for a template on how to remedy this directly in the qmake project file.

6.11. Using KDE

6.11.1. KDE 4 Variable Definitions

If the application depends on KDE 4, set USE_KDE4 to the list of required components. _build and _run suffixes can be used to force components dependency type (e.g., baseapps_run). If no suffix is set, a default dependency type will be used. If you want to force both types, add the component twice with both suffixes (e.g., automoc4_build automoc4_run). The most commonly used components are listed below (up-to-date components are documented at the top of /usr/ports/Mk/bsd.kde4.mk):

Table 6.12. Available KDE 4 Components
NameDescription
kdehierHierarchy of common KDE directories
kdelibsKDE core libraries
kdeprefixIf set, port will be installed into ${KDE4_PREFIX}
automoc4Build tool to automatically generate moc files
akonadiStorage server for KDE PIM data
sopranoLibrary for Resource Description Framework (RDF)
strigiStrigi desktop search library
libkcddbKDE CDDB (compact disc database) library
libkcompactdiscKDE library for interfacing with audio CDs
libkdeeduLibraries used by educational applications
libkdcrawKDE LibRaw library
libkexiv2KDE Exiv2 library
libkipiKDE Image Plugin Interface
libkonqKonqueror core library
libksaneKDE SANE ("Scanner Access Now Easy") library
pimlibsPersonal information management libraries
kateAdvanced text editor framework
marbleVirtual globe and world atlas
okularUniversal document viewer
korundumKDE Ruby bindings
perlkdeKDE Perl bindings
pykde4KDE Python bindings
pykdeuic4PyKDE user interface compiler
smokekdeKDE SMOKE libraries

KDE 4 ports are installed into KDE4_PREFIX. This is achieved by specifying the kdeprefix component, which overrides the default PREFIX. The ports, however, respect any PREFIX set via the MAKEFLAGS environment variable and/or make arguments. Currently KDE4_PREFIX is identical to the default PREFIX, ${LOCALBASE}.

Example 6.7. USE_KDE4 Example

This is a simple example for a KDE 4 port. USES= cmake:outsource instructs the port to utilize CMake, a configuration tool widely used by KDE 4 projects (see Section 6.4.4, “Using cmake for detailed usage). USE_KDE4 brings dependency on KDE libraries and makes port using automoc4 at build stage. Required KDE components and other dependencies can be determined through configure log. USE_KDE4 does not imply USE_QT4. If a port requires some Qt 4 components, they should be specified in USE_QT4.

USES=		cmake:outsource
USE_KDE4=	kdelibs kdeprefix automoc4
USE_QT4=	moc_build qmake_build rcc_build uic_build

6.12. Using Java

6.12.1. Variable Definitions

If your port needs a Java™ Development Kit (JDK™) to either build, run or even extract the distfile, then it should define USE_JAVA.

There are several JDKs in the ports collection, from various vendors, and in several versions. If your port must use one of these versions, you can define which one. The most current version, and FreeBSD default is java/openjdk6.

Table 6.13. Variables Which May be Set by Ports That Use Java
VariableMeans
USE_JAVAShould be defined for the remaining variables to have any effect.
JAVA_VERSIONList of space-separated suitable Java versions for the port. An optional "+" allows you to specify a range of versions (allowed values: 1.5[+] 1.6[+] 1.7[+]).
JAVA_OSList of space-separated suitable JDK port operating systems for the port (allowed values: native linux).
JAVA_VENDORList of space-separated suitable JDK port vendors for the port (allowed values: freebsd bsdjava sun openjdk).
JAVA_BUILDWhen set, it means that the selected JDK port should be added to the build dependencies of the port.
JAVA_RUNWhen set, it means that the selected JDK port should be added to the run dependencies of the port.
JAVA_EXTRACTWhen set, it means that the selected JDK port should be added to the extract dependencies of the port.

Below is the list of all settings a port will receive after setting USE_JAVA:

Table 6.14. Variables Provided to Ports That Use Java
VariableValue
JAVA_PORTThe name of the JDK port (e.g., 'java/openjdk6').
JAVA_PORT_VERSIONThe full version of the JDK port (e.g., '1.6.0'). If you only need the first two digits of this version number, use ${JAVA_PORT_VERSION:C/^([0-9])\.([0-9])(.*)$/\1.\2/}.
JAVA_PORT_OSThe operating system used by the JDK port (e.g., 'native').
JAVA_PORT_VENDORThe vendor of the JDK port (e.g., 'openjdk').
JAVA_PORT_OS_DESCRIPTIONDescription of the operating system used by the JDK port (e.g., 'Native').
JAVA_PORT_VENDOR_DESCRIPTIONDescription of the vendor of the JDK port (e.g., 'OpenJDK BSD Porting Team').
JAVA_HOMEPath to the installation directory of the JDK (e.g., '/usr/local/openjdk6').
JAVACPath to the Java compiler to use (e.g., '/usr/local/openjdk6/bin/javac').
JARPath to the jar tool to use (e.g., '/usr/local/openjdk6/bin/jar' or '/usr/local/bin/fastjar').
APPLETVIEWERPath to the appletviewer utility (e.g., '/usr/local/openjdk6/bin/appletviewer').
JAVAPath to the java executable. Use this for executing Java programs (e.g., '/usr/local/openjdk6/bin/java').
JAVADOCPath to the javadoc utility program.
JAVAHPath to the javah program.
JAVAPPath to the javap program.
JAVA_KEYTOOLPath to the keytool utility program.
JAVA_N2APath to the native2ascii tool.
JAVA_POLICYTOOLPath to the policytool program.
JAVA_SERIALVERPath to the serialver utility program.
RMICPath to the RMI stub/skeleton generator, rmic.
RMIREGISTRYPath to the RMI registry program, rmiregistry.
RMIDPath to the RMI daemon program rmid.
JAVA_CLASSESPath to the archive that contains the JDK class files, ${JAVA_HOME}/jre/lib/rt.jar.

You may use the java-debug make target to get information for debugging your port. It will display the value of many of the forecited variables.

Additionally, the following constants are defined so all Java ports may be installed in a consistent way:

Table 6.15. Constants Defined for Ports That Use Java
ConstantValue
JAVASHAREDIRThe base directory for everything related to Java. Default: ${PREFIX}/share/java.
JAVAJARDIRThe directory where JAR files should be installed. Default: ${JAVASHAREDIR}/classes.
JAVALIBDIRThe directory where JAR files installed by other ports are located. Default: ${LOCALBASE}/share/java/classes.

The related entries are defined in both PLIST_SUB (documented in Section 7.1, “Changing pkg-plist Based on Make Variables”) and SUB_LIST.

6.12.2. Building with Ant

When the port is to be built using Apache Ant, it has to define USE_ANT. Ant is thus considered to be the sub-make command. When no do-build target is defined by the port, a default one will be set that simply runs Ant according to MAKE_ENV, MAKE_ARGS and ALL_TARGET. This is similar to the USES= gmake mechanism, which is documented in Section 6.4, “Building Mechanisms”.

6.12.3. Best Practices

When porting a Java library, your port should install the JAR file(s) in ${JAVAJARDIR}, and everything else under ${JAVASHAREDIR}/${PORTNAME} (except for the documentation, see below). In order to reduce the packing file size, you may reference the JAR file(s) directly in the Makefile. Just use the following statement (where myport.jar is the name of the JAR file installed as part of the port):

PLIST_FILES+=	%%JAVAJARDIR%%/myport.jar

When porting a Java application, the port usually installs everything under a single directory (including its JAR dependencies). The use of ${JAVASHAREDIR}/${PORTNAME} is strongly encouraged in this regard. It is up the porter to decide whether the port should install the additional JAR dependencies under this directory or directly use the already installed ones (from ${JAVAJARDIR}).

When porting a Java™ application that requires an application server such as www/tomcat7 to run the service, it is quite common for a vendor to distribute a .war file. A .war file is a Web application ARchive and is extracted when called by the application. Avoid adding a .war file to the pkg-plist. It is not considered best practice. An application server will expand the war archive, but not clean it up properly if the port is removed. A more desirable way of working with this file is to extract the archive, then install the files, and lastly add these files to pkg-plist.

TOMCATDIR=	${LOCALBASE}/apache-tomcat-7.0
WEBAPPDIR=	myapplication

post-extract:
	@${MKDIR} ${WRKDIR}/${PORTDIRNAME}
	@${TAR} xf ${WRKDIR}/myapplication.war -C ${WRKDIR}/${PORTDIRNAME}

do-install:
	cd ${WRKDIR} && \
	${INSTALL} -d -o ${WWWOWN} -g ${WWWGRP} ${TOMCATDIR}/webapps/${PORTDIRNAME}
	@cd ${WRKDIR}/${PORTDIRNAME} && ${COPYTREE_SHARE} \* ${WEBAPPDIR}/${PORTDIRNAME}

Regardless of the type of your port (library or application), the additional documentation should be installed in the same location as for any other port. The JavaDoc tool is known to produce a different set of files depending on the version of the JDK that is used. For ports that do not enforce the use of a particular JDK, it is therefore a complex task to specify the packing list (pkg-plist). This is one reason why porters are strongly encouraged to use the PORTDOCS macro. Moreover, even if you can predict the set of files that will be generated by javadoc, the size of the resulting pkg-plist advocates for the use of PORTDOCS.

The default value for DATADIR is ${PREFIX}/share/${PORTNAME}. It is a good idea to override DATADIR to ${JAVASHAREDIR}/${PORTNAME} for Java ports. Indeed, DATADIR is automatically added to PLIST_SUB (documented in Section 7.1, “Changing pkg-plist Based on Make Variables”) so you may use %%DATADIR%% directly in pkg-plist.

As for the choice of building Java ports from source or directly installing them from a binary distribution, there is no defined policy at the time of writing. However, people from the FreeBSD Java Project encourage porters to have their ports built from source whenever it is a trivial task.

All the features that have been presented in this section are implemented in bsd.java.mk. If you ever think that your port needs more sophisticated Java support, please first have a look at the bsd.java.mk Subversion log as it usually takes some time to document the latest features. Then, if you think the support you are lacking would be beneficial to many other Java ports, feel free to discuss it on the FreeBSD Java Language mailing list.

Although there is a java category for PRs, it refers to the JDK porting effort from the FreeBSD Java project. Therefore, you should submit your Java port in the ports category as for any other port, unless the issue you are trying to resolve is related to either a JDK implementation or bsd.java.mk.

Similarly, there is a defined policy regarding the CATEGORIES of a Java port, which is detailed in Section 5.3, “Categorization”.

6.13. Web Applications, Apache and PHP

6.13.1. Apache

Table 6.16. Variables for Ports That Use Apache
USE_APACHEThe port requires Apache. Possible values: yes (gets any version), 22, 24, 22-24, 22+, etc. The default APACHE version is 22. More details are available in ports/Mk/bsd.apache.mk and at wiki.freebsd.org/Apache/.
APXSFull path to the apxs binary. Can be overridden in your port.
HTTPDFull path to the httpd binary. Can be overridden in your port.
APACHE_VERSIONThe version of present Apache installation (read-only variable). This variable is only available after inclusion of bsd.port.pre.mk. Possible values: 22, 24.
APACHEMODDIRDirectory for Apache modules. This variable is automatically expanded in pkg-plist.
APACHEINCLUDEDIRDirectory for Apache headers. This variable is automatically expanded in pkg-plist.
APACHEETCDIRDirectory for Apache configuration files. This variable is automatically expanded in pkg-plist.

Table 6.17. Useful Variables for Porting Apache Modules
MODULENAMEName of the module. Default value is PORTNAME. Example: mod_hello
SHORTMODNAMEShort name of the module. Automatically derived from MODULENAME, but can be overridden. Example: hello
AP_FAST_BUILDUse apxs to compile and install the module.
AP_GENPLISTAlso automatically creates a pkg-plist.
AP_INCAdds a directory to a header search path during compilation.
AP_LIBAdds a directory to a library search path during compilation.
AP_EXTRASAdditional flags to pass to apxs.

6.13.2. Web Applications

Web applications should be installed into PREFIX/www/appname. For your convenience, this path is available both in Makefile and in pkg-plist as WWWDIR, and the path relative to PREFIX is available in Makefile as WWWDIR_REL.

The user and group of web server process are available as WWWOWN and WWWGRP, in case you need to change the ownership of some files. The default values of both are www. If you want different values for your port, use WWWOWN?= myuser notation, to allow user to override it easily.

Do not depend on Apache unless the web app explicitly needs Apache. Respect that users may wish to run your web app on different web server than Apache.

6.13.3. PHP

Table 6.18. Variables for Ports That Use PHP
USE_PHPThe port requires PHP. The value yes adds a dependency on PHP. The list of required PHP extensions can be specified instead. Example: pcre xml gettext
DEFAULT_PHP_VERSelects which major version of PHP will be installed as a dependency when no PHP is installed yet. Default is 5. Possible values: 4, 5
IGNORE_WITH_PHPThe port does not work with PHP of the given version. Possible values: 4, 5
USE_PHPIZEThe port will be built as a PHP extension.
USE_PHPEXTThe port will be treated as a PHP extension, including installation and registration in the extension registry.
USE_PHP_BUILDSet PHP as a build dependency.
WANT_PHP_CLIWant the CLI (command line) version of PHP.
WANT_PHP_CGIWant the CGI version of PHP.
WANT_PHP_MODWant the Apache module version of PHP.
WANT_PHP_SCRWant the CLI or the CGI version of PHP.
WANT_PHP_WEBWant the Apache module or the CGI version of PHP.

6.13.4. PEAR Modules

Porting PEAR modules is a very simple process.

Use the variables FILES, TESTS, DATA, SQLS, SCRIPTFILES, DOCS and EXAMPLES to list the files you want to install. All listed files will be automatically installed into the appropriate locations and added to pkg-plist.

Include ${PORTSDIR}/devel/pear/bsd.pear.mk on the last line of the Makefile.

Example 6.8. Example Makefile for PEAR Class
PORTNAME=       Date
PORTVERSION=	1.4.3
CATEGORIES=	devel www pear

MAINTAINER=	example@domain.com
COMMENT=	PEAR Date and Time Zone Classes

BUILD_DEPENDS=	${PEARDIR}/PEAR.php:${PORTSDIR}/devel/pear-PEAR
RUN_DEPENDS:=	${BUILD_DEPENDS}

FILES=		Date.php Date/Calc.php Date/Human.php Date/Span.php     \
		Date/TimeZone.php
TESTS=		test_calc.php test_date_methods_span.php testunit.php   \
		testunit_date.php testunit_date_span.php wknotest.txt   \
		bug674.php bug727_1.php bug727_2.php bug727_3.php       \
		bug727_4.php bug967.php weeksinmonth_4_monday.txt       \
		weeksinmonth_4_sunday.txt weeksinmonth_rdm_monday.txt   \
		weeksinmonth_rdm_sunday.txt
DOCS=		TODO
_DOCSDIR=	.

.include <bsd.port.pre.mk>
.include "${PORTSDIR}/devel/pear/bsd.pear.mk"
.include <bsd.port.post.mk>

6.14. Using Python

The Ports Collection supports parallel installation of multiple Python versions. Ports should make sure to use a correct python interpreter, according to the user-settable PYTHON_VERSION variable. Most prominently, this means replacing the path to python executable in scripts with the value of PYTHON_CMD variable.

Ports that install files under PYTHON_SITELIBDIR should use the pyXY- package name prefix, so their package name embeds the version of Python they are installed into.

PKGNAMEPREFIX=	${PYTHON_PKGNAMEPREFIX}
Table 6.19. Most Useful Variables for Ports That Use Python
USE_PYTHONThe port needs Python. Minimal required version can be specified with values such as 2.6+. Version ranges can also be specified, by separating two version numbers with a dash, e.g.: 2.6-2.7
USE_PYDISTUTILSUse Python distutils for configuring, compiling and installing. This is required when the port comes with setup.py. This overrides the do-build and do-install targets and may also override do-configure if GNU_CONFIGURE is not defined.
PYTHON_PKGNAMEPREFIXUsed as a PKGNAMEPREFIX to distinguish packages for different Python versions. Example: py24-
PYTHON_SITELIBDIRLocation of the site-packages tree, that contains installation path of Python (usually LOCALBASE). The PYTHON_SITELIBDIR variable can be very useful when installing Python modules.
PYTHONPREFIX_SITELIBDIRThe PREFIX-clean variant of PYTHON_SITELIBDIR. Always use %%PYTHON_SITELIBDIR%% in pkg-plist when possible. The default value of %%PYTHON_SITELIBDIR%% is lib/python%%PYTHON_VERSION%%/site-packages
PYTHON_CMDPython interpreter command line, including version number.
PYNUMERICDependency line for numeric extension.
PYNUMPYDependency line for the new numeric extension, numpy. (PYNUMERIC is deprecated by upstream vendor).
PYXMLDependency line for XML extension (not needed for Python 2.0 and higher as it is also in base distribution).

A complete list of available variables can be found in /usr/ports/Mk/bsd.python.mk.

Some Python applications claim to have DESTDIR support (which would be required for staging) but it is broken (Mailman up to 2.1.16, for instance). This can be worked around by recompiling the scripts. This can be done, for example, in the post-build target. Assuming the Python scripts are supposed to reside in PYTHONPREFIX_SITELIBDIR after installation, this solution can be applied:

(cd ${STAGEDIR}${PREFIX} \
  && ${PYTHON_CMD} ${PYTHON_LIBDIR}/compileall.py \
   -d ${PREFIX} -f ${PYTHONPREFIX_SITELIBDIR:S;${PREFIX}/;;})

This recompiles the sources with a path relative to the stage directory, and prepends the value of PREFIX to the file name recorded in the byte-compiled output file by -d. -f is required to force recompilation, and the :S;${PREFIX}/;; strips prefixes from the value of the PYTHONPREFIX_SITELIBDIR variable to make it relative to PREFIX.

6.15. Using Tcl/Tk

The Ports Collection supports parallel installation of multiple Tcl/Tk versions. Ports should try to support at least the default Tcl/Tk version and higher with USES=tcl. It is possible to specify the desired version of tcl by appending :xx, e.g.: USES=tcl:85.

Table 6.20. The Most Useful Read-Only Variables for Ports That Use Tcl/Tk
TCL_VER chosen major.minor version of Tcl
TCLSH full path of the Tcl interpreter
TCL_LIBDIR path of the Tcl libraries
TCL_INCLUDEDIR path of the Tcl C header files
TK_VER chosen major.minor version of Tk
WISH full path of the Tk interpreter
TK_LIBDIR path of the Tk libraries
TK_INCLUDEDIR path of the Tk C header files

See the USES=tcl and USES=tk of Chapter 15, Values of USES for a full description of those variables. A complete list of those variables is available in /usr/ports/Mk/Uses/tcl.mk.

6.16. Using Emacs

This section is yet to be written.

6.17. Using Ruby

Table 6.21. Useful Variables for Ports That Use Ruby
VariableDescription
USE_RUBYThe port requires Ruby.
USE_RUBY_EXTCONFThe port uses extconf.rb to configure.
USE_RUBY_SETUPThe port uses setup.rb to configure.
RUBY_SETUPSet to the alternative name of setup.rb. Common value is install.rb.

The following table shows the selected variables available to port authors via the ports infrastructure. These variables should be used to install files into their proper locations. Use them in pkg-plist as much as possible. These variables should not be redefined in the port.

Table 6.22. Selected Read-Only Variables for Ports That Use Ruby
VariableDescriptionExample value
RUBY_PKGNAMEPREFIXUsed as a PKGNAMEPREFIX to distinguish packages for different Ruby versions.ruby19-
RUBY_VERSIONFull version of Ruby in the form of x.y.z[.p].1.9.3.484
RUBY_SITELIBDIRArchitecture independent libraries installation path./usr/local/lib/ruby/site_ruby/1.9
RUBY_SITEARCHLIBDIRArchitecture dependent libraries installation path./usr/local/lib/ruby/site_ruby/1.9/amd64-freebsd10
RUBY_MODDOCDIRModule documentation installation path./usr/local/share/doc/ruby19/patsy
RUBY_MODEXAMPLESDIRModule examples installation path./usr/local/share/examples/ruby19/patsy

A complete list of available variables can be found in /usr/ports/Mk/bsd.ruby.mk.

6.18. Using SDL

The USE_SDL variable is used to autoconfigure the dependencies for ports which use an SDL based library like devel/sdl12 and graphics/sdl_image.

The following SDL libraries for version 1.2 are recognized at the moment:

The following SDL libraries for version 2.0 are recognized at the moment:

Therefore, if a port has a dependency on net/sdl_net and audio/sdl_mixer, the syntax will be:

USE_SDL=	net mixer

The dependency devel/sdl12, which is required by net/sdl_net and audio/sdl_mixer, is automatically added as well.

If you use USE_SDL with entries using SDL 1.2, it will automatically:

  • Add a dependency on sdl12-config to BUILD_DEPENDS

  • Add the variable SDL_CONFIG to CONFIGURE_ENV

  • Add the dependencies of the selected libraries to the LIB_DEPENDS

If you use USE_SDL with entries using SDL 2.0, it will automatically:

  • Add a dependency on sdl2-config to BUILD_DEPENDS

  • Add the variable SDL2_CONFIG to CONFIGURE_ENV

  • Add the dependencies of the selected libraries to the LIB_DEPENDS

To check whether an SDL library is available, you can do it with the WANT_SDL variable:

WANT_SDL=	yes

.include <bsd.port.pre.mk>

.if ${HAVE_SDL:Mmixer}!=""
USE_SDL+=	mixer
.endif

.include <bsd.port.post.mk>

6.19. Using wxWidgets

This section describes the status of the wxWidgets libraries in the ports tree and its integration with the ports system.

6.19.1. Introduction

There are many versions of the wxWidgets libraries which conflict between them (install files under the same name). In the ports tree this problem has been solved by installing each version under a different name using version number suffixes.

The obvious disadvantage of this is that each application has to be modified to find the expected version. Fortunately, most of the applications call the wx-config script to determine the necessary compiler and linker flags. The script is named differently for every available version. Majority of applications respect an environment variable, or accept a configure argument, to specify which wx-config script to call. Otherwise they have to be patched.

6.19.2. Version Selection

To make your port use a specific version of wxWidgets there are two variables available for defining (if only one is defined the other will be set to a default value):

Table 6.23. Variables to Select wxWidgets Versions
VariableDescriptionDefault value
USE_WXList of versions the port can useAll available versions
USE_WX_NOTList of versions the port can not useNone

The following is a list of available wxWidgets versions and the corresponding ports in the tree:

Table 6.24. Available wxWidgets Versions

Note:

The versions starting from 2.5 also come in Unicode version and are installed by a slave port named like the normal one plus a -unicode suffix, but this can be handled with variables (see Section 6.19.4, “Unicode”).

The variables in Table 6.23, “Variables to Select wxWidgets Versions” can be set to one or more of the following combinations separated by spaces:

Table 6.25. wxWidgets Version Specifications
DescriptionExample
Single version2.4
Ascending range2.4+
Descending range2.6-
Full range (must be ascending)2.4-2.6

There are also some variables to select the preferred versions from the available ones. They can be set to a list of versions, the first ones will have higher priority.

Table 6.26. Variables to Select Preferred wxWidgets Versions
NameDesigned for
WANT_WX_VERthe port
WITH_WX_VERthe user

6.19.3. Component Selection

There are other applications that, while not being wxWidgets libraries, are related to them. These applications can be specified in the WX_COMPS variable. The following components are available:

Table 6.27. Available wxWidgets Components
NameDescriptionVersion restriction
wxmain librarynone
contribcontributed librariesnone
pythonwxPython (Python bindings)2.4-2.6
mozillawxMozilla2.4
svgwxSVG2.6

The dependency type can be selected for each component by adding a suffix separated by a semicolon. If not present then a default type will be used (see Table 6.29, “Default wxWidgets Dependency Types”). The following types are available:

Table 6.28. Available wxWidgets Dependency Types
NameDescription
buildComponent is required for building, equivalent to BUILD_DEPENDS
runComponent is required for running, equivalent to RUN_DEPENDS
libComponent is required for building and running, equivalent to LIB_DEPENDS

The default values for the components are detailed in the following table:

Table 6.29. Default wxWidgets Dependency Types
ComponentDependency type
wxlib
contriblib
pythonrun
mozillalib
svglib

Example 6.9. Selecting wxWidgets Components

The following fragment corresponds to a port which uses wxWidgets version 2.4 and its contributed libraries.

USE_WX=		2.4
WX_COMPS=	wx contrib

6.19.4. Unicode

The wxWidgets library supports Unicode since version 2.5. In the ports tree both versions are available and can be selected with the following variables:

Table 6.30. Variables to Select Unicode in wxWidgets Versions
VariableDescriptionDesigned for
WX_UNICODEThe port works only with the Unicode versionthe port
WANT_UNICODEThe port works with both versions but prefers the Unicode onethe port
WITH_UNICODEThe port will use the Unicode versionthe user
WITHOUT_UNICODEThe port will use the normal version if supported (when WX_UNICODE is not defined)the user

Warning:

Do not use WX_UNICODE for ports that can use both Unicode and normal versions. If you want the port to use Unicode by default define WANT_UNICODE instead.

6.19.5. Detecting Installed Versions

To detect an installed version you have to define WANT_WX. If you do not set it to a specific version then the components will have a version suffix. The HAVE_WX variable will be filled after detection.

Example 6.10. Detecting Installed wxWidgets Versions and Components

The following fragment can be used in a port that uses wxWidgets if it is installed, or an option is selected.

WANT_WX=	yes

.include <bsd.port.pre.mk>

.if defined(WITH_WX) || !empty(PORT_OPTIONS:MWX) || !empty(HAVE_WX:Mwx-2.4)
USE_WX=			2.4
CONFIGURE_ARGS+=	--enable-wx
.endif

The following fragment can be used in a port that enables wxPython support if it is installed or if an option is selected, in addition to wxWidgets, both version 2.6.

USE_WX=		2.6
WX_COMPS=	wx
WANT_WX=	2.6

.include <bsd.port.pre.mk>

.if defined(WITH_WXPYTHON) || !empty(PORT_OPTIONS:MWXPYTHON) || !empty(HAVE_WX:Mpython)
WX_COMPS+=		python
CONFIGURE_ARGS+=	--enable-wxpython
.endif

6.19.6. Defined Variables

The following variables are available in the port (after defining one from Table 6.23, “Variables to Select wxWidgets Versions”).

Table 6.31. Variables Defined for Ports That Use wxWidgets
NameDescription
WX_CONFIGThe path to the wxWidgets wx-config script (with different name)
WXRC_CMDThe path to the wxWidgets wxrc program (with different name)
WX_VERSIONThe wxWidgets version that is going to be used (e.g., 2.6)
WX_UNICODEIf not defined but Unicode is going to be used then it will be defined

6.19.7. Processing in bsd.port.pre.mk

If you need to use the variables for running commands right after including bsd.port.pre.mk you need to define WX_PREMK.

Important:

If you define WX_PREMK, then the version, dependencies, components and defined variables will not change if you modify the wxWidgets port variables after including bsd.port.pre.mk.

Example 6.11. Using wxWidgets Variables in Commands

The following fragment illustrates the use of WX_PREMK by running the wx-config script to obtain the full version string, assign it to a variable and pass it to the program.

USE_WX=		2.4
WX_PREMK=	yes

.include <bsd.port.pre.mk>

.if exists(${WX_CONFIG})
VER_STR!=	${WX_CONFIG} --release

PLIST_SUB+=	VERSION="${VER_STR}"
.endif

Note:

The wxWidgets variables can be safely used in commands when they are inside targets without the need of WX_PREMK.

6.19.8. Additional configure Arguments

Some GNU configure scripts can not find wxWidgets with just the WX_CONFIG environment variable set, requiring additional arguments. The WX_CONF_ARGS variable can be used for provide them.

Table 6.32. Legal Values for WX_CONF_ARGS
Possible valueResulting argument
absolute--with-wx-config=${WX_CONFIG}
relative--with-wx=${LOCALBASE} --with-wx-config=${WX_CONFIG:T}

6.20. Using Lua

This section describes the status of the Lua libraries in the ports tree and its integration with the ports system.

6.20.1. Introduction

There are many versions of the Lua libraries and corresponding interpreters, which conflict between them (install files under the same name). In the ports tree this problem has been solved by installing each version under a different name using version number suffixes.

The obvious disadvantage of this is that each application has to be modified to find the expected version. But it can be solved by adding some additional flags to the compiler and linker.

6.20.2. Version Selection

A port using Lua only needs to have the following line:

USES=	lua

If a specific version of Lua is needed, instructions on how to select it are given in the USES=lua part of Chapter 15, Values of USES.

6.20.3. Defined Variables

The following variables are available in the port.

Table 6.33. Variables Defined for Ports That Use Lua
NameDescription
LUA_VERThe Lua version that is going to be used (e.g., 5.1)
LUA_VER_STRThe Lua version without the dots (e.g., 51)
LUA_PREFIXThe prefix where Lua (and components) is installed
LUA_SUBDIRThe directory under ${PREFIX}/bin, ${PREFIX}/share and ${PREFIX}/lib where Lua is installed
LUA_INCDIRThe directory where Lua and tolua header files are installed
LUA_LIBDIRThe directory where Lua and tolua libraries are installed
LUA_MODLIBDIRThe directory where Lua module libraries (.so) are installed
LUA_MODSHAREDIRThe directory where Lua modules (.lua) are installed
LUA_PKGNAMEPREFIXThe package name prefix used by Lua modules
LUA_CMDThe path to the Lua interpreter
LUAC_CMDThe path to the Lua compiler

6.21. Using iconv

After 2013-10-08 (254273), FreeBSD  10-CURRENT and newer versions have a native iconv in the operating system. On earlier versions, converters/libiconv was used as a dependency.

For software that needs iconv, define USES=iconv. FreeBSD versions before 10-CURRENT on 2013-08-13 (254273) do not have a native iconv. On these earlier versions, a dependency on converters/libiconv will be added automatically.

When a port defines USES=iconv, these variables will be available:

Variable namePurposeValue before FreeBSD 10-CURRENT 254273 (2013-08-13)Value after FreeBSD 10-CURRENT 254273 (2013-08-13)
ICONV_CMDDirectory where the iconv binary resides${LOCALBASE}/bin/iconv/usr/bin/iconv
ICONV_LIBld argument to link to libiconv (if needed)-liconv(empty)
ICONV_PREFIXDirectory where the iconv implementation resides (useful for configure scripts)${LOCALBASE}/usr
ICONV_CONFIGURE_ARGPreconstructed configure argument for configure scripts--with-libiconv-prefix=${LOCALBASE}(empty)
ICONV_CONFIGURE_BASEPreconstructed configure argument for configure scripts--with-libiconv=${LOCALBASE}(empty)

These two examples automatically populate the variables with the correct value for systems using converters/libiconv or the native iconv respectively:

Example 6.12. Simple iconv Usage
USES=		iconv
LDFLAGS+=	-L${LOCALBASE}/lib ${ICONV_LIB}

Example 6.13. iconv Usage with configure
USES=		iconv
CONFIGURE_ARGS+=${ICONV_CONFIGURE_ARG}

As shown above, ICONV_LIB is empty when a native iconv is present. This can be used to detect the native iconv and respond appropriately.

Sometimes a program has an ld argument or search path hardcoded in a Makefile or configure script. This approach can be used to solve that problem:

Example 6.14. Fixing Hardcoded -liconv
USES=		iconv

post-patch:
	@${REINPLACE_CMD} -e 's/-liconv/${ICONV_LIB}/' ${WRKSRC}/Makefile

In some cases it is necessary to set alternate values or perform operations depending on whether there is a native iconv. bsd.port.pre.mk must be included before testing the value of ICONV_LIB:

Example 6.15. Checking for Native iconv Availability
USES=		iconv

.include <bsd.port.pre.mk>

post-patch:
.if empty(ICONV_LIB)
	# native iconv detected
	@${REINPLACE_CMD} -e 's|iconv||' ${WRKSRC}/Config.sh
.endif

.include <bsd.port.post.mk>

6.22. Using Xfce

The USE_XFCE variable is used to autoconfigure the dependencies for ports which use an Xfce based library or application like x11-toolkits/libxfce4gui and x11-wm/xfce4-panel.

The following Xfce libraries and applications are recognized at the moment:

The following additional parameters are recognized:

  • configenv: Use this if your port requires a special modified CONFIGURE_ENV to find its required libraries.

    -I${LOCALBASE}/include -L${LOCALBASE}/lib

    gets added to CPPFLAGS to CONFIGURE_ENV.

Therefore, if a port has a dependency on sysutils/xfce4-mcs-manager and requires the special CPPFLAGS in its configure environment, the syntax will be:

USE_XFCE=	mcsmanager configenv

6.23. Using Mozilla

Table 6.34. Variables for Ports That Use Mozilla
USE_GECKOGecko backend the port can handle. Possible values: libxul (libxul.so), seamonkey (libgtkembedmoz.so, deprecated, should not be used any more).
USE_FIREFOXThe port requires Firefox as a runtime dependency. Possible values: yes (get default version), 40, 36, 35. Default dependency is on version 40.
USE_FIREFOX_BUILDThe port requires Firefox as a buildtime dependency. Possible values: see USE_FIREFOX. This automatically sets USE_FIREFOX and assigns the same value.
USE_SEAMONKEYThe port requires SeaMonkey as a runtime dependency. Possible values: yes (get default version), 20, 11 (deprecated, should not be used any more). Default dependency is on version 20.
USE_SEAMONKEY_BUILDThe port requires SeaMonkey as a buildtime dependency. Possible values: see USE_SEAMONKEY. This automatically sets USE_SEAMONKEY and assigns the same value.
USE_THUNDERBIRDThe port requires Thunderbird as a runtime dependency. Possible values: yes (get default version), 31, 30 (deprecated, should not be used any more). Default dependency is on version 31.
USE_THUNDERBIRD_BUILDThe port requires Thunderbird as a buildtime dependency. Possible values: see USE_THUNDERBIRD. This automatically sets USE_THUNDERBIRD and assigns the same value.

A complete list of available variables can be found in /usr/ports/Mk/bsd.gecko.mk.

6.24. Using Databases

Table 6.35. Variables for Ports Using Databases
VariableMeans
USE_BDBIf variable is set to yes, add dependency on databases/db41 port. The variable may also be set to values: 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 46, 47, 48, or 51. You can declare a range of acceptable values, USE_BDB=42+ will find the highest installed version, and fall back to 42 if nothing else is installed.
USE_MYSQLIf the variable is set to yes, add a dependency on the databases/mysql55-client port. An associated variable, WANT_MYSQL_VER, may be set to values such as 323, 40, 41, 50, 51, 52, 55, or 60.
USE_PGSQLIf set to yes, add dependency on databases/postgresql90-client port. An associated variable, WANT_PGSQL_VER, may be set to values such as 83, 84, 90, 91 or 92. You can declare a minimum or maximum value; WANT_PGSQL_VER= 90+ will cause the port to depend on a minimum version of 9.0.
USE_SQLITEIf variable is set to yes, add dependency on databases/sqlite3 port. The variable may also be set to values: 3, 2.

More details are available in bsd.database.mk.

6.25. Starting and Stopping Services (rc Scripts)

rc.d scripts are used to start services on system startup, and to give administrators a standard way of stopping, starting and restarting the service. Ports integrate into the system rc.d framework. Details on its usage can be found in the rc.d Handbook chapter. Detailed explanation of the available commands is provided in rc(8) and rc.subr(8). Finally, there is an article on practical aspects of rc.d scripting.

One or more rc.d scripts can be installed:

USE_RC_SUBR=	doormand

Scripts must be placed in the files subdirectory and a .in suffix must be added to their filename. Standard SUB_LIST expansions will be used for this file. Use of the %%PREFIX%% and %%LOCALBASE%% expansions is strongly encouraged as well. More on SUB_LIST in the relevant section.

As of FreeBSD 6.1-RELEASE, local rc.d scripts (including those installed by ports) are included in the overall rcorder(8) of the base system.

Example simple rc.d script:

#!/bin/sh

# $FreeBSD$
#
# PROVIDE: doormand
# REQUIRE: LOGIN
# KEYWORD: shutdown
#
# Add the following lines to /etc/rc.conf.local or /etc/rc.conf
# to enable this service:
#
# doormand_enable (bool):	Set to NO by default.
#				Set it to YES to enable doormand.
# doormand_config (path):	Set to %%PREFIX%%/etc/doormand/doormand.cf
#				by default.

. /etc/rc.subr

name=doormand
rcvar=doormand_enable

load_rc_config $name

: ${doormand_enable:="NO"}
: ${doormand_config="%%PREFIX%%/etc/doormand/doormand.cf"}

command=%%PREFIX%%/sbin/${name}
pidfile=/var/run/${name}.pid

command_args="-p $pidfile -f $doormand_config"

run_rc_command "$1"

Unless there is a good reason to start the service earlier all ports scripts should use

REQUIRE: LOGIN

If the service runs as a particular user (other than root) this is mandatory.

KEYWORD: shutdown

is included in the script above because the mythical port we are using as an example starts a service, and should be shut down cleanly when the system shuts down. If the script is not starting a persistent service this is not necessary.

For optional configuration elements the "=" style of default variable assignment is preferable to the ":=" style here, since the former sets a default value only if the variable is unset, and the latter sets one if the variable is unset or null. A user might very well include something like

doormand_flags=""

in their rc.conf.local file, and a variable substitution using ":=" would inappropriately override the user's intention. The _enable variable is not optional, and should use the ":" for the default.

6.25.1. Pre-Commit Checklist

Before contributing a port with an rc.d script, and more importantly, before committing one, please consult the following checklist to be sure that it is ready.

The devel/rclint port can check for most of these, but it is not a substitute for proper review.

  1. If this is a new file, does it have .sh in the file name? If so that should be changed to just file.in since rc.d files may not end with that extension.

  2. Does the file have a $FreeBSD$ tag?

  3. Do the name of the file (minus .in), the PROVIDE line, and $name all match? The file name matching PROVIDE makes debugging easier, especially for rcorder(8) issues. Matching the file name and $name makes it easier to figure out which variables are relevant in rc.conf[.local]. The latter is also what you might call “policy” for all new scripts, including those in the base system.

  4. Is the REQUIRE line set to LOGIN? This is mandatory for scripts that run as a non-root user. If it runs as root, is there a good reason for it to run prior to LOGIN? If not, it should run there so that we can loosely group local scripts to a point in rcorder(8) after most everything in the base is already running.

  5. Does the script start a persistent service? If so, it should have KEYWORD: shutdown.

  6. Make sure there is no KEYWORD: FreeBSD present. This has not been necessary or desirable for years. It is also an indication that the new script was copy/pasted from an old script, so extra caution should be given to the review.

  7. If the script uses an interpreted language like perl, python, or ruby, make certain that command_interpreter is set appropriately, e.g., for Perl, by adding PERL=${PERL} to SUB_LIST and using %%PERL%%. Otherwise,

    # service name stop

    will probably not work properly. See service(8) for more information.

  8. Have all occurrences of /usr/local been replaced with %%PREFIX%%?

  9. Do the default variable assignments come after load_rc_config?

  10. Are there default assignments to empty strings? They should be removed, but double-check that the option is documented in the comments at the top of the file.

  11. Are things that are set in variables actually used in the script?

  12. Are options listed in the default name_flags things that are actually mandatory? If so, they should be in command_args. The -d option is a red flag (pardon the pun) here, since it is usually the option to “daemonize” the process, and therefore is actually mandatory.

  13. The name_flags variable should never be included in command_args (and vice versa, although that error is less common).

  14. Does the script execute any code unconditionally? This is frowned on. Usually these things can/should be dealt with through a start_precmd.

  15. All boolean tests should utilize the checkyesno function. No hand-rolled tests for [Yy][Ee][Ss], etc.

  16. If there is a loop (for example, waiting for something to start) does it have a counter to terminate the loop? We do not want the boot to be stuck forever if there is an error.

  17. Does the script create files or directories that need specific permissions, for example, a pid file that needs to be owned by the user that runs the process? Rather than the traditional touch(1)/chown(8)/chmod(1) routine, consider using install(1) with the proper command line arguments to do the whole procedure with one step.

6.26. Adding Users and Groups

Some ports require a certain user to be on the installed system. Choose a free UID from 50 to 999 and register it either in ports/UIDs (for users) or in ports/GIDs (for groups). Make sure you do not use a UID already used by the system or other ports.

Please include a patch against these two files when you require a new user or group to be created for your port.

Then you can use USERS and GROUPS variables in your Makefile, and the user will be automatically created when installing the port.

USERS=	pulse
GROUPS=	pulse pulse-access pulse-rt

The current list of reserved UIDs and GIDs can be found in ports/UIDs and ports/GIDs.

6.27. Ports That Rely on Kernel Sources

Some ports (such as kernel loadable modules) need the kernel source files so that the port can compile. Here is the correct way to determine if the user has them installed:

USES=	kmod

Apart from this check, the kmod feature takes care of most items that these ports need to take into account.

Chapter 7. Advanced pkg-plist Practices

7.1. Changing pkg-plist Based on Make Variables

Some ports, particularly the p5- ports, need to change their pkg-plist depending on what options they are configured with (or version of perl, in the case of p5- ports). To make this easy, any instances in the pkg-plist of %%OSREL%%, %%PERL_VER%%, and %%PERL_VERSION%% will be substituted for appropriately. The value of %%OSREL%% is the numeric revision of the operating system (e.g., 4.9). %%PERL_VERSION%% and %%PERL_VER%% is the full version number of perl (e.g., 5.8.9). Several other %%VARS%% related to port's documentation files are described in the relevant section.

If you need to make other substitutions, you can set the PLIST_SUB variable with a list of VAR=VALUE pairs and instances of %%VAR%% will be substituted with VALUE in the pkg-plist.

For instance, if you have a port that installs many files in a version-specific subdirectory, you can put something like

OCTAVE_VERSION=	2.0.13
PLIST_SUB=	OCTAVE_VERSION=${OCTAVE_VERSION}

in the Makefile and use %%OCTAVE_VERSION%% wherever the version shows up in pkg-plist. That way, when you upgrade the port, you will not have to change dozens (or in some cases, hundreds) of lines in the pkg-plist.

If your port installs files conditionally on the options set in the port, the usual way of handling it is prefixing the pkg-plist lines with a %%OPT%% for lines needed when the option is enabled, or %%NO_OPT%% when the option is disabled, and adding OPTIONS_SUB=yes to the Makefile. See Section 5.12.3.1, “OPTIONS_SUB for more information.

For instance, if there are files that are only installed when the X11 option is enabled, and the Makefile has:

OPTIONS_DEFINE=	X11
OPTIONS_SUB=	yes

In the pkg-plist file, put %%X11%% in front of the lines only being installed when the option is enabled, like this :

%%X11%%bin/foo-gui

This substitution will be done between the pre-install and do-install targets, by reading from PLIST and writing to TMPPLIST (default: WRKDIR/.PLIST.mktmp). So if your port builds PLIST on the fly, do so in or before pre-install. Also, if your port needs to edit the resulting file, do so in post-install to a file named TMPPLIST.

Another way of modifying a port's packing list is based on setting the variables PLIST_FILES, PLIST_DIRS, and PLIST_DIRSTRY. The value of each variable is regarded as a list of pathnames to write to TMPPLIST along with PLIST contents. Names listed in PLIST_FILES, PLIST_DIRS, and PLIST_DIRSTRY are subject to %%VAR%% substitution as described above. Except for that, names from PLIST_FILES will appear in the final packing list unchanged, while @dirrm and @dirrmtry will be prepended to names from PLIST_DIRS and PLIST_DIRSTRY, respectively. To take effect, PLIST_FILES, PLIST_DIRS, and PLIST_DIRSTRY must be set before TMPPLIST is written, i.e., in pre-install or earlier.

From time to time, the OPTIONS_SUB construct is not enough, in those cases, adding a specific TAG to the PLIST_SUB variable inside the Makefile with a special value of @comment, makes package tools to ignore the line. For instance, if some files are only installed when the X11 option is on and the architecture is i386:

.include <bsd.port.pre.mk>

.if ${PORT_OPTIONS:MX11} && ${ARCH} == "i386"
PLIST_SUB+=	X11I386=""
.else
PLIST_SUB+=	X11I386="@comment "
.endif

7.2. Empty Directories

7.2.1. Cleaning Up Empty Directories

When being de-installed, A port has to remove empty directories it created. This is usually accomplished by adding @dirrm lines for all directories that are specifically created by the port. You need to delete subdirectories before you can delete parent directories.

 :
lib/X11/oneko/pixmaps/cat.xpm
lib/X11/oneko/sounds/cat.au
 :
@dirrm lib/X11/oneko/pixmaps
@dirrm lib/X11/oneko/sounds
@dirrm lib/X11/oneko

However, sometimes @dirrm will give you errors because other ports share the same directory. You can use @dirrmtry to remove only empty directories without warning.

@dirrmtry share/doc/gimp

This will neither print any error messages nor cause pkg delete (see pkg-delete(8)) to exit abnormally even if ${PREFIX}/share/doc/gimp is not empty due to other ports installing some files in there.

7.2.2. Creating Empty Directories

Empty directories created during port installation need special attention. They will not get created when installing the package, because packages only store the files, and both pkg add and pkg install creates directories for them as needed. To make sure the empty directory is created when installing the package, add this line to pkg-plist above the corresponding @dirrm line:

@exec mkdir -p %D/share/foo/templates

7.3. Configuration Files

If your port installs configuration files to PREFIX/etc (or elsewhere) do not simply list them in the pkg-plist. That will cause pkg delete to remove the files carefully edited by the user, and a re-installation will wipe them out.

Instead, install sample file(s) as filename.sample, and for each sample file, add this line to your pkg-plist.

@sample etc/orbit.conf.sample

If there is a very good reason not to install a working configuration file by default, only list the sample filename in pkg-plist, without the @sample part, and add a message pointing out that the user must copy and edit the file before the software will work.

Tip:

When a port installs its configuration in a subdirectory of ${PREFIX}/etc, it should be in ETCDIR, which defaults to ${PREFIX}/etc/${PORTNAME}, it can be overridden in the ports Makefile if there is a convention for the port to use some other directory. The %%ETCDIR%% macro should be used in its stead in the pkg-plist file.

Note:

The sample configuration files should always have the .sample suffix. If for some historical reason you cannot use the standard suffix, you can still use this construct:

@unexec if cmp -s %D/etc/orbit.conf-dist %D/etc/orbit.conf; then rm -f %D/etc/orbit.conf; fi
etc/orbit.conf-dist
@exec if [ ! -f %D/etc/orbit.conf ] ; then cp -p %D/%F %B/orbit.conf; fi

The order of these lines is important. On deinstallation, the sample file is compared to the actual configuration file. If these files are identical, no changes have been made by the user and the actual file can be safely deleted. Because the sample file must still exist for the comparison, the @unexec line comes before the sample configuration file name. On installation, if an actual configuration file is not already present, the sample file is copied to the actual file. The sample file must be present before it can be copied, so the @exec line comes after the sample configuration file name.

To debug any issues, temporarily remove the -s flag to cmp(1) for more output.

See pkg-create(8) for more information on %D and related substitution markers.

7.4. Dynamic Versus Static Package List

A static package list is a package list which is available in the Ports Collection either as a pkg-plist file (with or without variable substitution), or embedded into the Makefile via PLIST_FILES, PLIST_DIRS, and PLIST_DIRSTRY. Even if the contents are auto-generated by a tool or a target in the Makefile before the inclusion into the Ports Collection by a committer (e.g., using make makeplist>), this is still considered a static list, since it is possible to examine it without having to download or compile the distfile.

A dynamic package list is a package list which is generated at the time the port is compiled based upon the files and directories which are installed. It is not possible to examine it before the source code of the ported application is downloaded and compiled, or after running a make clean.

While the use of dynamic package lists is not forbidden, maintainers should use static package lists wherever possible, as it enables users to grep(1) through available ports to discover, for example, which port installs a certain file. Dynamic lists should be primarily used for complex ports where the package list changes drastically based upon optional features of the port (and thus maintaining a static package list is infeasible), or ports which change the package list based upon the version of dependent software used (e.g., ports which generate docs with Javadoc).

7.5. Automated Package List Creation

First, make sure the port is almost complete, with only pkg-plist missing. Running make makeplist will show what should be put in pkg-plist. The output of makeplist must be double checked for correctness as it tries to automatically guess a few things, and can get it wrong.

User configuration files should be installed as filename.sample, as it is described in Section 7.3, “Configuration Files”. The info/dir file should not be listed and appropriate install-info lines should be added as noted in the info files section. Any libraries installed by the port should be listed as specified in the shared libraries section.

7.6. Expanding Package List with Keywords

7.6.1. @fc directory

Add a @dirrmtry entry for the directory passed as an argument, and run fc-cache -s on that directory after installation and deinstallation.

7.6.2. @fcfontsdir directory

Add a @dirrmtry entry for the directory passed as an argument, and run fc-cache -s, mkfontscale and mkfontdir on that directory after installation and deinstallation. Additionally, on deinstallation, it removes the fonts.scale and fonts.dir cache files if they are empty.

7.6.3. @fontsdir directory

Add a @dirrmtry entry for the directory passed as an argument, and run mkfontscale and mkfontdir on that directory after installation and deinstallation. Additionally, on deinstallation, it removes the fonts.scale and fonts.dir cache files if they are empty.

7.6.4. @info file

Add the file passed as argument to the plist, and updates the info document index on installation and deinstallation. Additionally, it removes the index if empty on deinstallation.

7.6.5. @sample file

Add the file passed as argument to the plist.

On installation, check for a real file with just the base name (the name without the .sample extension). If the real file is not found, copy the sample file to the base file name. On deinstallation, remove the configuration file if it has not been modified. See Section 7.3, “Configuration Files” for more information.

7.6.6. @shell file

Add the file passed as argument to the plist.

On installation, add the full path to file to /etc/shells, while making sure it is not added twice. On deinstallation, remove it from /etc/shells.

7.6.7. Base Keywords

There are a few historic keywords that are hardcoded, and documented in pkg-create(8). For the sake of completeness, they are also documented here.

7.6.7.1. @cwd [directory]

Set the internal directory pointer to point to directory. All subsequent filenames are assumed relative to this directory.

7.6.7.2. @exec command

Execute command as part of the unpacking process. If command contains any of the following sequences somewhere in it, they are expanded inline. For the following examples, assume that @cwd is set to /usr/local and the last extracted file was bin/emacs.

%F

Expand to the last filename extracted (as specified). In the example case bin/emacs.

%D

Expand to the current directory prefix, as set with @cwd. In the example case /usr/local.

%B

Expand to the basename of the fully qualified filename, that is, the current directory prefix plus the last filespec, minus the trailing filename. In the example case, that would be /usr/local/bin.

%f

Expand to the filename part of the fully qualified name, or the converse of %B. In the example case, emacs.

7.6.7.3. @unexec command

Execute command as part of the deinstallation process. Expansion of special % sequences is the same as for @exec. This command is not executed during the package add, as @exec is, but rather when the package is deleted. This is useful for deleting links and other ancillary files that were created as a result of adding the package, but not directly known to the package's table of contents (and hence not automatically removable).

7.6.7.4. @mode mode

Set default permission for all subsequently extracted files to mode. Format is the same as that used by chmod(1). Use without an arg to set back to default permissions (mode of the file while being packed).

7.6.7.5. @owner user

Set default ownership for all subsequent files to user. Use without an argument to set back to default ownership (root).

7.6.7.6. @group group

Set default group ownership for all subsequent files to group. Use without an arg to set back to default group ownership (wheel).

7.6.7.7. @comment string

This line is ignored when packing.

7.6.7.8. @dirrm directory

Declare directory name to be deleted at deinstall time. By default, directories created by a package installation are not deleted when the package is deinstalled. This provides an explicit directory cleanup method. These directives should appear at the end of the package list. If the directory is not empty a warning is printed, and the directory is not removed.

7.6.7.9. @dirrmtry directory

Declare directory name to be removed, as for @dirrm, but does not issue a warning if the directory cannot be removed.

7.6.8. Creating Your Own Keyword

Package list files can be extended by keywords that are defined in the ${PORTSDIR}/Keywords directory. The settings for each keyword lives in a YAML file named keyword.yaml. The file must contain at least one of the following sections:

attributes

Changes the owner, group, or mode used by the keyword. Contains an associative array where the possible keys are owner, group, and mode. The values are, respectively, a user name, a group name, and a file mode. For example:

attributes: { owner: "games", group: "games", mode: 0555 }
action

Defines what happens to the keyword's parameter. Contains an array where the possible values are:

setprefix

Set the prefix for the next plist entries.

dirrm

Register a directory to be deleted on deinstall.

dirrmtry

Register a directory to try and deleted on deinstall.

file

Register a file.

setmode

Set the mode for the next plist entries.

setowner

Set the owner for the next plist entries.

setgroup

Set the group for the next plist entries.

comment

Does not do anything, equivalent to not entering an action section.

ignore_next

Ignore the next entry in the plist.

pre-install, post-install, pre-deinstall, post-deinstall, pre-upgrade, post-upgrade

These keywords contains a sh(1) script to be executed before or after installation, deinstallation, or upgrade of the package. In addition to the usual @exec %foo placeholders described in Section 7.6.7.2, “@exec command, there is a new one, %@, which represents the argument of the keyword.

Example 7.1. Example of a @dirrmtryecho Keyword

This keyword does two things, it adds a @dirrmtry directory line to the packing list, and echoes the fact that the directory is removed when deinstalling the package.

actions: [dirrmtry]
post-deinstall: |
  echo "Directory %D/%@ removed."

Example 7.2. Real Life Example, How the @sample Could be Implemented

This keyword does three things, it adds the filename passed as an argument to @sample to the packing list, it adds to the post-install script instructions to copy the sample to the actual configuration file if it does not already exist, and it adds to the post-deinstall instructions to remove the configuration file if it has not been modified.

actions: [file]
post-install: |
  sample_file="%D/%@"
  target_file="${sample_file%.sample}"
  if ! [ -f "${target_file}" ]; then
    /bin/cp -p "${sample_file}" "${target_file}"
  fi
pre-deinstall: |
  sample_file="%D/%@"
  target_file="${sample_file%.sample}"
  if cmp -s "${target_file}" "${sample_file}"; then
    rm -f "${target_file}"
  fi

Chapter 8. The pkg-* Files

There are some tricks we have not mentioned yet about the pkg-* files that come in handy sometimes.

8.1. pkg-message

If you need to display a message to the installer, you may place the message in pkg-message. This capability is often useful to display additional installation steps to be taken after a pkg install or to display licensing information.

When some lines about the build-time knobs or warnings have to be displayed, use ECHO_MSG. The pkg-message file is only for post-installation steps. Likewise, the distinction between ECHO_MSG and ECHO_CMD should be kept in mind. The former is for printing informational text to the screen, while the latter is for command pipelining:

update-etc-shells:
	@${ECHO_MSG} "updating /etc/shells"
	@${CP} /etc/shells /etc/shells.bak
	@( ${GREP} -v ${PREFIX}/bin/bash /etc/shells.bak; \
		${ECHO_CMD} ${PREFIX}/bin/bash) >/etc/shells
	@${RM} /etc/shells.bak

Note:

The pkg-message file does not need to be added to pkg-plist.

8.2. pkg-install

If your port needs to execute commands when the binary package is installed with pkg add or pkg install you can do this via the pkg-install script. This script will automatically be added to the package, and will be run twice by pkg the first time as ${SH} pkg-install ${PKGNAME} PRE-INSTALL before the package is installed and the second time as ${SH} pkg-install ${PKGNAME} POST-INSTALL after it has been installed. $2 can be tested to determine which mode the script is being run in. The PKG_PREFIX environmental variable will be set to the package installation directory.

8.3. pkg-deinstall

This script executes when a package is removed.

This script will be run twice by pkg delete The first time as ${SH} pkg-deinstall ${PKGNAME} DEINSTALL before the port is de-installed and the second time as ${SH} pkg-deinstall ${PKGNAME} POST-DEINSTALL after the port has been de-installed. $2 can be tested to determine which mode the script is being run in. The PKG_PREFIX environmental variable will be set to the package installation directory

8.4. Changing the Names of pkg-* Files

All the names of pkg-* files are defined using variables so you can change them in your Makefile if need be. This is especially useful when you are sharing the same pkg-* files among several ports or have to write to one of the above files (see writing to places other than WRKDIR for why it is a bad idea to write directly into the pkg-* subdirectory).

Here is a list of variable names and their default values. (PKGDIR defaults to ${MASTERDIR}.)

VariableDefault value
DESCR${PKGDIR}/pkg-descr
PLIST${PKGDIR}/pkg-plist
PKGINSTALL${PKGDIR}/pkg-install
PKGDEINSTALL${PKGDIR}/pkg-deinstall
PKGMESSAGE${PKGDIR}/pkg-message

8.5. Making Use of SUB_FILES and SUB_LIST

The SUB_FILES and SUB_LIST variables are useful for dynamic values in port files, such as the installation PREFIX in pkg-message.

The SUB_FILES variable specifies a list of files to be automatically modified. Each file in the SUB_FILES list must have a corresponding file.in present in FILESDIR. A modified version will be created as ${WRKDIR}/file. Files defined as a value of USE_RC_SUBR (or the deprecated USE_RCORDER) are automatically added to the SUB_FILES. For the files pkg-message, pkg-install, and pkg-deinstall, the corresponding Makefile variable is automatically set to point to the processed version.

The SUB_LIST variable is a list of VAR=VALUE pairs. For each pair %%VAR%% will get replaced with VALUE in each file listed in SUB_FILES. Several common pairs are automatically defined: PREFIX, LOCALBASE, DATADIR, DOCSDIR, EXAMPLESDIR, WWWDIR, and ETCDIR. Any line beginning with @comment will be deleted from resulting files after a variable substitution.

The following example will replace %%ARCH%% with the system architecture in a pkg-message:

SUB_FILES=	pkg-message
SUB_LIST=	ARCH=${ARCH}

Note that for this example, the pkg-message.in file must exist in FILESDIR.

Example of a good pkg-message.in:

Now it is time to configure this package.
Copy %%PREFIX%%/share/examples/putsy/%%ARCH%%.conf into your home directory
as .putsy.conf and edit it.

Chapter 9. Testing the Port

9.1. Running make describe

Several of the FreeBSD port maintenance tools, such as portupgrade(1), rely on a database called /usr/ports/INDEX which keeps track of such items as port dependencies. INDEX is created by the top-level ports/Makefile via make index, which descends into each port subdirectory and executes make describe there. Thus, if make describe fails in any port, no one can generate INDEX, and many people will quickly become unhappy.

Note:

It is important to be able to generate this file no matter what options are present in make.conf, so please avoid doing things such as using .error statements when (for instance) a dependency is not satisfied. (See Section 12.15, “Avoid Use of the .error Construct”.)

If make describe produces a string rather than an error message, you are probably safe. See bsd.port.mk for the meaning of the string produced.

Also note that running a recent version of portlint (as specified in the next section) will cause make describe to be run automatically.

9.2. Portlint

Do check your work with portlint before you submit or commit it. portlint warns you about many common errors, both functional and stylistic. For a new (or repocopied) port, portlint -A is the most thorough; for an existing port, portlint -C is sufficient.

Since portlint uses heuristics to try to figure out errors, it can produce false positive warnings. In addition, occasionally something that is flagged as a problem really cannot be done in any other way due to limitations in the ports framework. When in doubt, the best thing to do is ask on FreeBSD ports mailing list.

9.3. Port Tools

The ports-mgmt/porttools program is part of the Ports Collection.

port is the front-end script, which can help you simplify the testing job. Whenever you want to test a new port or update an existing one, you can use port test to test your port, including the portlint checking. This command also detects and lists any files that are not listed in pkg-plist. See the following example:

# port test /usr/ports/net/csup

9.4. PREFIX and DESTDIR

PREFIX determines where the port will be installed. It defaults to /usr/local, but can be set by the user to a custom path like /opt. Your port must respect the value of this variable.

DESTDIR, if set by the user, determines the complete alternative environment, usually a jail or an installed system mounted somewhere other than /. A port will actually install into DESTDIR/PREFIX, and register with the package database in DESTDIR/var/db/pkg. As DESTDIR is handled automatically by the ports infrastructure with chroot(8), you do not need any modifications or any extra care to write DESTDIR-compliant ports.

The value of PREFIX will be set to LOCALBASE (defaulting to /usr/local). If USE_LINUX_PREFIX is set, PREFIX will be LINUXBASE (defaulting to /compat/linux).

Avoiding hard-coded /usr/local paths in the source makes the port much more flexible and able to cater to the needs of other sites. Often, this can be accomplished by simply replacing occurrences of /usr/local in the port's various Makefiles with ${PREFIX}. This variable is automatically passed down to every stage of the build and install processes.

Make sure your application is not installing things in /usr/local instead of PREFIX. A quick test for such hard-coded paths is:

# make clean; make package PREFIX=/var/tmp/`make -V PORTNAME`

If anything is installed outside of PREFIX, the package creation process will complain that it cannot find the files.

In addition, it is worth checking the same with the stage directory support (see Section 6.1, “Staging”):

# make stage && make check-orphans && make package

These tests will not find hard-coded paths inside the port's files, nor will it verify that LOCALBASE is being used to correctly refer to files from other ports. The temporarily-installed port in /var/tmp/`make -V PORTNAME` should be tested for proper operation to make sure there are no problems with paths.

PREFIX should not be set explicitly in a port's Makefile. Users installing the port may have set PREFIX to a custom location, and the port should respect that setting.

Refer to programs and files from other ports with the variables mentioned above, not explicit pathnames. For instance, if your port requires a macro PAGER to have the full pathname of less, do not use a literal path of /usr/local/bin/less. Instead, use ${LOCALBASE}:

-DPAGER=\"${LOCALBASE}/bin/less\"

The path with LOCALBASE is more likely to still work if the system administrator has moved the whole /usr/local tree somewhere else.

9.5. Tinderbox

If you are an avid ports contributor, you might want to take a look at Tinderbox. It is a powerful system for building and testing ports. You can install Tinderbox using ports-mgmt/tinderbox port. Be sure to read supplied documentation since the configuration is not trivial.

Visit the Tinderbox website for more details.

9.6. Poudriere

As a ports contributor, consider installing poudriere. It is a powerful system for building and testing ports. Poudriere can be installed with ports-mgmt/poudriere.

Visit the Poudriere website for more details.

Chapter 10. Upgrading a Port

When you notice that a port is out of date compared to the latest version from the original authors, you should first ensure that you have the latest port. You can find them in the ports/ports-current directory of the FreeBSD FTP mirror sites. However, if you are working with more than a few ports, you will probably find it easier to use Subversion or portsnap(8) to keep your whole ports collection up-to-date, as described in the Handbook. This will have the added benefit of tracking all the port's dependencies.

The next step is to see if there is an update already pending. To do this, you have two options. There is a searchable interface to the FreeBSD Problem Report (PR) database (also known as GNATS). Select ports in the dropdown, and enter the name of the port.

However, sometimes people forget to put the name of the port into the Synopsis field in an unambiguous fashion. In that case, you can try the FreeBSD Ports Monitoring System (also known as portsmon). This system attempts to classify port PRs by portname. To search for PRs about a particular port, use the Overview of One Port.

If there is no pending PR, the next step is to send an email to the port's maintainer, as shown by make maintainer. That person may already be working on an upgrade, or have a reason to not upgrade the port right now (because of, for example, stability problems of the new version); you would not want to duplicate their work. Note that unmaintained ports are listed with a maintainer of ports@FreeBSD.org, which is just the general ports mailing list, so sending mail there probably will not help in this case.

If the maintainer asks you to do the upgrade or there is no maintainer, then you have a chance to help out FreeBSD by preparing the update yourself! Please do this by using the diff(1) command in the base system.

To create a suitable diff for a single patch, copy the file that needs patching to something.orig, save your changes to something and then create your patch:

% diff -u something.orig something > something.diff

Otherwise, you should either use the svn diff method (Section 10.1, “Using Subversion to Make Patches”) or copy the contents of the port to an entire different directory and use the result of the recursive diff(1) output of the new and old ports directories (e.g., if your modified port directory is called superedit and the original is in our tree as superedit.bak, then save the result of diff -ruN superedit.bak superedit). Either unified or context diff is fine, but port committers generally prefer unified diffs. Note the use of the -N option—this is the accepted way to force diff to properly deal with the case of new files being added or old files being deleted. Before sending us the diff, please examine the output to make sure all the changes make sense. (In particular, make sure you first clean out the work directories with make clean).

To simplify common operations with patch files, you can use /usr/ports/Tools/scripts/patchtool.py. Before using it, please read /usr/ports/Tools/scripts/README.patchtool.

If the port is unmaintained, and you are actively using it yourself, please consider volunteering to become its maintainer. FreeBSD has over 4000 ports without maintainers, and this is an area where more volunteers are always needed. (For a detailed description of the responsibilities of maintainers, refer to the section in the Developer's Handbook.)

The best way to send us the diff is by including it via send-pr(1) (category ports). If you are maintaining the port, be sure to put [maintainer update] at the beginning of your synopsis line and set the Class of your PR to maintainer-update. Otherwise, the Class of your PR should be change-request. Please mention any added or deleted files in the message, as they have to be explicitly specified to svn(1) when doing a commit. If the diff is more than about 20KB, please compress and uuencode it; otherwise, just include it in the PR as is.

Before using send-pr(1), review the Writing the problem report section in the Problem Reports article. It contains far more information about how to write useful problem reports.

Important:

If the upgrade is motivated by security concerns or a serious fault in the currently committed port, please notify the Ports Management Team to request immediate rebuilding and redistribution of the port's package. Unsuspecting users of pkg will otherwise continue to install the old version via pkg install for several weeks.

Note:

Once again, please use diff(1) and not shar(1) to send updates to existing ports! This helps ports committers understand exactly what is being changed.

Now that you have done all that, read about how to keep up-to-date in Chapter 14, Keeping Up.

10.1. Using Subversion to Make Patches

When possible, please submit a svn(1) diff. They are easier to handle than diffs between new and old directories. It is easier to see what has changed, and to update the diff if something was modified in the Ports Collection since you began work on it, or if the committer asks for something to be fixed. Also, a patch generated with svn diff can be easily applied with svn patch and will save some time to the committer.

% cd ~/my_wrkdir 1
% svn co https://svn0.us-west.FreeBSD.org/ports/head/dns/pdnsd 2
% cd ~/my_wrkdir/pdnsd

1

This can be anywhere you want, of course; building ports is not limited to within /usr/ports/.

2

svn0.us-west.FreeBSD.org is a public Subversion server. Select the closest mirror and verify the mirror server certificate from the list of Subversion mirror sites.

While in the working directory, make any changes that you would usually make to the port. If you add, move or remove a file, use svn to track these changes:

% svn add new_file
% svn move old_name new_name
% svn remove deleted_file

Make sure that you check the port using the checklist in Section 3.4, “Testing the Port” and Section 3.5, “Checking the Port with portlint.

% svn status
% svn update 1

1

This will try to merge the differences between your patch and current repository version; watch the output carefully. The letter in front of each file name indicates what was done with it. See Table 10.1, “Subversion Update File Prefixes” for a complete list.

Table 10.1. Subversion Update File Prefixes
UThe file was updated without problems.
GThe file was updated without problems (you will only see this when working against a remote repository).
MThe file had been modified, and was merged without conflicts.
CThe file had been modified, and was merged with conflicts.

If C is displayed as a result of svn update, it means something changed in the Subversion repository and svn(1) was not able to merge the local changes with those from the repository. It is always a good idea to inspect the changes anyway, since svn(1) does not know anything about how a port should be, so it might (and probably will) merge things that do not make sense.

The last step is to make a unified diff(1) of the changes:

% svn diff > ../`basename ${PWD}`.diff

Note:

Any files that have been removed should be explicitly mentioned in the PR, because file removal may not be obvious to the committer.

Send your patch following the guidelines in Chapter 10, Upgrading a Port.

Tip:

You can have patch automatically generated and the PR pre-filled with your contact information by using the Port Tools port submit command. See Section 9.3, “Port Tools” for more details.

10.2. The Files UPDATING and MOVED

If upgrading the port requires special steps like changing configuration files or running a specific program, you should document this in the file /usr/ports/UPDATING. The format of an entry in this file is as follows:

YYYYMMDD:
  AFFECTS: users of portcategory/portname
  AUTHOR: Your name <Your email address>

  Special instructions

If you are including exact portmaster or portupgrading instructions, please make sure to get the shell escaping right.

Note:

It is recommended that the AFFECTS line contains a glob matching all the ports affected by the entry so that automated tools can parse it as easily as possible. If an update concerns all the existing BIND 9 versions the AFFECTS content should be users of dns/bind9*, it should not be users of BIND 9

The /usr/ports/MOVED file is used to list moved or removed ports. Each line in the file is made up of the name of the port, where the port was moved to, when, and why. If the port was removed, the section detailing where it was moved to can be left blank. Each section must be separated by the | (pipe) character, like so:

old name|new name (blank for deleted)|date of move|reason

The date should be entered in the form YYYY-MM-DD. New entries should be added to the top of the file to keep it in reverse chronological order (the latest entries first).

If a port was removed but has since been restored, delete the line in this file that states that it was removed.

If a port was renamed and then renamed back to its original name, you should add a new one with the intermediate name to the old name, and remove the old entry as to not create a loop.

The changes can be validated with Tools/scripts/MOVEDlint.awk.

Chapter 11. Security

11.1. Why Security is So Important

Bugs are occasionally introduced to the software. Arguably, the most dangerous of them are those opening security vulnerabilities. From the technical viewpoint, such vulnerabilities are to be closed by exterminating the bugs that caused them. However, the policies for handling mere bugs and security vulnerabilities are very different.

A typical small bug affects only those users who have enabled some combination of options triggering the bug. The developer will eventually release a patch followed by a new version of the software, free of the bug, but the majority of users will not take the trouble of upgrading immediately because the bug has never vexed them. A critical bug that may cause data loss represents a graver issue. Nevertheless, prudent users know that a lot of possible accidents, besides software bugs, are likely to lead to data loss, and so they make backups of important data; in addition, a critical bug will be discovered really soon.

A security vulnerability is all different. First, it may remain unnoticed for years because often it does not cause software malfunction. Second, a malicious party can use it to gain unauthorized access to a vulnerable system, to destroy or alter sensitive data; and in the worst case the user will not even notice the harm caused. Third, exposing a vulnerable system often assists attackers to break into other systems that could not be compromised otherwise. Therefore closing a vulnerability alone is not enough: the audience should be notified of it in most clear and comprehensive manner, which will allow to evaluate the danger and take appropriate actions.

11.2. Fixing Security Vulnerabilities

While on the subject of ports and packages, a security vulnerability may initially appear in the original distribution or in the port files. In the former case, the original software developer is likely to release a patch or a new version instantly, and you will only need to update the port promptly with respect to the author's fix. If the fix is delayed for some reason, you should either mark the port as FORBIDDEN or introduce a patch file of your own to the port. In the case of a vulnerable port, just fix the port as soon as possible. In either case, the standard procedure for submitting your change should be followed unless you have rights to commit it directly to the ports tree.

Important:

Being a ports committer is not enough to commit to an arbitrary port. Remember that ports usually have maintainers, whom you should respect.

Please make sure that the port's revision is bumped as soon as the vulnerability has been closed. That is how the users who upgrade installed packages on a regular basis will see they need to run an update. Besides, a new package will be built and distributed over FTP and WWW mirrors, replacing the vulnerable one. PORTREVISION should be bumped unless PORTVERSION has changed in the course of correcting the vulnerability. That is you should bump PORTREVISION if you have added a patch file to the port, but you should not if you have updated the port to the latest software version and thus already touched PORTVERSION. Please refer to the corresponding section for more information.

11.3. Keeping the Community Informed

11.3.1. The VuXML Database

A very important and urgent step to take as early after a security vulnerability is discovered as possible is to notify the community of port users about the jeopardy. Such notification serves two purposes. First, should the danger be really severe it will be wise to apply an instant workaround. E.g., stop the affected network service or even deinstall the port completely until the vulnerability is closed. Second, a lot of users tend to upgrade installed packages only occasionally. They will know from the notification that they must update the package without delay as soon as a corrected version is available.

Given the huge number of ports in the tree, a security advisory cannot be issued on each incident without creating a flood and losing the attention of the audience when it comes to really serious matters. Therefore security vulnerabilities found in ports are recorded in the FreeBSD VuXML database. The Security Officer Team members also monitor it for issues requiring their intervention.

If you have committer rights you can update the VuXML database by yourself. So you will both help the Security Officer Team and deliver the crucial information to the community earlier. However, if you are not a committer, or you believe you have found an exceptionally severe vulnerability please do not hesitate to contact the Security Officer Team directly as described on the FreeBSD Security Information page.

The VuXML database is an XML document. Its source file vuln.xml is kept right inside the port security/vuxml. Therefore the file's full pathname will be PORTSDIR/security/vuxml/vuln.xml. Each time you discover a security vulnerability in a port, please add an entry for it to that file. Until you are familiar with VuXML, the best thing you can do is to find an existing entry fitting your case, then copy it and use it as a template.

11.3.2. A Short Introduction to VuXML

The full-blown XML format is complex, and far beyond the scope of this book. However, to gain basic insight on the structure of a VuXML entry you need only the notion of tags. XML tag names are enclosed in angle brackets. Each opening <tag> must have a matching closing </tag>. Tags may be nested. If nesting, the inner tags must be closed before the outer ones. There is a hierarchy of tags, i.e., more complex rules of nesting them. This is similar to HTML. The major difference is that XML is eXtensible, i.e., based on defining custom tags. Due to its intrinsic structure XML puts otherwise amorphous data into shape. VuXML is particularly tailored to mark up descriptions of security vulnerabilities.

Now consider a realistic VuXML entry:

<vuln vid="f4bc80f4-da62-11d8-90ea-0004ac98a7b9"> 1
  <topic>Several vulnerabilities found in Foo</topic> 2
  <affects>
    <package>
      <name>foo</name> 3
      <name>foo-devel</name>
      <name>ja-foo</name>
      <range><ge>1.6</ge><lt>1.9</lt></range> 4
      <range><ge>2.*</ge><lt>2.4_1</lt></range>
      <range><eq>3.0b1</eq></range>
    </package>
    <package>
      <name>openfoo</name> 5
      <range><lt>1.10_7</lt></range> 6
      <range><ge>1.2,1</ge><lt>1.3_1,1</lt></range>
    </package>
  </affects>
  <description>
    <body xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
      <p>J. Random Hacker reports:</p> 7
      <blockquote
        cite="http://j.r.hacker.com/advisories/1">
        <p>Several issues in the Foo software may be exploited
          via carefully crafted QUUX requests.  These requests will
          permit the injection of Bar code, mumble theft, and the
          readability of the Foo administrator account.</p>
      </blockquote>
    </body>
  </description>
  <references> 8
    <freebsdsa>SA-10:75.foo</freebsdsa> 9
    <freebsdpr>ports/987654</freebsdpr> 10
    <cvename>CAN-2010-0201</cvename> 11
    <cvename>CAN-2010-0466</cvename>
    <bid>96298</bid> 12
    <certsa>CA-2010-99</certsa> 13
    <certvu>740169</certvu> 14
    <uscertsa>SA10-99A</uscertsa> 15
    <uscertta>SA10-99A</uscertta> 16
    <mlist msgid="201075606@hacker.com">http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=bugtraq&amp;m=203886607825605</mlist> 17
    <url>http://j.r.hacker.com/advisories/1</url> 18
  </references>
  <dates>
    <discovery>2010-05-25</discovery> 19
    <entry>2010-07-13</entry> 20
    <modified>2010-09-17</modified> 21
  </dates>
</vuln>

The tag names are supposed to be self-explanatory so we shall take a closer look only at fields you will need to fill in by yourself:

1

This is the top-level tag of a VuXML entry. It has a mandatory attribute, vid, specifying a universally unique identifier (UUID) for this entry (in quotes). You should generate a UUID for each new VuXML entry (and do not forget to substitute it for the template UUID unless you are writing the entry from scratch). You can use uuidgen(1) to generate a VuXML UUID.

2

This is a one-line description of the issue found.

3

The names of packages affected are listed there. Multiple names can be given since several packages may be based on a single master port or software product. This may include stable and development branches, localized versions, and slave ports featuring different choices of important build-time configuration options.

Important:

It is your responsibility to find all such related packages when writing a VuXML entry. Keep in mind that make search name=foo is your friend. The primary points to look for are as follows:

  • the foo-devel variant for a foo port;

  • other variants with a suffix like -a4 (for print-related packages), -without-gui (for packages with X support disabled), or similar;

  • jp-, ru-, zh-, and other possible localized variants in the corresponding national categories of the ports collection.

4

Affected versions of the package(s) are specified there as one or more ranges using a combination of <lt>, <le>, <eq>, <ge>, and <gt> elements. The version ranges given should not overlap.

In a range specification, * (asterisk) denotes the smallest version number. In particular, 2.* is less than 2.a. Therefore an asterisk may be used for a range to match all possible alpha, beta, and RC versions. For instance, <ge>2.*</ge><lt>3.*</lt> will selectively match every 2.x version while <ge>2.0</ge><lt>3.0</lt> will not since the latter misses 2.r3 and matches 3.b.

The above example specifies that affected are versions from 1.6 to 1.9 inclusive, versions 2.x before 2.4_1, and version 3.0b1.

5

Several related package groups (essentially, ports) can be listed in the <affected> section. This can be used if several software products (say FooBar, FreeBar and OpenBar) grow from the same code base and still share its bugs and vulnerabilities. Note the difference from listing multiple names within a single <package> section.

6

The version ranges should allow for PORTEPOCH and PORTREVISION if applicable. Please remember that according to the collation rules, a version with a non-zero PORTEPOCH is greater than any version without PORTEPOCH, e.g., 3.0,1 is greater than 3.1 or even than 8.9.

7

This is a summary of the issue. XHTML is used in this field. At least enclosing <p> and </p> should appear. More complex mark-up may be used, but only for the sake of accuracy and clarity: No eye candy please.

8

This section contains references to relevant documents. As many references as apply are encouraged.

9

This is a FreeBSD security advisory.

10

This is a FreeBSD problem report.

11

This is a MITRE CVE identifier.

12

This is a SecurityFocus Bug ID.

13

This is a US-CERT security advisory.

14

This is a US-CERT vulnerability note.

15

This is a US-CERT Cyber Security Alert.

16

This is a US-CERT Technical Cyber Security Alert.

17

This is a URL to an archived posting in a mailing list. The attribute msgid is optional and may specify the message ID of the posting.

18

This is a generic URL. It should be used only if none of the other reference categories apply.

19

This is the date when the issue was disclosed (YYYY-MM-DD).

20

This is the date when the entry was added (YYYY-MM-DD).

21

This is the date when any information in the entry was last modified (YYYY-MM-DD). New entries must not include this field. It should be added upon editing an existing entry.

11.3.3. Testing Your Changes to the VuXML Database

Assume you just wrote or filled in an entry for a vulnerability in the package clamav that has been fixed in version 0.65_7.

As a prerequisite, you need to install fresh versions of the ports ports-mgmt/portaudit, ports-mgmt/portaudit-db, and security/vuxml.

Note:

To run packaudit you must have permission to write to its DATABASEDIR, typically /var/db/portaudit.

To use a different directory set the DATABASEDIR environment variable to a different location.

If you are working in a directory other than ${PORTSDIR}/security/vuxml set the VUXMLDIR environment variable to the directory where vuln.xml is located.

First, check whether there already is an entry for this vulnerability. If there were such an entry, it would match the previous version of the package, 0.65_6:

% packaudit
% portaudit clamav-0.65_6

If there is none found, you have the green light to add a new entry for this vulnerability.

% cd ${PORTSDIR}/security/vuxml
% make newentry

When you are done verify its syntax and formatting.

% make validate

Note:

You will need at least one of the following packages installed: textproc/libxml2, textproc/jade.

Now rebuild the portaudit database from the VuXML file:

% packaudit

To verify that the <affected> section of your entry will match correct package(s), issue the following command:

% portaudit -f /usr/ports/INDEX -r uuid

Note:

Please refer to portaudit(1) for better understanding of the command syntax.

Make sure that your entry produces no spurious matches in the output.

Now check whether the right package versions are matched by your entry:

% portaudit clamav-0.65_6 clamav-0.65_7
Affected package: clamav-0.65_6 (matched by clamav<0.65_7)
Type of problem: clamav remote denial-of-service.
Reference: <http://www.freebsd.org/ports/portaudit/74a9541d-5d6c-11d8-80e3-0020ed76ef5a.html>

1 problem(s) found.

The former version should match while the latter one should not.

Finally, verify whether the web page generated from the VuXML database looks like expected:

% mkdir -p ~/public_html/portaudit
% packaudit
% lynx ~/public_html/portaudit/74a9541d-5d6c-11d8-80e3-0020ed76ef5a.html

Chapter 12. Dos and Don'ts

12.1. Introduction

Here is a list of common dos and don'ts that are encountered during the porting process. Check the port against this list, but also check ports in the PR database that others have submitted. Submit any comments on ports you check as described in Bug Reports and General Commentary. Checking ports in the PR database will both make it faster for us to commit them, and prove that you know what you are doing.

12.2. WRKDIR

Do not write anything to files outside WRKDIR. WRKDIR is the only place that is guaranteed to be writable during the port build (see installing ports from a CDROM for an example of building ports from a read-only tree). If you need to modify one of the pkg-* files, do so by redefining a variable, not by writing over it.

12.3. WRKDIRPREFIX

Make sure your port honors WRKDIRPREFIX. Most ports do not have to worry about this. In particular, if you are referring to a WRKDIR of another port, note that the correct location is WRKDIRPREFIXPORTSDIR/subdir/name/work not PORTSDIR/subdir/name/work or .CURDIR/../../subdir/name/work or some such.

Also, if you are defining WRKDIR yourself, make sure you prepend ${WRKDIRPREFIX}${.CURDIR} in the front.

12.4. Differentiating Operating Systems and OS Versions

You may come across code that needs modifications or conditional compilation based upon what version of FreeBSD Unix it is running under. The preferred way to tell FreeBSD versions apart are the __FreeBSD_version and __FreeBSD__ macros defined in sys/param.h. If this file is not included add the code,

#include <sys/param.h>

to the proper place in the .c file.

__FreeBSD__ is defined in all versions of FreeBSD as their major version number. For example, in FreeBSD 9.x, __FreeBSD__ is defined to be 9.

#if __FreeBSD__ >= 9
#  if __FreeBSD_version >= 901000
	 /* 9.1+ release specific code here */
#  endif
#endif

12.5. Writing Something After bsd.port.mk

Do not write anything after the .include <bsd.port.mk> line. It usually can be avoided by including bsd.port.pre.mk somewhere in the middle of your Makefile and bsd.port.post.mk at the end.

Note:

Include either the bsd.port.pre.mk/bsd.port.post.mk pair or bsd.port.mk only; do not mix these two usages.

bsd.port.pre.mk only defines a few variables, which can be used in tests in the Makefile, bsd.port.post.mk defines the rest.

Here are some important variables defined in bsd.port.pre.mk (this is not the complete list, please read bsd.port.mk for the complete list).

VariableDescription
ARCHThe architecture as returned by uname -m (e.g., i386)
OPSYSThe operating system type, as returned by uname -s (e.g., FreeBSD)
OSRELThe release version of the operating system (e.g., 2.1.5 or 2.2.7)
OSVERSIONThe numeric version of the operating system; the same as __FreeBSD_version.
LOCALBASEThe base of the local tree (e.g., /usr/local)
PREFIXWhere the port installs itself (see more on PREFIX).

Note:

If you have to define the variable MASTERDIR, do so before including bsd.port.pre.mk.

Here are some examples of things you can write after bsd.port.pre.mk:

# no need to compile lang/perl5 if perl5 is already in system
.if ${OSVERSION} > 300003
BROKEN=	perl is in system
.endif

You did remember to use tab instead of spaces after BROKEN= and :-).

12.6. Use the exec Statement in Wrapper Scripts

If the port installs a shell script whose purpose is to launch another program, and if launching that program is the last action performed by the script, make sure to launch the program using the exec statement, for instance:

#!/bin/sh
exec %%LOCALBASE%%/bin/java -jar %%DATADIR%%/foo.jar "$@"

The exec statement replaces the shell process with the specified program. If exec is omitted, the shell process remains in memory while the program is executing, and needlessly consumes system resources.

12.7. Do Things Rationally

The Makefile should do things simply and reasonably. If you can make it a couple of lines shorter or more readable, then do so. Examples include using a make .if construct instead of a shell if construct, not redefining do-extract if you can redefine EXTRACT* instead, and using GNU_CONFIGURE instead of CONFIGURE_ARGS += --prefix=${PREFIX}.

If you find yourself having to write a lot of new code to try to do something, please go back and review bsd.port.mk to see if it contains an existing implementation of what you are trying to do. While hard to read, there are a great many seemingly-hard problems for which bsd.port.mk already provides a shorthand solution.

12.8. Respect Both CC and CXX

The port must respect both CC and CXX variables. What we mean by this is that the port must not set the values of these variables absolutely, overriding existing values; instead, it may append whatever values it needs to the existing values. This is so that build options that affect all ports can be set globally.

If the port does not respect these variables, please add NO_PACKAGE=ignores either cc or cxx to the Makefile.

An example of a Makefile respecting both CC and CXX variables follows. Note the ?=:

CC?= gcc
CXX?= g++

Here is an example which respects neither CC nor CXX variables:

CC= gcc
CXX= g++

Both CC and CXX variables can be defined on FreeBSD systems in /etc/make.conf. The first example defines a value if it was not previously set in /etc/make.conf, preserving any system-wide definitions. The second example clobbers anything previously defined.

12.9. Respect CFLAGS

The port must respect the CFLAGS variable. What we mean by this is that the port must not set the value of this variable absolutely, overriding the existing value; instead, it may append whatever values it needs to the existing value. This is so that build options that affect all ports can be set globally.

If it does not, please add NO_PACKAGE=ignores cflags to the Makefile.

An example of a Makefile respecting the CFLAGS variable follows. Note the +=:

CFLAGS+= -Wall -Werror

Here is an example which does not respect the CFLAGS variable:

CFLAGS= -Wall -Werror

The CFLAGS variable is defined on FreeBSD systems in /etc/make.conf. The first example appends additional flags to the CFLAGS variable, preserving any system-wide definitions. The second example clobbers anything previously defined.

You should remove optimization flags from the third party Makefiles. System CFLAGS contains system-wide optimization flags. An example from an unmodified Makefile:

CFLAGS= -O3 -funroll-loops -DHAVE_SOUND

Using system optimization flags, the Makefile would look similar to the following example:

CFLAGS+= -DHAVE_SOUND

12.10. Threading Libraries

The threading library must be linked to the binaries using a special flag -pthread on FreeBSD. If a port insists on linking -lpthread directly, patch it to use -pthread.

Note:

If building the port errors out with unrecognized option '-pthread', it may be desirable to use cc as linker by setting CONFIGURE_ENV to LD=${CC}. The -pthread option is not supported by ld directly.

12.11. Feedback

Do send applicable changes/patches to the original author/maintainer for inclusion in next release of the code. This will only make your job that much easier for the next release.

12.12. README.html

README.html is not part of the port, but generated by make readme. Do not include this file in patches or commits.

Note:

If make readme fails, make sure that the default value of ECHO_MSG has not been modified by the port.

12.13. Marking a Port Not Installable with BROKEN, FORBIDDEN, or IGNORE

In certain cases users should be prevented from installing a port. To tell a user that a port should not be installed, there are several make variables that can be used in a port's Makefile. The value of the following make variables will be the reason that is given back to users for why the port refuses to install itself. Please use the correct make variable as each make variable conveys radically different meanings to both users, and to automated systems that depend on the Makefiles, such as the ports build cluster, FreshPorts, and portsmon.

12.13.1. Variables

  • BROKEN is reserved for ports that currently do not compile, install, deinstall, or run correctly. It should be used for ports where the problem is believed to be temporary.

    If instructed, the build cluster will still attempt to try to build them to see if the underlying problem has been resolved. (However, in general, the cluster is run without this.)

    For instance, use BROKEN when a port:

    • does not compile

    • fails its configuration or installation process

    • installs files outside of ${PREFIX}

    • does not remove all its files cleanly upon deinstall (however, it may be acceptable, and desirable, for the port to leave user-modified files behind)

    • has runtime issues on systems where it is supposed to run fine.

  • FORBIDDEN is used for ports that contain a security vulnerability or induce grave concern regarding the security of a FreeBSD system with a given port installed (e.g., a reputably insecure program or a program that provides easily exploitable services). Ports should be marked as FORBIDDEN as soon as a particular piece of software has a vulnerability and there is no released upgrade. Ideally ports should be upgraded as soon as possible when a security vulnerability is discovered so as to reduce the number of vulnerable FreeBSD hosts (we like being known for being secure), however sometimes there is a noticeable time gap between disclosure of a vulnerability and an updated release of the vulnerable software. Do not mark a port FORBIDDEN for any reason other than security.

  • IGNORE is reserved for ports that should not be built for some other reason. It should be used for ports where the problem is believed to be structural. The build cluster will not, under any circumstances, build ports marked as IGNORE. For instance, use IGNORE when a port:

    • does not work on the installed version of FreeBSD

    • has a distfile which may not be automatically fetched due to licensing restrictions

    • does not work with some other currently installed port (for instance, the port depends on www/apache20 but www/apache22 is installed)

    Note:

    If a port would conflict with a currently installed port (for example, if they install a file in the same place that performs a different function), use CONFLICTS instead. CONFLICTS will set IGNORE by itself.

  • If a port should be marked IGNORE only on certain architectures, there are two other convenience variables that will automatically set IGNORE for you: ONLY_FOR_ARCHS and NOT_FOR_ARCHS. Examples:

    ONLY_FOR_ARCHS=	i386 amd64
    NOT_FOR_ARCHS=	ia64 sparc64

    A custom IGNORE message can be set using ONLY_FOR_ARCHS_REASON and NOT_FOR_ARCHS_REASON. Per architecture entries are possible with ONLY_FOR_ARCHS_REASON_ARCH and NOT_FOR_ARCHS_REASON_ARCH.

  • If a port fetches i386 binaries and installs them, IA32_BINARY_PORT should be set. If this variable is set, it will be checked whether the /usr/lib32 directory is available for IA32 versions of libraries and whether the kernel has IA32 compatibility compiled in. If one of these two dependencies is not satisfied, IGNORE will be set automatically.

12.13.2. Implementation Notes

The strings should not be quoted. Also, the wording of the string should be somewhat different due to the way the information is shown to the user. Examples:

BROKEN=	fails to link with base -lcrypto
IGNORE=	unsupported on recent versions

resulting in the following output from make describe:

===>  foobar-0.1 is marked as broken: fails to link with base -lcrypto.
===>  foobar-0.1 is unsupported on recent versions.

12.14. Marking a Port for Removal with DEPRECATED or EXPIRATION_DATE

Do remember that BROKEN and FORBIDDEN are to be used as a temporary resort if a port is not working. Permanently broken ports should be removed from the tree entirely.

When it makes sense to do so, users can be warned about a pending port removal with DEPRECATED and EXPIRATION_DATE. The former is simply a string stating why the port is scheduled for removal; the latter is a string in ISO 8601 format (YYYY-MM-DD). Both will be shown to the user.

It is possible to set DEPRECATED without an EXPIRATION_DATE (for instance, recommending a newer version of the port), but the converse does not make any sense.

There is no set policy on how much notice to give. Current practice seems to be one month for security-related issues and two months for build issues. This also gives any interested committers a little time to fix the problems.

12.15. Avoid Use of the .error Construct

The correct way for a Makefile to signal that the port can not be installed due to some external factor (for instance, the user has specified an illegal combination of build options) is to set a non-blank value to IGNORE. This value will be formatted and shown to the user by make install.

It is a common mistake to use .error for this purpose. The problem with this is that many automated tools that work with the ports tree will fail in this situation. The most common occurrence of this is seen when trying to build /usr/ports/INDEX (see Section 9.1, “Running make describe). However, even more trivial commands such as make maintainer also fail in this scenario. This is not acceptable.

Example 12.1. How to Avoid Using .error

The first of the next two Makefile snippets will cause make index to fail, while the second one will not:

.error "option is not supported"
IGNORE=option is not supported

12.16. Usage of sysctl

The usage of sysctl is discouraged except in targets. This is because the evaluation of any makevars, such as used during make index, then has to run the command, further slowing down that process.

Usage of sysctl(8) should always be done with the SYSCTL variable, as it contains the fully qualified path and can be overridden, if one has such a special need.

12.17. Rerolling Distfiles

Sometimes the authors of software change the content of released distfiles without changing the file's name. You have to verify that the changes are official and have been performed by the author. It has happened in the past that the distfile was silently altered on the download servers with the intent to cause harm or compromise end user security.

Put the old distfile aside, download the new one, unpack them and compare the content with diff(1). If you see nothing suspicious, you can update distinfo. Be sure to summarize the differences in your PR or commit log, so that other people know that you have taken care to ensure that nothing bad has happened.

You might also want to contact the authors of the software and confirm the changes with them.

12.18. Avoiding Linuxisms

Do not use /proc if there are any other ways of getting the information, e.g., setprogname(argv[0]) in main() and then getprogname(3) if you want to know your name.

Do not rely on behaviour that is undocumented by POSIX.

Do not record timestamps in the critical path of the application if it also works without. Getting timestamps may be slow, depending on the accuracy of timestamps in the OS. If timestamps are really needed, determine how precise they have to be and use an API which is documented to just deliver the needed precision.

A number of simple syscalls (for example gettimeofday(2), getpid(2)) are much faster on Linux® than on any other operating system due to caching and the vsyscall performance optimizations. Do not rely on them being cheap in performance-critical applications. In general, try hard to avoid syscalls if possible.

Do not rely on Linux®-specific socket behaviour. In particular, default socket buffer sizes are different (call setsockopt(2) with SO_SNDBUF and SO_RCVBUF, and while Linux®'s send(2) blocks when the socket buffer is full, FreeBSD's will fail and set ENOBUFS in errno.

If relying on non-standard behaviour is required, encapsulate it properly into a generic API, do a check for the behaviour in the configure stage, and stop if it is missing.

Check the man pages to see if the function used is a POSIX interface (in the STANDARDS section of the man page).

Do not assume that /bin/sh is bash. Ensure that a command line passed to system(3) will work with a POSIX compliant shell.

A list of common bashisms is available here.

Check that headers are included in the POSIX or man page recommended way, e.g., sys/types.h is often forgotten, which is not as much of a problem for Linux® as it is for FreeBSD.

Compile threaded applications with -pthread, not -lpthread or variations thereof.

12.19. Miscellanea

The files pkg-descr and pkg-plist should each be double-checked. If you are reviewing a port and feel they can be worded better, do so.

Do not copy more copies of the GNU General Public License into our system, please.

Please be careful to note any legal issues! Do not let us illegally distribute software!

Chapter 13. A Sample Makefile

Here is a sample Makefile that you can use to create a new port. Make sure you remove all the extra comments (ones between brackets)!

It is recommended that you follow this format (ordering of variables, empty lines between sections, etc.). This format is designed so that the most important information is easy to locate. We recommend that you use portlint to check the Makefile.

[the header...just to make it easier for us to identify the ports.]
# Created by: Satoshi Asami <asami@FreeBSD.org>
[The optional Created by: line names the person who originally
created the port.  Note that the : is followed by a space
and not a tab character.
If this line is present, future maintainers should
not change or remove it except at the original author's request.]

# $FreeBSD$
[ ^^^^^^^^^ This will be automatically replaced with RCS ID string by SVN
when it is committed to our repository.  If upgrading a port, do not alter
this line back to "$FreeBSD$".  SVN deals with it automatically.]

[section to describe the port itself and the master site - PORTNAME
 and PORTVERSION are always first, followed by CATEGORIES,
 and then MASTER_SITES, which can be followed by MASTER_SITE_SUBDIR.
 PKGNAMEPREFIX and PKGNAMESUFFIX, if needed, will be after that.
 Then comes DISTNAME, EXTRACT_SUFX and/or DISTFILES, and then
 EXTRACT_ONLY, as necessary.]
PORTNAME=	xdvi
PORTVERSION=	18.2
CATEGORIES=	print
[do not forget the trailing slash ("/")!
 if you are not using MASTER_SITE_* macros]
MASTER_SITES=	${MASTER_SITE_XCONTRIB}
MASTER_SITE_SUBDIR=	applications
PKGNAMEPREFIX=	ja-
DISTNAME=	xdvi-pl18
[set this if the source is not in the standard ".tar.gz" form]
EXTRACT_SUFX=	.tar.Z

[section for distributed patches -- can be empty]
PATCH_SITES=	ftp://ftp.sra.co.jp/pub/X11/japanese/
PATCHFILES=	xdvi-18.patch1.gz xdvi-18.patch2.gz

[maintainer; *mandatory*!  This is the person who is volunteering to
 handle port updates, build breakages, and to whom a users can direct
 questions and bug reports.  To keep the quality of the Ports Collection
 as high as possible, we no longer accept new ports that are assigned to
 "ports@FreeBSD.org".]
MAINTAINER=	asami@FreeBSD.org
COMMENT=	DVI Previewer for the X Window System

[dependencies -- can be empty]
RUN_DEPENDS=	gs:${PORTSDIR}/print/ghostscript

[this section is for other standard bsd.port.mk variables that do not
 belong to any of the above]
[If it asks questions during configure, build, install...]
IS_INTERACTIVE=	yes
[If it extracts to a directory other than ${DISTNAME}...]
WRKSRC=		${WRKDIR}/xdvi-new
[If the distributed patches were not made relative to ${WRKSRC}, you
 may need to tweak this]
PATCH_DIST_STRIP=	-p1
[If it requires a "configure" script generated by GNU autoconf to be run]
GNU_CONFIGURE=	yes
[If it requires GNU make, not /usr/bin/make, to build...]
USES= gmake
[If it is an X application and requires "xmkmf -a" to be run...]
USES= imake
[et cetera.]

[non-standard variables to be used in the rules below]
MY_FAVORITE_RESPONSE=	"yeah, right"

[then the special rules, in the order they are called]
pre-fetch:
	i go fetch something, yeah

post-patch:
	i need to do something after patch, great

pre-install:
	and then some more stuff before installing, wow

[and then the epilogue]

.include <bsd.port.mk>

Chapter 14. Keeping Up

The FreeBSD Ports Collection is constantly changing. Here is some information on how to keep up.

14.1. FreshPorts

One of the easiest ways to learn about updates that have already been committed is by subscribing to FreshPorts. You can select multiple ports to monitor. Maintainers are strongly encouraged to subscribe, because they will receive notification of not only their own changes, but also any changes that any other FreeBSD committer has made. (These are often necessary to keep up with changes in the underlying ports framework—although it would be most polite to receive an advance heads-up from those committing such changes, sometimes this is overlooked or just simply impractical. Also, in some cases, the changes are very minor in nature. We expect everyone to use their best judgement in these cases.)

If you wish to use FreshPorts, all you need is an account. If your registered email address is @FreeBSD.org, you will see the opt-in link on the right hand side of the webpages. For those of you who already have a FreshPorts account, but are not using your @FreeBSD.org email address, just change your email to @FreeBSD.org, subscribe, then change it back again.

FreshPorts also has a sanity test feature which automatically tests each commit to the FreeBSD ports tree. If subscribed to this service, you will be notified of any errors which FreshPorts detects during sanity testing of your commits.

14.2. The Web Interface to the Source Repository

It is possible to browse the files in the source repository by using a web interface. Changes that affect the entire port system are now documented in the CHANGES file. Changes that affect individual ports are now documented in the UPDATING file. However, the definitive answer to any question is undoubtedly to read the source code of bsd.port.mk, and associated files.

14.3. The FreeBSD Ports Mailing List

If you maintain ports, you should consider following the FreeBSD ports mailing list. Important changes to the way ports work will be announced there, and then committed to CHANGES.

If this mailing list is too high volume you may consider following FreeBSD ports announce mailing list which is moderated and has no discussion.

14.4. The FreeBSD Port Building Cluster

One of the least-publicized strengths of FreeBSD is that an entire cluster of machines is dedicated to continually building the Ports Collection, for each of the major OS releases and for each Tier-1 architecture.

Individual ports are built unless they are specifically marked with IGNORE. Ports that are marked with BROKEN will still be attempted, to see if the underlying problem has been resolved. (This is done by passing TRYBROKEN to the port's Makefile.)

14.5. Portscout: the FreeBSD Ports Distfile Scanner

The build cluster is dedicated to building the latest release of each port with distfiles that have already been fetched. However, as the Internet continually changes, distfiles can quickly go missing. Portscout, the FreeBSD Ports distfile scanner, attempts to query every download site for every port to find out if each distfile is still available. Portscout can generate HTML reports and send emails about newly available ports to those who request them. Unless not otherwise subscribed, maintainers are asked to check periodically for changes, either by hand or using the RSS feed.

Portscout's first page gives the email address of the port maintainer, the number of ports the maintainer is responsible for, the number of those ports with new distfiles, and the percentage of those ports that are out-of-date. The search function allows for searching by email address for a specific maintainer, and for selecting whether or not only out-of-date ports should be shown.

Upon clicking on a maintainer's email address, a list of all of their ports is displayed, along with port category, current version number, whether or not there is a new version, when the port was last updated, and finally when it was last checked. A search function on this page allows the user to search for a specific port.

Clicking on a port name in the list displays the FreshPorts port information.

14.6. The FreeBSD Ports Monitoring System

Another handy resource is the FreeBSD Ports Monitoring System (also known as portsmon). This system comprises a database that processes information from several sources and allows it to be browsed via a web interface. Currently, the ports Problem Reports (PRs), the error logs from the build cluster, and individual files from the ports collection are used. In the future, this will be expanded to include the distfile survey, as well as other sources.

To get started, you can view all information about a particular port by using the Overview of One Port.

As of this writing, this is the only resource available that maps GNATS PR entries to portnames. (PR submitters do not always include the portname in their Synopsis, although we would prefer that they did.) So, portsmon is a good place to start if you want to find out whether an existing port has any PRs filed against it and/or any build errors; or, to find out if a new port that you may be thinking about creating has already been submitted.

Chapter 15. Values of USES

Table 15.1. Values of USES
FeatureArgumentsDescription
ada(none)Depends on an Ada-capable compiler, and sets CC accordingly.
bison(none), build, run, bothUses devel/bison By default, with no arguments or with the build argument, it implies bison is a build-time dependency, run implies a run-time dependency, and both implies both run-time and build-time dependencies.
charsetfix(none)Prevents the port from installing charset.alias. This should be installed only by converters/libiconv. CHARSETFIX_MAKEFILEIN can be set to a path relative to WRKSRC if charset.alias is not installed by WRKSRC/Makefile.in.
cmake(none), outsource, runUses CMake for configuring and building. With the outsource argument, an out-of-source build will be performed. With the run argument, a run-time dependency is registered. For more information see Section 6.4.4, “Using cmake.
compiler(none), c++0x, c++11-lang, c++11-lib, c11, openmp, nestedfct, featuresDetermines which compiler to use based on any given wishes. Use c++11-lang if the port needs a C++11-capable compiler, and c++11-lib if the port also needs a C++11-ready standard library. If the port needs a compiler understanding C++0X, C11, OpenMP, or nested functions, the corresponding parameters can be used. Use features to request a list of features supported by the default compiler. After including bsd.port.pre.mk the port can inspect the results using these variables:
  • COMPILER_TYPE: the default compiler on the system, either gcc or clang

  • ALT_COMPILER_TYPE: the alternative compiler on the system, either gcc or clang. Only set if two compilers are present in the base system.

  • COMPILER_VERSION: the first two digits of the version of the default compiler.

  • ALT_COMPILER_VERSION: the first two digits of the version of the alternative compiler, if present.

  • CHOSEN_COMPILER_TYPE: the chosen compiler, either gcc or clang

  • COMPILER_FEATURES: the features supported by the default compiler. It currently lists the C++ library.

cran(none), auto-plistUses the Comprehensive R Archive Network. Specify auto-plist to automatically generate pkg-plist.
desktop-file-utils(none)Uses update-desktop-database from devel/desktop-file-utils. An extra post-install step will be run without interfering with any post-install steps already in the port Makefile. Lines will be inserted into the plist to run update-desktop-database on package install or removal.
desthack(none)Changes the behavior of GNU configure to properly support DESTDIR in case the original software does not.
display(none), ARGSSet up a virtual display environment. If the environment variable DISPLAY is not set, then Xvfb is added as a build dependency, and CONFIGURE_ENV is extended with the port number of the currently running instance of Xvfb. The ARGS parameter defaults to install and controls the phase around which to start and stop the virtual display.
dos2unix(none)The port has files with line endings in DOS format which need to be converted. Three variables can be set to control which files will be converted. The default is to convert all files, including binaries. See Section 4.4.4, “Simple Automatic Replacements” for examples.
  • DOS2UNIX_REGEX: match file names based on a regular expression.

  • DOS2UNIX_FILES: match literal file names.

  • DOS2UNIX_GLOB: match file names based on a glob pattern.

fam(none), fam, gaminUses a File Alteration Monitor as a library dependency, either devel/fam or devel/gamin. End users can set WITH_FAM_SYSTEM to specify their preference.
fmake(none)Uses devel/fmake as a build-time dependency.
fortrangcc (default), ifortUses the Fortran compiler from either GNU or Intel.
fuse(none)The port will depend on the FUSE library and handle the dependency on the kernel module depending on the version of FreeBSD.
gettext(none), lib (default), build, runUses devel/gettext. By default, with no arguments or with the lib argument, implies a library dependency on libintl.so. build and run implies, respectively a build-time and a run-time dependency on xgettext.
gmake(none)Uses devel/gmake as a build-time dependency and sets up the environment to use gmake as the default make for the build.
gssapi(none), base (default), heimdal, mit, flags, bootstrap

Handle dependencies needed by consumers of the GSS-API. Only libraries that provide the Kerberos mechanism are available. By default, or set to base, the GSS-API library from the base system is used. Can also be set to heimdal to use security/heimdal, or mit to use security/krb5.

When the local Kerberos installation is not in LOCALBASE, set HEIMDAL_HOME (for heimdal) or KRB5_HOME (for krb5) to the location of the Kerberos installation.

These variables are exported for the ports to use:

  • GSSAPIBASEDIR

  • GSSAPICPPFLAGS

  • GSSAPIINCDIR

  • GSSAPILDFLAGS

  • GSSAPILIBDIR

  • GSSAPILIBS

  • GSSAPI_CONFIGURE_ARGS

The flags option can be given alongside base, heimdal, or mit to automatically add GSSAPICPPFLAGS, GSSAPILDFLAGS, and GSSAPILIBS to CFLAGS, LDFLAGS, and LDADD, respectively. For example, use base,flags.

The bootstrap option is a special prefix only for use by security/krb5 and security/heimdal. For example, use bootstrap,mit.

Example 15.1. Typical Use
OPTIONS_SINGLE=	GSSAPI
OPTIONS_SINGLE_GSSAPI=	GSSAPI_BASE GSSAPI_HEIMDAL GSSAPI_MIT GSSAPI_NONE

GSSAPI_BASE_USES=	gssapi
GSSAPI_BASE_CONFIGURE_ON=	--with-gssapi=${GSSAPIBASEDIR} ${GSSAPI_CONFIGURE_ARGS}
GSSAPI_HEIMDAL_USES=	gssapi:heimdal
GSSAPI_HEIMDAL_CONFIGURE_ON=	--with-gssapi=${GSSAPIBASEDIR} ${GSSAPI_CONFIGURE_ARGS}
GSSAPI_MIT_USES=	gssapi:mit
GSSAPI_MIT_CONFIGURE_ON=	--with-gssapi=${GSSAPIBASEDIR} ${GSSAPI_CONFIGURE_ARGS}
GSSAPI_NONE_CONFIGURE_ON=	--without-gssapi

iconv(none), lib, build, patchUses iconv functions, either from the port converters/libiconv as a build-time and run-time dependency, or from the base system on 10-CURRENT after a native iconv was committed in 254273. By default, with no arguments or with the lib argument, implies iconv with build-time and run-time dependencies. build implies a build-time dependency, and patch implies a patch-time dependency. For more information see Section 6.21, “Using iconv.
imake(none), env, notallUses devel/imake as build-time dependency. If the env argument is given, only setup the environment and do not define any target. If the notall argument is given does not pass -a to xmkmf.
kmod(none)Fills in the boilerplate for kernel module ports, currently:
  • Add kld to CATEGORIES.

  • Set SSP_UNSAFE.

  • Set IGNORE if the kernel sources are not found in SRC_BASE.

  • Define KMODDIR to /boot/modules by default, add it to PLIST_SUB and MAKE_ENV, and create it upon installation. If KMODDIR is set to /boot/kernel, it will be rewritten to /boot/modules. This prevents breaking packages when upgrading the kernel due to /boot/kernel being renamed to /boot/kernel.old in the process.

  • Handle cross-referencing kernel modules upon installation and deinstallation.

lha(none)Set EXTRACT_SUFX to .lzh
libtool(none)Patches libtool scripts. This should be added to all ports that use libtool.
lua(none), XY+, XY, build, runAdds a dependency on Lua. By default this is a library undependency, unless overridden by the build or run option. The default version is 5.2, unless set by the XY parameter (e.g., 51 or 52+).
makeself(none)Indicates that the distribution files are makeself archives and sets the appropriate dependencies.
mono(none)Adds a dependency on the Mono (currently only C#) framework by setting the appropriate dependencies.
motif(none)Uses x11-toolkits/open-motif as a library dependency. End users can set WANT_LESSTIF for the dependency to be on x11-toolkits/lesstif instead of x11-toolkits/open-motif.
ncurses(none), base, portUses ncurses, and causes some useful variables to be set.
ninja(none)Uses ninja to build the port. End users can set NINJA_VERBOSE for verbose output.
openalal, soft (default), si, alutUses OpenAL. The backend can be specified, with the software implementation as the default. The user can specify a preferred backend with the WANT_OPENAL knob. Valid values for this knob are soft (default) and si.
pathfix(none)Look for the Makefile.in and configure files in the port's associated sources and fix common paths to make sure they respect the FreeBSD hierarchy.
perl5(none)Depends on Perl. These variables can be set:
  • PERL_VERSION: Full version of Perl to use, or the default if not set

  • PERL_ARCH: Directory name of architecture dependent libraries, defaults to mach

  • PERL_PORT: Name of the Perl port to be installed, the default is derived from PERL_VERSION

  • SITE_PERL: Directory name for site specific Perl packages

  • USE_PERL5: Phases in which to use Perl, can be extract, patch, build, install, or run. It can also be configure, modbuild, or modbuildtiny when Makefile.PL, Build.PL, or the Module::Build::Tiny flavor of Build.PL is required. If there is a .packlist referencing ${STAGEDIR}, then fixpacklist should be used to patch it. It defaults to build run.

pgsql(none), X.Y, X.Y+, X.Y-

Provide support for PostgreSQL. Maintainer can set version required. Minimum and maximum versions can be specified; e.g., 9.0-, 8.4+.

Add PostgreSQL component dependency, using WANT_PGSQL=component[:target]. e.g., WANT_PGSQL=server:configure pltcl plperl For the full list use make -V _USE_PGSQL_DEP.

pkgconfig(none), build (default), run, bothUses devel/pkgconf. With no arguments or with the build argument, it implies pkg-config as a build-time dependency. run implies a run-time dependency and both implies both run-time and build-time dependencies.
pure(none), ffiUses lang/pure. Largely used for building related pure ports. With the ffi argument, it implies devel/pure-ffi as a run-time dependency.
qmail(none), build, run, both, varsUses mail/qmail. With the build argument, it implies qmail as a build-time dependency. run implies a run-time dependency. Using no argument or the both argument implies both run-time and build-time dependencies. vars will only set QMAIL variables for the port to use.
qmake(none), norecursive, outsourceUses QMake for configuring. For more information see Section 6.10.3, “Using qmake.
readline(none), portUses readline as library dependency, and sets CPPFLAGS and LDFLAGS as necessary. If the port argument is used, force the use of devel/readline
scons(none)Provide support for the use of devel/scons
shared-mime-info(none)Uses update-mime-database from misc/shared-mime-info. This uses will automatically add a post-install step in such a way that the port itself still can specify there own post-install step if needed. It also insert lines into the plist for package install and removal to run update-mime-data with the correct arguments.
shebangfix(none)A lot of software uses incorrect locations for script interpreters, most notably /usr/bin/perl and /bin/bash. This fixes shebang lines in scripts listed in SHEBANG_FILES. Currently Perl, Python, Bash, Ruby, and PHP are supported by default. To support another interpreter, set SHEBANG_LANG (for example SHEBANG_LANG=lua), then lua_OLD_CMD and lua_CMD.
tar(none), Z, bzip2, lzma, tbz, tgz, xzSet EXTRACT_SUFX to .tar, .tar.Z, .tar.bz2, .tar.lzma, .tbz, .tgz or .tar.xz respectively.
tclPORTAdd a dependency on Tcl. The PORT parameter can be either tcl or tk. Either a version or wrapper dependency can be appended using PORT:version or PORT:wrapper. The version can be empty, one or more exact version numbers (currently 84, 85, or 86), or a minimal version number (currently 84+, 85+ or 86+). A build- or run-time only dependency can be specified using PORT,build or PORT,run. After including bsd.port.pre.mk the port can inspect the results using these variables:
  • TCL_VER: chosen major.minor version of Tcl

  • TCLSH: full path of the Tcl interpreter

  • TCL_LIBDIR: path of the Tcl libraries

  • TCL_INCLUDEDIR: path of the Tcl C header files

  • TK_VER: chosen major.minor version of Tk

  • WISH: full path of the Tk interpreter

  • TK_LIBDIR: path of the Tk libraries

  • TK_INCLUDEDIR: path of the Tk C header files

tkSame as arguments for tclSmall wrapper when using both Tcl and Tk. The same variables are returned as when using Tcl.
twisted(none), ARGSAdd a dependency on twistedCore. The list of required components can be specified as a value of this variable. ARGS can be one of:
  • build: add twistedCore or any specified component as build dependency.

  • run: add twistedCore or any specified component as run dependency.

Besides build and run, one or more other supported twisted components can be specified. Supported values are listed in Uses/twisted.mk.
uidfix(none)Changes some default behavior (mostly variables) of the build system to allow installing this port as a normal user. Try this in your port before adding NEED_ROOT=yes
uniquefiles(none), dirsMake files or directories 'unique', by adding a prefix or suffix. If the dirs argument is used, the port needs a prefix (a only a prefix) based on UNIQUE_PREFIX for standard directories DOCSDIR, EXAMPLESDIR, DATADIR, WWWDIR, ETCDIR. The following variables are available for ports:
  • UNIQUE_PREFIX: The prefix to be used for directories and files. Default: ${PKGNAMEPREFIX}.

  • UNIQUE_PREFIX_FILES: A list of files that need to be prefixed. Default: empty.

  • UNIQUE_SUFFIX: The suffix to be used for files. Default: ${PKGNAMESUFFIX}.

  • UNIQUE_SUFFIX_FILES: A list of files that need to be suffixed. Default: empty.

webplugin(none), ARGSAutomatically create and remove symbolic links for each application that supports the webplugin framework. ARGS can be one of:
  • gecko: support plug-ins based on Gecko

  • native: support plug-ins for Gecko, Opera, and WebKit-GTK

  • linux: support Linux plug-ins

  • all (default, implicit): support all plug-in types

  • (individual entries): support only the browsers listed

These variables can be adjusted:
  • WEBPLUGIN_FILES: No default, must be set manually. The plug-in files to install.

  • WEBPLUGIN_DIR: The directory to install the plug-in files to, default PREFIX/lib/browser_plugins/WEBPLUGIN_NAME. Set this if the port installs plug-in files outside of the default directory to prevent broken symbolic links.

  • WEBPLUGIN_NAME: The final directory to install the plug-in files into, default PKGBASE.

zenoss(none)Uses net-mgmt/zenoss. Largely used for building zenoss related zenpack ports.
zip(none), infozipIndicates that the distribution files use the ZIP compression algorithm. For files using the InfoZip algorithm the infozip argument must be passed to set the appropriate dependencies.
zope(none)Uses www/zope. Mostly used for building zope related ports. ZOPE_VERSION can be used by a port to indicate that a specific version of zope shall be used.

Chapter 16. __FreeBSD_version Values

Here is a convenient list of __FreeBSD_version values as defined in sys/param.h:

Table 16.1. __FreeBSD_version Values
ValueDateRelease
119411 2.0-RELEASE
199501, 199503March 19, 19952.1-CURRENT
199504April 9, 19952.0.5-RELEASE
199508August 26, 19952.2-CURRENT before 2.1
199511November 10, 19952.1.0-RELEASE
199512November 10, 19952.2-CURRENT before 2.1.5
199607July 10, 19962.1.5-RELEASE
199608July 12, 19962.2-CURRENT before 2.1.6
199612November 15, 19962.1.6-RELEASE
199612 2.1.7-RELEASE
220000February 19, 19972.2-RELEASE
(not changed) 2.2.1-RELEASE
(not changed) 2.2-STABLE after 2.2.1-RELEASE
221001April 15, 19972.2-STABLE after texinfo-3.9
221002April 30, 19972.2-STABLE after top
222000May 16, 19972.2.2-RELEASE
222001May 19, 19972.2-STABLE after 2.2.2-RELEASE
225000October 2, 19972.2.5-RELEASE
225001November 20, 19972.2-STABLE after 2.2.5-RELEASE
225002December 27, 19972.2-STABLE after ldconfig -R merge
226000March 24, 19982.2.6-RELEASE
227000July 21, 19982.2.7-RELEASE
227001July 21, 19982.2-STABLE after 2.2.7-RELEASE
227002September 19, 19982.2-STABLE after semctl(2) change
228000November 29, 19982.2.8-RELEASE
228001November 29, 19982.2-STABLE after 2.2.8-RELEASE
300000February 19, 19963.0-CURRENT before mount(2) change
300001September 24, 19973.0-CURRENT after mount(2) change
300002June 2, 19983.0-CURRENT after semctl(2) change
300003June 7, 19983.0-CURRENT after ioctl arg changes
300004September 3, 19983.0-CURRENT after ELF conversion
300005October 16, 19983.0-RELEASE
300006October 16, 19983.0-CURRENT after 3.0-RELEASE
300007January 22, 19993.0-STABLE after 3/4 branch
310000February 9, 19993.1-RELEASE
310001March 27, 19993.1-STABLE after 3.1-RELEASE
310002April 14, 19993.1-STABLE after C++ constructor/destructor order change
320000 3.2-RELEASE
320001May 8, 19993.2-STABLE
320002August 29, 19993.2-STABLE after binary-incompatible IPFW and socket changes
330000September 2, 19993.3-RELEASE
330001September 16, 19993.3-STABLE
330002November 24, 19993.3-STABLE after adding mkstemp(3) to libc
340000December 5, 19993.4-RELEASE
340001December 17, 19993.4-STABLE
350000June 20, 20003.5-RELEASE
350001July 12, 20003.5-STABLE
400000January 22, 19994.0-CURRENT after 3.4 branch
400001February 20, 19994.0-CURRENT after change in dynamic linker handling
400002March 13, 19994.0-CURRENT after C++ constructor/destructor order change
400003March 27, 19994.0-CURRENT after functioning dladdr(3)
400004April 5, 19994.0-CURRENT after __deregister_frame_info dynamic linker bug fix (also 4.0-CURRENT after EGCS 1.1.2 integration)
400005April 27, 19994.0-CURRENT after suser(9) API change (also 4.0-CURRENT after newbus)
400006May 31, 19994.0-CURRENT after cdevsw registration change
400007June 17, 19994.0-CURRENT after the addition of so_cred for socket level credentials
400008June 20, 19994.0-CURRENT after the addition of a poll syscall wrapper to libc_r
400009July 20, 19994.0-CURRENT after the change of the kernel's dev_t type to struct specinfo pointer
400010September 25, 19994.0-CURRENT after fixing a hole in jail(2)
400011September 29, 19994.0-CURRENT after the sigset_t datatype change
400012November 15, 19994.0-CURRENT after the cutover to the GCC 2.95.2 compiler
400013December 4, 19994.0-CURRENT after adding pluggable linux-mode ioctl handlers
400014January 18, 20004.0-CURRENT after importing OpenSSL
400015January 27, 20004.0-CURRENT after the C++ ABI change in GCC 2.95.2 from -fvtable-thunks to -fno-vtable-thunks by default
400016February 27, 20004.0-CURRENT after importing OpenSSH
400017March 13, 20004.0-RELEASE
400018March 17, 20004.0-STABLE after 4.0-RELEASE
400019May 5, 20004.0-STABLE after the introduction of delayed checksums.
400020June 4, 20004.0-STABLE after merging libxpg4 code into libc.
400021July 8, 20004.0-STABLE after upgrading Binutils to 2.10.0, ELF branding changes, and tcsh in the base system.
410000July 14, 20004.1-RELEASE
410001July 29, 20004.1-STABLE after 4.1-RELEASE
410002September 16, 20004.1-STABLE after setproctitle(3) moved from libutil to libc.
411000September 25, 20004.1.1-RELEASE
411001 4.1.1-STABLE after 4.1.1-RELEASE
420000October 31, 20004.2-RELEASE
420001January 10, 20014.2-STABLE after combining libgcc.a and libgcc_r.a, and associated GCC linkage changes.
430000March 6, 20014.3-RELEASE
430001May 18, 20014.3-STABLE after wint_t introduction.
430002July 22, 20014.3-STABLE after PCI powerstate API merge.
440000August 1, 20014.4-RELEASE
440001October 23, 20014.4-STABLE after d_thread_t introduction.
440002November 4, 20014.4-STABLE after mount structure changes (affects filesystem klds).
440003December 18, 20014.4-STABLE after the userland components of smbfs were imported.
450000December 20, 20014.5-RELEASE
450001February 24, 20024.5-STABLE after the usb structure element rename.
450004April 16, 20024.5-STABLE after the sendmail_enable rc.conf(5) variable was made to take the value NONE.
450005April 27, 20024.5-STABLE after moving to XFree86 4 by default for package builds.
450006May 1, 20024.5-STABLE after accept filtering was fixed so that is no longer susceptible to an easy DoS.
460000June 21, 20024.6-RELEASE
460001June 21, 20024.6-STABLE sendfile(2) fixed to comply with documentation, not to count any headers sent against the amount of data to be sent from the file.
460002July 19, 20024.6.2-RELEASE
460100June 26, 20024.6-STABLE
460101June 26, 20024.6-STABLE after MFC of `sed -i'.
460102September 1, 20024.6-STABLE after MFC of many new pkg_install features from the HEAD.
470000October 8, 20024.7-RELEASE
470100October 9, 20024.7-STABLE
470101November 10, 2002Start generated __std{in,out,err}p references rather than __sF. This changes std{in,out,err} from a compile time expression to a runtime one.
470102January 23, 20034.7-STABLE after MFC of mbuf changes to replace m_aux mbufs by m_tag's
470103February 14, 20034.7-STABLE gets OpenSSL 0.9.7
480000March 30, 20034.8-RELEASE
480100April 5, 20034.8-STABLE
480101May 22, 20034.8-STABLE after realpath(3) has been made thread-safe
480102August 10, 20034.8-STABLE 3ware API changes to twe.
490000October 27, 20034.9-RELEASE
490100October 27, 20034.9-STABLE
490101January 8, 20044.9-STABLE after e_sid was added to struct kinfo_eproc.
490102February 4, 20044.9-STABLE after MFC of libmap functionality for rtld.
491000May 25, 20044.10-RELEASE
491100June 1, 20044.10-STABLE
491101August 11, 20044.10-STABLE after MFC of revision 20040629 of the package tools
491102November 16, 20044.10-STABLE after VM fix dealing with unwiring of fictitious pages
492000December 17, 20044.11-RELEASE
492100December 17, 20044.11-STABLE
492101April 18, 20064.11-STABLE after adding libdata/ldconfig directories to mtree files.
500000March 13, 20005.0-CURRENT
500001April 18, 20005.0-CURRENT after adding addition ELF header fields, and changing our ELF binary branding method.
500002May 2, 20005.0-CURRENT after kld metadata changes.
500003May 18, 20005.0-CURRENT after buf/bio changes.
500004May 26, 20005.0-CURRENT after binutils upgrade.
500005June 3, 20005.0-CURRENT after merging libxpg4 code into libc and after TASKQ interface introduction.
500006June 10, 20005.0-CURRENT after the addition of AGP interfaces.
500007June 29, 20005.0-CURRENT after Perl upgrade to 5.6.0
500008July 7, 20005.0-CURRENT after the update of KAME code to 2000/07 sources.
500009July 14, 20005.0-CURRENT after ether_ifattach() and ether_ifdetach() changes.
500010July 16, 20005.0-CURRENT after changing mtree defaults back to original variant, adding -L to follow symlinks.
500011July 18, 20005.0-CURRENT after kqueue API changed.
500012September 2, 20005.0-CURRENT after setproctitle(3) moved from libutil to libc.
500013September 10, 20005.0-CURRENT after the first SMPng commit.
500014January 4, 20015.0-CURRENT after <sys/select.h> moved to <sys/selinfo.h>.
500015January 10, 20015.0-CURRENT after combining libgcc.a and libgcc_r.a, and associated GCC linkage changes.
500016January 24, 20015.0-CURRENT after change allowing libc and libc_r to be linked together, deprecating -pthread option.
500017February 18, 20015.0-CURRENT after switch from struct ucred to struct xucred to stabilize kernel-exported API for mountd et al.
500018February 24, 20015.0-CURRENT after addition of CPUTYPE make variable for controlling CPU-specific optimizations.
500019June 9, 20015.0-CURRENT after moving machine/ioctl_fd.h to sys/fdcio.h
500020June 15, 20015.0-CURRENT after locale names renaming.
500021June 22, 20015.0-CURRENT after Bzip2 import. Also signifies removal of S/Key.
500022July 12, 20015.0-CURRENT after SSE support.
500023September 14, 20015.0-CURRENT after KSE Milestone 2.
500024October 1, 20015.0-CURRENT after d_thread_t, and moving UUCP to ports.
500025October 4, 20015.0-CURRENT after ABI change for descriptor and creds passing on 64 bit platforms.
500026October 9, 20015.0-CURRENT after moving to XFree86 4 by default for package builds, and after the new libc strnstr() function was added.
500027October 10, 20015.0-CURRENT after the new libc strcasestr() function was added.
500028December 14, 20015.0-CURRENT after the userland components of smbfs were imported.
(not changed) 5.0-CURRENT after the new C99 specific-width integer types were added.
500029January 29, 20025.0-CURRENT after a change was made in the return value of sendfile(2).
500030February 15, 20025.0-CURRENT after the introduction of the type fflags_t, which is the appropriate size for file flags.
500031February 24, 20025.0-CURRENT after the usb structure element rename.
500032March 16, 20025.0-CURRENT after the introduction of Perl 5.6.1.
500033April 3, 20025.0-CURRENT after the sendmail_enable rc.conf(5) variable was made to take the value NONE.
500034April 30, 20025.0-CURRENT after mtx_init() grew a third argument.
500035May 13, 20025.0-CURRENT with Gcc 3.1.
500036May 17, 20025.0-CURRENT without Perl in /usr/src
500037May 29, 20025.0-CURRENT after the addition of dlfunc(3)
500038July 24, 20025.0-CURRENT after the types of some struct sockbuf members were changed and the structure was reordered.
500039September 1, 20025.0-CURRENT after GCC 3.2.1 import. Also after headers stopped using _BSD_FOO_T_ and started using _FOO_T_DECLARED. This value can also be used as a conservative estimate of the start of bzip2(1) package support.
500040September 20, 20025.0-CURRENT after various changes to disk functions were made in the name of removing dependency on disklabel structure internals.
500041October 1, 20025.0-CURRENT after the addition of getopt_long(3) to libc.
500042October 15, 20025.0-CURRENT after Binutils 2.13 upgrade, which included new FreeBSD emulation, vec, and output format.
500043November 1, 20025.0-CURRENT after adding weak pthread_XXX stubs to libc, obsoleting libXThrStub.so. 5.0-RELEASE.
500100January 17, 20035.0-CURRENT after branching for RELENG_5_0
500101February 19, 2003<sys/dkstat.h> is empty and should not be included.
500102February 25, 20035.0-CURRENT after the d_mmap_t interface change.
500103February 26, 20035.0-CURRENT after taskqueue_swi changed to run without Giant, and taskqueue_swi_giant added to run with Giant.
500104February 27, 2003cdevsw_add() and cdevsw_remove() no longer exists. Appearance of MAJOR_AUTO allocation facility.
500105March 4, 20035.0-CURRENT after new cdevsw initialization method.
500106March 8, 2003devstat_add_entry() has been replaced by devstat_new_entry()
500107March 15, 2003Devstat interface change; see sys/sys/param.h 1.149
500108March 15, 2003Token-Ring interface changes.
500109March 25, 2003Addition of vm_paddr_t.
500110March 28, 20035.0-CURRENT after realpath(3) has been made thread-safe
500111April 9, 20035.0-CURRENT after usbhid(3) has been synced with NetBSD
500112April 17, 20035.0-CURRENT after new NSS implementation and addition of POSIX.1 getpw*_r, getgr*_r functions
500113May 2, 20035.0-CURRENT after removal of the old rc system.
501000June 4, 20035.1-RELEASE.
501100June 2, 20035.1-CURRENT after branching for RELENG_5_1.
501101June 29, 20035.1-CURRENT after correcting the semantics of sigtimedwait(2) and sigwaitinfo(2).
501102July 3, 20035.1-CURRENT after adding the lockfunc and lockfuncarg fields to bus_dma_tag_create(9).
501103July 31, 20035.1-CURRENT after GCC 3.3.1-pre 20030711 snapshot integration.
501104August 5, 20035.1-CURRENT 3ware API changes to twe.
501105August 17, 20035.1-CURRENT dynamically-linked /bin and /sbin support and movement of libraries to /lib.
501106September 8, 20035.1-CURRENT after adding kernel support for Coda 6.x.
501107September 17, 20035.1-CURRENT after 16550 UART constants moved from <dev/sio/sioreg.h> to <dev/ic/ns16550.h>. Also when libmap functionality was unconditionally supported by rtld.
501108September 23, 20035.1-CURRENT after PFIL_HOOKS API update
501109September 27, 20035.1-CURRENT after adding kiconv(3)
501110September 28, 20035.1-CURRENT after changing default operations for open and close in cdevsw
501111October 16, 20035.1-CURRENT after changed layout of cdevsw
501112October 16, 2003 5.1-CURRENT after adding kobj multiple inheritance
501113October 31, 2003 5.1-CURRENT after the if_xname change in struct ifnet
501114November 16, 2003 5.1-CURRENT after changing /bin and /sbin to be dynamically linked
502000December 7, 20035.2-RELEASE
502010February 23, 20045.2.1-RELEASE
502100December 7, 20035.2-CURRENT after branching for RELENG_5_2
502101December 19, 20035.2-CURRENT after __cxa_atexit/__cxa_finalize functions were added to libc.
502102January 30, 20045.2-CURRENT after change of default thread library from libc_r to libpthread.
502103February 21, 20045.2-CURRENT after device driver API megapatch.
502104February 25, 20045.2-CURRENT after getopt_long_only() addition.
502105March 5, 20045.2-CURRENT after NULL is made into ((void *)0) for C, creating more warnings.
502106March 8, 20045.2-CURRENT after pf is linked to the build and install.
502107March 10, 20045.2-CURRENT after time_t is changed to a 64-bit value on sparc64.
502108March 12, 20045.2-CURRENT after Intel C/C++ compiler support in some headers and execve(2) changes to be more strictly conforming to POSIX.
502109March 22, 20045.2-CURRENT after the introduction of the bus_alloc_resource_any API
502110March 27, 20045.2-CURRENT after the addition of UTF-8 locales
502111April 11, 20045.2-CURRENT after the removal of the getvfsent(3) API
502112April 13, 20045.2-CURRENT after the addition of the .warning directive for make.
502113June 4, 20045.2-CURRENT after ttyioctl() was made mandatory for serial drivers.
502114June 13, 20045.2-CURRENT after import of the ALTQ framework.
502115June 14, 20045.2-CURRENT after changing sema_timedwait(9) to return 0 on success and a non-zero error code on failure.
502116June 16, 20045.2-CURRENT after changing kernel dev_t to be pointer to struct cdev *.
502117June 17, 20045.2-CURRENT after changing kernel udev_t to dev_t.
502118June 17, 20045.2-CURRENT after adding support for CLOCK_VIRTUAL and CLOCK_PROF to clock_gettime(2) and clock_getres(2).
502119June 22, 20045.2-CURRENT after changing network interface cloning overhaul.
502120July 2, 20045.2-CURRENT after the update of the package tools to revision 20040629.
502121July 9, 20045.2-CURRENT after marking Bluetooth code as non-i386 specific.
502122July 11, 20045.2-CURRENT after the introduction of the KDB debugger framework, the conversion of DDB into a backend and the introduction of the GDB backend.
502123July 12, 20045.2-CURRENT after change to make VFS_ROOT take a struct thread argument as does vflush. Struct kinfo_proc now has a user data pointer. The switch of the default X implementation to xorg was also made at this time.
502124July 24, 20045.2-CURRENT after the change to separate the way ports rc.d and legacy scripts are started.
502125July 28, 20045.2-CURRENT after the backout of the previous change.
502126July 31, 20045.2-CURRENT after the removal of kmem_alloc_pageable() and the import of gcc 3.4.2.
502127August 2, 20045.2-CURRENT after changing the UMA kernel API to allow ctors/inits to fail.
502128August 8, 20045.2-CURRENT after the change of the vfs_mount signature as well as global replacement of PRISON_ROOT with SUSER_ALLOWJAIL for the suser(9) API.
503000August 23, 20045.3-BETA/RC before the pfil API change
503001September 22, 20045.3-RELEASE
503100October 16, 20045.3-STABLE after branching for RELENG_5_3
503101December 3, 20045.3-STABLE after addition of glibc style strftime(3) padding options.
503102February 13, 20055.3-STABLE after OpenBSD's nc(1) import MFC.
503103February 27, 20055.4-PRERELEASE after the MFC of the fixes in <src/include/stdbool.h> and <src/sys/i386/include/_types.h> for using the GCC-compatibility of the Intel C/C++ compiler.
503104February 28, 20055.4-PRERELEASE after the MFC of the change of ifi_epoch from wall clock time to uptime.
503105March 2, 20055.4-PRERELEASE after the MFC of the fix of EOVERFLOW check in vswprintf(3).
504000April 3, 20055.4-RELEASE.
504100April 3, 20055.4-STABLE after branching for RELENG_5_4
504101May 11, 20055.4-STABLE after increasing the default thread stacksizes
504102June 24, 20055.4-STABLE after the addition of sha256
504103October 3, 20055.4-STABLE after the MFC of if_bridge
504104November 13, 20055.4-STABLE after the MFC of bsdiff and portsnap
504105January 17, 20065.4-STABLE after MFC of ldconfig_local_dirs change.
505000May 12, 20065.5-RELEASE.
505100May 12, 20065.5-STABLE after branching for RELENG_5_5
600000August 18, 20046.0-CURRENT
600001August 27, 20046.0-CURRENT after permanently enabling PFIL_HOOKS in the kernel.
600002August 30, 20046.0-CURRENT after initial addition of ifi_epoch to struct if_data. Backed out after a few days. Do not use this value.
600003September 8, 20046.0-CURRENT after the re-addition of the ifi_epoch member of struct if_data.
600004September 29, 20046.0-CURRENT after addition of the struct inpcb argument to the pfil API.
600005October 5, 20046.0-CURRENT after addition of the "-d DESTDIR" argument to newsyslog.
600006November 4, 20046.0-CURRENT after addition of glibc style strftime(3) padding options.
600007December 12, 20046.0-CURRENT after addition of 802.11 framework updates.
600008January 25, 20056.0-CURRENT after changes to VOP_*VOBJECT() functions and introduction of MNTK_MPSAFE flag for Giantfree filesystems.
600009February 4, 20056.0-CURRENT after addition of the cpufreq framework and drivers.
600010February 6, 20056.0-CURRENT after importing OpenBSD's nc(1).
600011February 12, 20056.0-CURRENT after removing semblance of SVID2 matherr() support.
600012February 15, 20056.0-CURRENT after increase of default thread stacks' size.
600013February 19, 20056.0-CURRENT after fixes in <src/include/stdbool.h> and <src/sys/i386/include/_types.h> for using the GCC-compatibility of the Intel C/C++ compiler.
600014February 21, 20056.0-CURRENT after EOVERFLOW checks in vswprintf(3) fixed.
600015February 25, 20056.0-CURRENT after changing the struct if_data member, ifi_epoch, from wall clock time to uptime.
600016February 26, 20056.0-CURRENT after LC_CTYPE disk format changed.
600017February 27, 20056.0-CURRENT after NLS catalogs disk format changed.
600018February 27, 20056.0-CURRENT after LC_COLLATE disk format changed.
600019February 28, 2005Installation of acpica includes into /usr/include.
600020March 9, 2005Addition of MSG_NOSIGNAL flag to send(2) API.
600021March 17, 2005Addition of fields to cdevsw
600022March 21, 2005Removed gtar from base system.
600023April 13, 2005LOCAL_CREDS, LOCAL_CONNWAIT socket options added to unix(4).
600024April 19, 2005hwpmc(4) and related tools added to 6.0-CURRENT.
600025April 26, 2005struct icmphdr added to 6.0-CURRENT.
600026May 3, 2005pf updated to 3.7.
600027May 6, 2005Kernel libalias and ng_nat introduced.
600028May 13, 2005POSIX ttyname_r(3) made available through unistd.h and libc.
600029May 29, 20056.0-CURRENT after libpcap updated to v0.9.1 alpha 096.
600030June 5, 20056.0-CURRENT after importing NetBSD's if_bridge(4).
600031June 10, 20056.0-CURRENT after struct ifnet was broken out of the driver softcs.
600032July 11, 20056.0-CURRENT after the import of libpcap v0.9.1.
600033July 25, 20056.0-STABLE after bump of all shared library versions that had not been changed since RELENG_5.
600034August 13, 20056.0-STABLE after credential argument is added to dev_clone event handler. 6.0-RELEASE.
600100November 1, 20056.0-STABLE after 6.0-RELEASE
600101December 21, 20056.0-STABLE after incorporating scripts from the local_startup directories into the base rcorder(8).
600102December 30, 20056.0-STABLE after updating the ELF types and constants.
600103January 15, 20066.0-STABLE after MFC of pidfile(3) API.
600104January 17, 20066.0-STABLE after MFC of ldconfig_local_dirs change.
600105February 26, 20066.0-STABLE after NLS catalog support of csh(1).
601000May 6, 20066.1-RELEASE
601100May 6, 20066.1-STABLE after 6.1-RELEASE.
601101June 22, 20066.1-STABLE after the import of csup.
601102July 11, 20066.1-STABLE after the iwi(4) update.
601103July 17, 20066.1-STABLE after the resolver update to BIND9, and exposure of reentrant version of netdb functions.
601104August 8, 20066.1-STABLE after DSO (dynamic shared objects) support has been enabled in OpenSSL.
601105September 2, 20066.1-STABLE after 802.11 fixups changed the api for the IEEE80211_IOC_STA_INFO ioctl.
602000November 15, 20066.2-RELEASE
602100September 15, 20066.2-STABLE after 6.2-RELEASE.
602101December 12, 20066.2-STABLE after the addition of Wi-Spy quirk.
602102December 28, 20066.2-STABLE after pci_find_extcap() addition.
602103January 16, 20076.2-STABLE after MFC of dlsym change to look for a requested symbol both in specified dso and its implicit dependencies.
602104January 28, 20076.2-STABLE after MFC of ng_deflate(4) and ng_pred1(4) netgraph nodes and new compression and encryption modes for ng_ppp(4) node.
602105February 20, 20076.2-STABLE after MFC of BSD licensed version of gzip(1) ported from NetBSD.
602106March 31, 20076.2-STABLE after MFC of PCI MSI and MSI-X support.
602107April 6, 20076.2-STABLE after MFC of ncurses 5.6 and wide character support.
602108April 11, 20076.2-STABLE after MFC of CAM 'SG' peripheral device, which implements a subset of Linux SCSI SG passthrough device API.
602109April 17, 20076.2-STABLE after MFC of readline 5.2 patchset 002.
602110May 2, 20076.2-STABLE after MFC of pmap_invalidate_cache(), pmap_change_attr(), pmap_mapbios(), pmap_mapdev_attr(), and pmap_unmapbios() for amd64 and i386.
602111June 11, 20076.2-STABLE after MFC of BOP_BDFLUSH and caused breakage of the filesystem modules KBI.
602112September 21, 20076.2-STABLE after libutil(3) MFC's.
602113October 25, 20076.2-STABLE after MFC of wide and single byte ctype separation. Newly compiled binary that references to ctype.h may require a new symbol, __mb_sb_limit, which is not available on older systems.
602114October 30, 20076.2-STABLE after ctype ABI forward compatibility restored.
602115November 21, 20076.2-STABLE after back out of wide and single byte ctype separation.
603000November 25, 20076.3-RELEASE
603100November 25, 20076.3-STABLE after 6.3-RELEASE.
603101December 7, 20076.3-STABLE after fixing multibyte type support in bit macro.
603102April 24, 20086.3-STABLE after adding l_sysid to struct flock.
603103May 27, 20086.3-STABLE after MFC of the memrchr function.
603104June 15, 20086.3-STABLE after MFC of support for :u variable modifier in make(1).
604000October 4, 20086.4-RELEASE
604100October 4, 20086.4-STABLE after 6.4-RELEASE.
700000July 11, 20057.0-CURRENT.
700001July 23, 20057.0-CURRENT after bump of all shared library versions that had not been changed since RELENG_5.
700002August 13, 20057.0-CURRENT after credential argument is added to dev_clone event handler.
700003August 25, 20057.0-CURRENT after memmem(3) is added to libc.
700004October 30, 20057.0-CURRENT after solisten(9) kernel arguments are modified to accept a backlog parameter.
700005November 11, 20057.0-CURRENT after IFP2ENADDR() was changed to return a pointer to IF_LLADDR().
700006November 11, 20057.0-CURRENT after addition of if_addr member to struct ifnet and IFP2ENADDR() removal.
700007December 2, 20057.0-CURRENT after incorporating scripts from the local_startup directories into the base rcorder(8).
700008December 5, 20057.0-CURRENT after removal of MNT_NODEV mount option.
700009December 19, 20057.0-CURRENT after ELF-64 type changes and symbol versioning.
700010December 20, 20057.0-CURRENT after addition of hostb and vgapci drivers, addition of pci_find_extcap(), and changing the AGP drivers to no longer map the aperture.
700011December 31, 20057.0-CURRENT after tv_sec was made time_t on all platforms but Alpha.
700012January 8, 20067.0-CURRENT after ldconfig_local_dirs change.
700013January 12, 20067.0-CURRENT after changes to /etc/rc.d/abi to support /compat/linux/etc/ld.so.cache being a symlink in a readonly filesystem.
700014January 26, 20067.0-CURRENT after pts import.
700015March 26, 20067.0-CURRENT after the introduction of version 2 of hwpmc(4)'s ABI.
700016April 22, 20067.0-CURRENT after addition of fcloseall(3) to libc.
700017May 13, 20067.0-CURRENT after removal of ip6fw.
700018July 15, 20067.0-CURRENT after import of snd_emu10kx.
700019July 29, 20067.0-CURRENT after import of OpenSSL 0.9.8b.
700020September 3, 20067.0-CURRENT after addition of bus_dma_get_tag function
700021September 4, 20067.0-CURRENT after libpcap 0.9.4 and tcpdump 3.9.4 import.
700022September 9, 20067.0-CURRENT after dlsym change to look for a requested symbol both in specified dso and its implicit dependencies.
700023September 23, 20067.0-CURRENT after adding new sound IOCTLs for the OSSv4 mixer API.
700024September 28, 20067.0-CURRENT after import of OpenSSL 0.9.8d.
700025November 11, 20067.0-CURRENT after the addition of libelf.
700026November 26, 20067.0-CURRENT after major changes on sound sysctls.
700027November 30, 20067.0-CURRENT after the addition of Wi-Spy quirk.
700028December 15, 20067.0-CURRENT after the addition of sctp calls to libc
700029January 26, 20077.0-CURRENT after the GNU gzip(1) implementation was replaced with a BSD licensed version ported from NetBSD.
700030February 7, 20077.0-CURRENT after the removal of IPIP tunnel encapsulation (VIFF_TUNNEL) from the IPv4 multicast forwarding code.
700031February 23, 20077.0-CURRENT after the modification of bus_setup_intr() (newbus).
700032March 2, 20077.0-CURRENT after the inclusion of ipw(4) and iwi(4) firmware.
700033March 9, 20077.0-CURRENT after the inclusion of ncurses wide character support.
700034March 19, 20077.0-CURRENT after changes to how insmntque(), getnewvnode(), and vfs_hash_insert() work.
700035March 26, 20077.0-CURRENT after addition of a notify mechanism for CPU frequency changes.
700036April 6, 20077.0-CURRENT after import of the ZFS filesystem.
700037April 8, 20077.0-CURRENT after addition of CAM 'SG' peripheral device, which implements a subset of Linux SCSI SG passthrough device API.
700038April 30, 20077.0-CURRENT after changing getenv(3), putenv(3), setenv(3) and unsetenv(3) to be POSIX conformant.
700039May 1, 20077.0-CURRENT after the changes in 700038 were backed out.
700040May 10, 20077.0-CURRENT after the addition of flopen(3) to libutil.
700041May 13, 20077.0-CURRENT after enabling symbol versioning, and changing the default thread library to libthr.
700042May 19, 20077.0-CURRENT after the import of gcc 4.2.0.
700043May 21, 20077.0-CURRENT after bump of all shared library versions that had not been changed since RELENG_6.
700044June 7, 20077.0-CURRENT after changing the argument for vn_open()/VOP_OPEN() from file descriptor index to the struct file *.
700045June 10, 20077.0-CURRENT after changing pam_nologin(8) to provide an account management function instead of an authentication function to the PAM framework.
700046June 11, 20077.0-CURRENT after updated 802.11 wireless support.
700047June 11, 20077.0-CURRENT after adding TCP LRO interface capabilities.
700048June 12, 20077.0-CURRENT after RFC 3678 API support added to the IPv4 stack. Legacy RFC 1724 behavior of the IP_MULTICAST_IF ioctl has now been removed; 0.0.0.0/8 may no longer be used to specify an interface index. struct ipmreqn should be used instead.
700049July 3, 20077.0-CURRENT after importing pf from OpenBSD 4.1
(not changed) 7.0-CURRENT after adding IPv6 support for FAST_IPSEC, deleting KAME IPSEC, and renaming FAST_IPSEC to IPSEC.
700050July 4, 20077.0-CURRENT after converting setenv/putenv/etc. calls from traditional BSD to POSIX.
700051July 4, 20077.0-CURRENT after adding new mmap/lseek/etc syscalls.
700052July 6, 20077.0-CURRENT after moving I4B headers to include/i4b.
700053September 30, 20077.0-CURRENT after the addition of support for PCI domains
700054October 25, 20077.0-CURRENT after MFC of wide and single byte ctype separation.
700055October 28, 20077.0-RELEASE, and 7.0-CURRENT after ABI backwards compatibility to the FreeBSD 4/5/6 versions of the PCIOCGETCONF, PCIOCREAD and PCIOCWRITE IOCTLs was MFCed, which required the ABI of the PCIOCGETCONF IOCTL to be broken again
700100December 22, 20077.0-STABLE after 7.0-RELEASE
700101February 8, 20087.0-STABLE after the MFC of m_collapse().
700102March 30, 20087.0-STABLE after the MFC of kdb_enter_why().
700103April 10, 20087.0-STABLE after adding l_sysid to struct flock.
700104April 11, 20087.0-STABLE after the MFC of procstat(1).
700105April 11, 20087.0-STABLE after the MFC of umtx features.
700106April 15, 20087.0-STABLE after the MFC of write(2) support to psm(4).
700107April 20, 20087.0-STABLE after the MFC of F_DUP2FD command to fcntl(2).
700108May 5, 20087.0-STABLE after some lockmgr(9) changes, which makes it necessary to include sys/lock.h in order to use lockmgr(9).
700109May 27, 20087.0-STABLE after MFC of the memrchr function.
700110August 5, 20087.0-STABLE after MFC of kernel NFS lockd client.
700111August 20, 20087.0-STABLE after addition of physically contiguous jumbo frame support.
700112August 27, 20087.0-STABLE after MFC of kernel DTrace support.
701000November 25, 20087.1-RELEASE
701100November 25, 20087.1-STABLE after 7.1-RELEASE.
701101January 10, 20097.1-STABLE after strndup merge.
701102January 17, 20097.1-STABLE after cpuctl(4) support added.
701103February 7, 20097.1-STABLE after the merge of multi-/no-IPv4/v6 jails.
701104February 14, 20097.1-STABLE after the store of the suspension owner in the struct mount, and introduction of vfs_susp_clean method into the struct vfsops.
701105March 12, 20097.1-STABLE after the incompatible change to the kern.ipc.shmsegs sysctl to allow allocating larger SysV shared memory segments on 64bit architectures.
701106March 14, 20097.1-STABLE after the merge of a fix for POSIX semaphore wait operations.
702000April 15, 20097.2-RELEASE
702100April 15, 20097.2-STABLE after 7.2-RELEASE.
702101May 15, 20097.2-STABLE after ichsmb(4) was changed to use left-adjusted slave addressing to match other SMBus controller drivers.
702102May 28, 20097.2-STABLE after MFC of the fdopendir function.
702103June 06, 20097.2-STABLE after MFC of PmcTools.
702104July 14, 20097.2-STABLE after MFC of the closefrom system call.
702105July 31, 20097.2-STABLE after MFC of the SYSVIPC ABI change.
702106September 14, 20097.2-STABLE after MFC of the x86 PAT enhancements and addition of d_mmap_single() and the scatter/gather list VM object type.
703000February 9, 20107.3-RELEASE
703100February 9, 20107.3-STABLE after 7.3-RELEASE.
704000December 22, 20107.4-RELEASE
704100December 22, 20107.4-STABLE after 7.4-RELEASE.
800000October 11, 20078.0-CURRENT. Separating wide and single byte ctype.
800001October 16, 20078.0-CURRENT after libpcap 0.9.8 and tcpdump 3.9.8 import.
800002October 21, 20078.0-CURRENT after renaming kthread_create() and friends to kproc_create() etc.
800003October 24, 20078.0-CURRENT after ABI backwards compatibility to the FreeBSD 4/5/6 versions of the PCIOCGETCONF, PCIOCREAD and PCIOCWRITE IOCTLs was added, which required the ABI of the PCIOCGETCONF IOCTL to be broken again
800004November 12, 20078.0-CURRENT after agp(4) driver moved from src/sys/pci to src/sys/dev/agp
800005December 4, 20078.0-CURRENT after changes to the jumbo frame allocator (rev 174247).
800006December 7, 20078.0-CURRENT after the addition of callgraph capture functionality to hwpmc(4).
800007December 25, 20078.0-CURRENT after kdb_enter() gains a "why" argument.
800008December 28, 20078.0-CURRENT after LK_EXCLUPGRADE option removal.
800009January 9, 20088.0-CURRENT after introduction of lockmgr_disown(9)
800010January 10, 20088.0-CURRENT after the vn_lock(9) prototype change.
800011January 13, 20088.0-CURRENT after the VOP_LOCK(9) and VOP_UNLOCK(9) prototype changes.
800012January 19, 20088.0-CURRENT after introduction of lockmgr_recursed(9), BUF_RECURSED(9) and BUF_ISLOCKED(9) and the removal of BUF_REFCNT().
800013January 23, 20088.0-CURRENT after introduction of the ASCII encoding.
800014January 24, 20088.0-CURRENT after changing the prototype of lockmgr(9) and removal of lockcount() and LOCKMGR_ASSERT().
800015January 26, 20088.0-CURRENT after extending the types of the fts(3) structures.
800016February 1, 20088.0-CURRENT after adding an argument to MEXTADD(9)
800017February 6, 20088.0-CURRENT after the introduction of LK_NODUP and LK_NOWITNESS options in the lockmgr(9) space.
800018February 8, 20088.0-CURRENT after the addition of m_collapse.
800019February 9, 20088.0-CURRENT after the addition of current working directory, root directory, and jail directory support to the kern.proc.filedesc sysctl.
800020February 13, 20088.0-CURRENT after introduction of lockmgr_assert(9) and BUF_ASSERT functions.
800021February 15, 20088.0-CURRENT after introduction of lockmgr_args(9) and LK_INTERNAL flag removal.
800022(backed out)8.0-CURRENT after changing the default system ar to BSD ar(1).
800023February 25, 20088.0-CURRENT after changing the prototypes of lockstatus(9) and VOP_ISLOCKED(9), more specifically retiring the struct thread argument.
800024March 1, 20088.0-CURRENT after axing out the lockwaiters and BUF_LOCKWAITERS functions, changing the return value of brelvp from void to int and introducing new flags for lockinit(9).
800025March 8, 20088.0-CURRENT after adding F_DUP2FD command to fcntl(2).
800026March 12, 20088.0-CURRENT after changing the priority parameter to cv_broadcastpri such that 0 means no priority.
800027March 24, 20088.0-CURRENT after changing the bpf monitoring ABI when zerocopy bpf buffers were added.
800028March 26, 20088.0-CURRENT after adding l_sysid to struct flock.
800029March 28, 20088.0-CURRENT after reintegration of the BUF_LOCKWAITERS function and the addition of lockmgr_waiters(9).
800030April 1, 20088.0-CURRENT after the introduction of the rw_try_rlock(9) and rw_try_wlock(9) functions.
800031April 6, 20088.0-CURRENT after the introduction of the lockmgr_rw and lockmgr_args_rw functions.
800032April 8, 20088.0-CURRENT after the implementation of the openat and related syscalls, introduction of the O_EXEC flag for the open(2), and providing the corresponding linux compatibility syscalls.
800033April 8, 20088.0-CURRENT after added write(2) support for psm(4) in native operation level. Now arbitrary commands can be written to /dev/psm%d and status can be read back from it.
800034April 10, 20088.0-CURRENT after introduction of the memrchr function.
800035April 16, 20088.0-CURRENT after introduction of the fdopendir function.
800036April 20, 20088.0-CURRENT after switchover of 802.11 wireless to multi-bss support (aka vaps).
800037May 9, 20088.0-CURRENT after addition of multi routing table support (aka setfib(1), setfib(2)).
800038May 26, 20088.0-CURRENT after removal of netatm and ISDN4BSD. Also, the addition of the Compact C Type (CTF) tools.
800039June 14, 20088.0-CURRENT after removal of sgtty.
800040June 26, 20088.0-CURRENT with kernel NFS lockd client.
800041July 22, 20088.0-CURRENT after addition of arc4random_buf(3) and arc4random_uniform(3).
800042August 8, 20088.0-CURRENT after addition of cpuctl(4).
800043August 13, 20088.0-CURRENT after changing bpf(4) to use a single device node, instead of device cloning.
800044August 17, 20088.0-CURRENT after the commit of the first step of the vimage project renaming global variables to be virtualized with a V_ prefix with macros to map them back to their global names.
800045August 20, 20088.0-CURRENT after the integration of the MPSAFE TTY layer, including changes to various drivers and utilities that interact with it.
800046September 8, 20088.0-CURRENT after the separation of the GDT per CPU on amd64 architecture.
800047September 10, 20088.0-CURRENT after removal of VSVTX, VSGID and VSUID.
800048September 16, 20088.0-CURRENT after converting the kernel NFS mount code to accept individual mount options in the nmount() iovec, not just one big struct nfs_args.
800049September 17, 20088.0-CURRENT after the removal of suser(9) and suser_cred(9).
800050October 20, 20088.0-CURRENT after buffer cache API change.
800051October 23, 20088.0-CURRENT after the removal of the MALLOC(9) and FREE(9) macros.
800052October 28, 20088.0-CURRENT after the introduction of accmode_t and renaming of VOP_ACCESS 'a_mode' argument to 'a_accmode'.
800053November 2, 20088.0-CURRENT after the prototype change of vfs_busy(9) and the introduction of its MBF_NOWAIT and MBF_MNTLSTLOCK flags.
800054November 22, 20088.0-CURRENT after the addition of buf_ring, memory barriers and ifnet functions to facilitate multiple hardware transmit queues for cards that support them, and a lockless ring-buffer implementation to enable drivers to more efficiently manage queuing of packets.
800055November 27, 20088.0-CURRENT after the addition of Intel™ Core, Core2, and Atom support to hwpmc(4).
800056November 29, 20088.0-CURRENT after the introduction of multi-/no-IPv4/v6 jails.
800057December 1, 20088.0-CURRENT after the switch to the ath hal source code.
800058December 12, 20088.0-CURRENT after the introduction of the VOP_VPTOCNP operation.
800059December 15, 20088.0-CURRENT incorporates the new arp-v2 rewrite.
800060December 19, 20088.0-CURRENT after the addition of makefs.
800061January 15, 20098.0-CURRENT after TCP Appropriate Byte Counting.
800062January 28, 20098.0-CURRENT after removal of minor(), minor2unit(), unit2minor(), etc.
800063February 18, 20098.0-CURRENT after GENERIC config change to use the USB2 stack, but also the addition of fdevname(3).
800064February 23, 20098.0-CURRENT after the USB2 stack is moved to and replaces dev/usb.
800065February 26, 20098.0-CURRENT after the renaming of all functions in libmp(3).
800066February 27, 20098.0-CURRENT after changing USB devfs handling and layout.
800067February 28, 20098.0-CURRENT after adding getdelim(), getline(), stpncpy(), strnlen(), wcsnlen(), wcscasecmp(), and wcsncasecmp().
800068March 2, 20098.0-CURRENT after renaming the ushub devclass to uhub.
800069March 9, 20098.0-CURRENT after libusb20.so.1 was renamed to libusb.so.1.
800070March 9, 20098.0-CURRENT after merging IGMPv3 and Source-Specific Multicast (SSM) to the IPv4 stack.
800071March 14, 20098.0-CURRENT after gcc was patched to use C99 inline semantics in c99 and gnu99 mode.
800072March 15, 20098.0-CURRENT after the IFF_NEEDSGIANT flag has been removed; non-MPSAFE network device drivers are no longer supported.
800073March 18, 20098.0-CURRENT after the dynamic string token substitution has been implemented for rpath and needed paths.
800074March 24, 20098.0-CURRENT after tcpdump 4.0.0 and libpcap 1.0.0 import.
800075April 6, 20098.0-CURRENT after layout of structs vnet_net, vnet_inet and vnet_ipfw has been changed.
800076April 9, 20098.0-CURRENT after adding delay profiles in dummynet.
800077April 14, 20098.0-CURRENT after removing VOP_LEASE() and vop_vector.vop_lease.
800078April 15, 20098.0-CURRENT after struct rt_weight fields have been added to struct rt_metrics and struct rt_metrics_lite, changing the layout of struct rt_metrics_lite. A bump to RTM_VERSION was made, but backed out.
800079April 15, 20098.0-CURRENT after struct llentry pointers are added to struct route and struct route_in6.
800080April 15, 20098.0-CURRENT after layout of struct inpcb has been changed.
800081April 19, 20098.0-CURRENT after the layout of struct malloc_type has been changed.
800082April 21, 20098.0-CURRENT after the layout of struct ifnet has changed, and with if_ref() and if_rele() ifnet refcounting.
800083April 22, 20098.0-CURRENT after the implementation of a low-level Bluetooth HCI API.
800084April 29, 20098.0-CURRENT after IPv6 SSM and MLDv2 changes.
800085April 30, 20098.0-CURRENT after enabling support for VIMAGE kernel builds with one active image.
800086May 8, 20098.0-CURRENT after adding support for input lines of arbitrarily length in patch(1).
800087May 11, 20098.0-CURRENT after some VFS KPI changes. The thread argument has been removed from the FSD parts of the VFS. VFS_* functions do not need the context any more because it always refers to curthread. In some special cases, the old behavior is retained.
800088May 20, 20098.0-CURRENT after net80211 monitor mode changes.
800089May 23, 20098.0-CURRENT after adding UDP control block support.
800090May 23, 20098.0-CURRENT after virtualizing interface cloning.
800091May 27, 20098.0-CURRENT after adding hierarchical jails and removing global securelevel.
800092May 29, 20098.0-CURRENT after changing sx_init_flags() KPI. The SX_ADAPTIVESPIN is retired and a new SX_NOADAPTIVE flag is introduced in order to handle the reversed logic.
800093May 29, 20098.0-CURRENT after adding mnt_xflag to struct mount.
800094May 30, 20098.0-CURRENT after adding VOP_ACCESSX(9).
800095May 30, 20098.0-CURRENT after changing the polling KPI. The polling handlers now return the number of packets processed. A new IFCAP_POLLING_NOCOUNT is also introduced to specify that the return value is not significant and the counting should be skipped.
800096June 1, 20098.0-CURRENT after updating to the new netisr implementation and after changing the way we store and access FIBs.
800097June 8, 20098.0-CURRENT after the introduction of vnet destructor hooks and infrastructure.
800097June 11, 20098.0-CURRENT after the introduction of netgraph outbound to inbound path call detection and queuing, which also changed the layout of struct thread.
800098June 14, 20098.0-CURRENT after OpenSSL 0.9.8k import.
800099June 22, 20098.0-CURRENT after NGROUPS update and moving route virtualization into its own VImage module.
800100June 24, 20098.0-CURRENT after SYSVIPC ABI change.
800101June 29, 20098.0-CURRENT after the removal of the /dev/net/* per-interface character devices.
800102July 12, 20098.0-CURRENT after padding was added to struct sackhint, struct tcpcb, and struct tcpstat.
800103July 13, 20098.0-CURRENT after replacing struct tcpopt with struct toeopt in the TOE driver interface to the TCP syncache.
800104July 14, 20098.0-CURRENT after the addition of the linker-set based per-vnet allocator.
800105July 19, 20098.0-CURRENT after version bump for all shared libraries that do not have symbol versioning turned on.
800106July 24, 20098.0-CURRENT after introduction of OBJT_SG VM object type.
800107August 2, 20098.0-CURRENT after making the newbus subsystem Giant free by adding the newbus sxlock and 8.0-RELEASE.
800108November 21, 20098.0-STABLE after implementing EVFILT_USER kevent filter.
800500January 7, 20108.0-STABLE after __FreeBSD_version bump to make pkg_add -r use packages-8-stable.
800501January 24, 20108.0-STABLE after change of the scandir(3) and alphasort(3) prototypes to conform to SUSv4.
800502January 31, 20108.0-STABLE after addition of sigpause(3).
800503February 25, 20108.0-STABLE after addition of SIOCGIFDESCR and SIOCSIFDESCR ioctls to network interfaces. These ioctl can be used to manipulate interface description, as inspired by OpenBSD.
800504March 1, 20108.0-STABLE after MFC of importing x86emu, a software emulator for real mode x86 CPU from OpenBSD.
800505May 18, 20108.0-STABLE after MFC of adding liblzma, xz, xzdec, and lzmainfo.
801000June 14, 20108.1-RELEASE
801500June 14, 20108.1-STABLE after 8.1-RELEASE.
801501November 3, 20108.1-STABLE after KBI change in struct sysentvec, and implementation of PL_FLAG_SCE/SCX/EXEC/SI and pl_siginfo for ptrace(PT_LWPINFO) .
802000December 22, 20108.2-RELEASE
802500December 22, 20108.2-STABLE after 8.2-RELEASE.
802501February 28, 20118.2-STABLE after merging DTrace changes, including support for userland tracing.
802502March 6, 20118.2-STABLE after merging log2 and log2f into libm.
802503May 1, 20118.2-STABLE after upgrade of the gcc to the last GPLv2 version from the FSF gcc-4_2-branch.
802504May 28, 20118.2-STABLE after introduction of the KPI and supporting infrastructure for modular congestion control.
802505May 28, 20118.2-STABLE after introduction of Hhook and Khelp KPIs.
802506May 28, 20118.2-STABLE after addition of OSD to struct tcpcb.
802507June 6, 20118.2-STABLE after ZFS v28 import.
802508June 8, 20118.2-STABLE after removal of the schedtail event handler and addition of the sv_schedtail method to struct sysvec.
802509July 14, 20118.2-STABLE after merging the SSSE3 support into binutils.
802510July 19, 20118.2-STABLE after addition of RFTSIGZMB flag for rfork(2).
802511September 9, 20118.2-STABLE after addition of automatic detection of USB mass storage devices which do not support the no synchronize cache SCSI command.
802512September 10, 20118.2-STABLE after merging of re-factoring of auto-quirk.
802513October 25, 20118.2-STABLE after merging of the MAP_PREFAULT_READ flag to mmap(2).
802514November 16, 20118.2-STABLE after merging of addition of posix_fallocate(2) syscall.
802515January 6, 20128.2-STABLE after merging of addition of the posix_fadvise(2) system call.
802516January 16, 20128.2-STABLE after merging gperf 3.0.3
802517February 15, 20128.2-STABLE after introduction of the new extensible sysctl(3) interface NET_RT_IFLISTL to query address lists (rev 231769).
803000March 3, 20128.3-RELEASE.
803500March 3, 20128.3-STABLE after branching releng/8.3 (RELENG_8_3).
804000March 28, 20138.4-RELEASE.
804500March 28, 20138.4-STABLE after 8.4-RELEASE.
900000August 22, 20099.0-CURRENT.
900001September 8, 20099.0-CURRENT after importing x86emu, a software emulator for real mode x86 CPU from OpenBSD.
900002September 23, 20099.0-CURRENT after implementing the EVFILT_USER kevent filter functionality.
900003December 2, 20099.0-CURRENT after addition of sigpause(3) and PIE support in csu.
900004December 6, 20099.0-CURRENT after addition of libulog and its libutempter compatibility interface.
900005December 12, 20099.0-CURRENT after addition of sleepq_sleepcnt(), which can be used to query the number of waiters on a specific waiting queue.
900006January 4, 20109.0-CURRENT after change of the scandir(3) and alphasort(3) prototypes to conform to SUSv4.
900007January 13, 20109.0-CURRENT after the removal of utmp(5) and the addition of utmpx (see getutxent(3)) for improved logging of user logins and system events.
900008January 20, 20109.0-CURRENT after the import of BSDL bc/dc and the deprecation of GNU bc/dc.
900009January 26, 20109.0-CURRENT after the addition of SIOCGIFDESCR and SIOCSIFDESCR ioctls to network interfaces. These ioctl can be used to manipulate interface description, as inspired by OpenBSD.
900010March 22, 20109.0-CURRENT after the import of zlib 1.2.4.
900011April 24, 20109.0-CURRENT after adding soft-updates journalling.
900012May 10, 20109.0-CURRENT after adding liblzma, xz, xzdec, and lzmainfo.
900013May 24, 20109.0-CURRENT after bringing in USB fixes for linux(4).
900014June 10, 20109.0-CURRENT after adding Clang.
900015July 22, 20109.0-CURRENT after the import of BSD grep.
900016July 28, 20109.0-CURRENT after adding mti_zone to struct malloc_type_internal.
900017August 23, 20109.0-CURRENT after changing back default grep to GNU grep and adding WITH_BSD_GREP knob.
900018August 24, 20109.0-CURRENT after the pthread_kill(3) -generated signal is identified as SI_LWP in si_code. Previously, si_code was SI_USER.
900019August 28, 20109.0-CURRENT after addition of the MAP_PREFAULT_READ flag to mmap(2).
900020September 9, 20109.0-CURRENT after adding drain functionality to sbufs, which also changed the layout of struct sbuf.
900021September 13, 20109.0-CURRENT after DTrace has grown support for userland tracing.
900022October 2, 20109.0-CURRENT after addition of the BSDL man utilities and retirement of GNU/GPL man utilities.
900023October 11, 20109.0-CURRENT after updating xz to git 20101010 snapshot.
900024November 11, 20109.0-CURRENT after libgcc.a was replaced by libcompiler_rt.a.
900025November 12, 20109.0-CURRENT after the introduction of the modularised congestion control.
900026November 30, 20109.0-CURRENT after the introduction of Serial Management Protocol (SMP) passthrough and the XPT_SMP_IO and XPT_GDEV_ADVINFO CAM CCBs.
900027December 5, 20109.0-CURRENT after the addition of log2 to libm.
900028December 21, 20109.0-CURRENT after the addition of the Hhook (Helper Hook), Khelp (Kernel Helpers) and Object Specific Data (OSD) KPIs.
900029December 28, 20109.0-CURRENT after the modification of the TCP stack to allow Khelp modules to interact with it via helper hook points and store per-connection data in the TCP control block.
900030January 12, 20119.0-CURRENT after the update of libdialog to version 20100428.
900031February 7, 20119.0-CURRENT after the addition of pthread_getthreadid_np(3).
900032February 8, 20119.0-CURRENT after the removal of the uio_yield prototype and symbol.
900033February 18, 20119.0-CURRENT after the update of binutils to version 2.17.50.
900034March 8, 20119.0-CURRENT after the struct sysvec (sv_schedtail) changes.
900035March 29, 20119.0-CURRENT after the update of base gcc and libstdc++ to the last GPLv2 licensed revision.
900036April 18, 20119.0-CURRENT after the removal of libobjc and Objective-C support from the base system.
900037May 13, 20119.0-CURRENT after importing the libprocstat(3) library and fuser(1) utility to the base system.
900038May 22, 20119.0-CURRENT after adding a lock flag argument to VFS_FHTOVP(9).
900039June 28, 20119.0-CURRENT after importing pf from OpenBSD 4.5.
900040July 19, 2011Increase default MAXCPU for FreeBSD to 64 on amd64 and ia64 and to 128 for XLP (mips).
900041August 13, 20119.0-CURRENT after the implementation of Capsicum capabilities; fget(9) gains a rights argument.
900042August 28, 2011Bump shared libraries' version numbers for libraries whose ABI has changed in preparation for 9.0.
900043September 2, 2011Add automatic detection of USB mass storage devices which do not support the no synchronize cache SCSI command.
900044September 10, 2011Re-factor auto-quirk. 9.0-RELEASE.
900045January 2, 20129-CURRENT after MFC of true/false from 1000002.
900500January 2, 20129.0-STABLE.
900501January 6, 20129.0-STABLE after merging of addition of the posix_fadvise(2) system call.
900502January 16, 20129.0-STABLE after merging gperf 3.0.3
900503February 15, 20129.0-STABLE after introduction of the new extensible sysctl(3) interface NET_RT_IFLISTL to query address lists (rev 231768).
900504March 3, 20129.0-STABLE after changes related to mounting of filesystem inside a jail (rev 232728).
900505March 13, 20129.0-STABLE after introduction of new tcp(4) socket options: TCP_KEEPINIT, TCP_KEEPIDLE, TCP_KEEPINTVL, and TCP_KEEPCNT (rev 232945).
900506May 22, 20129.0-STABLE after introduction of the quick_exit function and related changes required for C++11 (rev 235786).
901000August 5, 20129.1-RELEASE.
901500August 6, 20129.1-STABLE after branching releng/9.1 (RELENG_9_1).
901501November 11, 20129.1-STABLE after LIST_PREV() added to queue.h (rev 242893) and KBI change in USB serial devices (rev 240659).
901502November 28, 20129.1-STABLE after USB serial jitter buffer requires rebuild of USB serial device modules.
901503February 21, 20139.1-STABLE after USB moved to the driver structure requiring a rebuild of all USB modules. Also indicates the presence of nmtree.
901504March 15, 20139.1-STABLE after install gained -l, -M, -N and related flags and cat gained the -l option.
901505June 13, 20139.1-STABLE after fixes in ctfmerge bootstrapping (rev 249243).
902001August 3, 2013releng/9.2 branched from stable/9 (rev 253912).
902501August 2, 20139.2-STABLE after creation of releng/9.2 branch (rev 253913).
902502August 26, 20139.2-STABLE after inclusion of the PIM_RESCAN CAM path inquiry flag (rev 254938).
902503August 27, 20139.2-STABLE after inclusion of the SI_UNMAPPED cdev flag (rev 254979).
902504October 22, 20139.2-STABLE after inclusion of support for first boot rc(8) scripts (rev 256917).
902505December 12, 20139.2-STABLE after Heimdal encoding fix (rev 259448).
902506December 31, 20139-STABLE after MAP_STACK fixes (rev 260082).
902507March 5, 20149-STABLE after upgrade of libc++ to 3.4 release (rev 262801).
902508March 14, 20149-STABLE after merge of the Radeon KMS driver (rev 263170).
902509March 21, 20149-STABLE after upgrade of llvm/clang to 3.4 release (rev 263509).
902510March 27, 20149-STABLE after merge of the vt(4) driver (rev 263818).
902511March 27, 20149-STABLE after FreeBSD-SA-14:06.openssl (rev 264289).
902512April 30, 20149-STABLE after FreeBSD-SA-14:08.tcp (rev 265123).
903000June 20, 20149-RC1 releng/9.3 branch (rev 267656).
903500June 20, 20149.3-STABLE releng/9.3 branch (rev 267657).
903501July 8, 20149-STABLE after FreeBSD-SA-14:17.kmem (rev 268433).
1000000September 26, 201110.0-CURRENT.
1000001November 4, 201110-CURRENT after addition of the posix_fadvise(2) system call.
1000002December 12, 201110-CURRENT after defining boolean true/false in sys/types.h, sizeof(bool) may have changed (rev 228444). 10-CURRENT after xlocale.h was introduced (rev 227753).
1000003December 16, 201110-CURRENT after major changes to carp(4), changing size of struct in_aliasreq, struct in6_aliasreq (rev 228571) and straitening arguments check of SIOCAIFADDR (rev 228574).
1000004January 1, 201210-CURRENT after the removal of skpc(9) and the addition of memcchr(9) (rev 229200).
1000005January 16, 201210-CURRENT after the removal of support for SIOCSIFADDR, SIOCSIFNETMASK, SIOCSIFBRDADDR, SIOCSIFDSTADDR ioctls (rev 230207).
1000006January 26, 201210-CURRENT after introduction of read capacity data asynchronous notification in the cam(4) layer (rev 230590).
1000007February 5, 201210-CURRENT after introduction of new tcp(4) socket options: TCP_KEEPINIT, TCP_KEEPIDLE, TCP_KEEPINTVL, and TCP_KEEPCNT (rev 231025).
1000008February 11, 201210-CURRENT after introduction of the new extensible sysctl(3) interface NET_RT_IFLISTL to query address lists (rev 231505).
1000009February 25, 201210-CURRENT after import of libarchive 3.0.3 (rev 232153).
1000010March 31, 201210-CURRENT after xlocale cleanup (rev 233757).
1000011April 16, 201210-CURRENT import of LLVM/Clang 3.1 trunk r154661 (rev 234353).
1000012May 2, 201210-CURRENT jemalloc import (rev 234924).
1000013May 22, 201210-CURRENT after byacc import (rev 235788).
1000014June 27, 201210-CURRENT after BSD sort becoming the default sort (rev 237629).
1000015July 12, 201210-CURRENT after import of OpenSSL 1.0.1c (rev 238405).
(not changed)July 13, 201210-CURRENT after the fix for LLVM/Clang 3.1 regression (rev 238429).
1000016August 8, 201210-CURRENT after KBI change in ucom(4) (rev 239179).
1000017August 8, 201210-CURRENT after adding streams feature to the USB stack (rev 239214).
1000018September 8, 201210-CURRENT after major rewrite of pf(4) (rev 240233).
1000019October 6, 201210-CURRENT after pfil(9) KBI/KPI changed to supply packets in net byte order to AF_INET filter hooks (rev 241245).
1000020October 16, 201210-CURRENT after the network interface cloning KPI changed and struct if_clone becoming opaque (rev 241610).
1000021October 22, 201210-CURRENT after removal of support for non-MPSAFE filesystems and addition of support for FUSEFS (rev 241519, 241897).
1000022October 22, 201210-CURRENT after the entire IPv4 stack switched to network byte order for IP packet header storage (rev 241913).
1000023November 5, 201210-CURRENT after jitter buffer in the common USB serial driver code, to temporarily store characters if the TTY buffer is full. Add flow stop and start signals when this happens (rev 242619).
1000024November 5, 201210-CURRENT after clang was made the default compiler on i386 and amd64 (rev 242624).
1000025November 17, 201210-CURRENT after the sin6_scope_id member variable in struct sockaddr_in6 was changed to being filled by the kernel before passing the structure to the userland via sysctl or routing socket. This means the KAME-specific embedded scope id in sin6_addr.s6_addr[2] is always cleared in userland application (rev 243443).
1000026January 11, 201310-CURRENT after install gained the -N flag (rev 245313). May also be used to indicate the presence of nmtree.
1000027January 29, 201310-CURRENT after cat gained the -l flag (rev 246083).
1000028February 13, 201310-CURRENT after USB moved to the driver structure requiring a rebuild of all USB modules (rev 246759).
1000029March 4, 201310-CURRENT after the introduction of tickless callout facility which also changed the layout of struct callout (rev 247777).
1000030March 12, 201310-CURRENT after KPI breakage introduced in the VM subsystem to support read/write locking (rev 248084).
1000031April 26, 201310-CURRENT after the dst parameter of the ifnet if_output method was changed to take const qualifier (rev 249925).
1000032May 1, 201310-CURRENT after the introduction of the accept4 (rev 250154) and pipe2 (rev 250159) system calls.
1000033May 21, 201310-CURRENT after flex 2.5.37 import (rev 250881).
1000034June 3, 201310-CURRENT after the addition of the following functions to libm: cacos, cacosf, cacosh, cacoshf, casin, casinf, casinh, casinhf, catan, catanf, catanh, catanhf, logl, log2l, log10l, log1pl, expm1l (rev 251294).
1000035June 8, 201310-CURRENT after the introduction of the aio_mlock system call (rev 251526).
1000036July 9, 201310-CURRENT after the addition of a new function to the kernel GSSAPI module's function call interface (rev 253049).
1000037July 9, 201310-CURRENT after the migration of statistics structures to PCPU counters. Changed structures include: ahstat, arpstat, espstat, icmp6_ifstat, icmp6stat, in6_ifstat, ip6stat, ipcompstat, ipipstat, ipsecstat, mrt6stat, mrtstat, pfkeystat, pim6stat, pimstat, rip6stat, udpstat (rev 253081).
1000038July 16, 201310-CURRENT after making ARM EABI the default ABI on arm, armeb, armv6, and armv6eb architectures (rev 253396).
1000039July 22, 201310-CURRENT after CAM and mps(4) driver scanning changes (rev 253549).
1000040July 24, 201310-CURRENT after addition of libusb pkgconf files (rev 253638).
1000041August 5, 201310-CURRENT after change from time_second to time_uptime in PF_INET6 (rev 253970).
1000042August 9, 201310-CURRENT after VM subsystem change to unify soft and hard busy mechanisms (rev 254138).
1000043August 13, 201310-CURRENT after WITH_ICONV is enabled by default. A new src.conf(5) option, WITH_LIBICONV_COMPAT (disabled by default) adds libiconv_open to provide compatibility with the libiconv port (rev 254273).
1000044August 15, 201310-CURRENT after libc.so conversion to an ld(1) script (rev 251668, 254358).
1000045August 15, 201310-CURRENT after devfs programming interface change by replacing the cdevsw flag D_UNMAPPED_IO with the struct cdev flag SI_UNMAPPED (rev 254389).
1000046August 19, 201310-CURRENT after addition of M_PROTO[9-12] and removal of M_FRAG|M_FIRSTFRAG|M_LASTFRAG mbuf flags (rev 254524, 254526).
1000047August 21, 201310-CURRENT after stat(2) update to allow storing some Windows/DOS and CIFS file attributes as stat(2) flags (rev 254627).
1000048August 22, 201310-CURRENT after modification of structure xsctp_inpcb (rev 254672).
1000049August 24, 201310-CURRENT after physio(9) support for devices that do not function properly with split I/O, such as sa(4) (rev 254760).
1000050August 24, 201310-CURRENT after modifications of structure mbuf (rev 254780, 254799, 254804, 254807 254842).
1000051August 25, 201310-CURRENT after Radeon KMS driver import (rev 254885, 254887).
1000052September 3, 201310-CURRENT after import of NetBSD libexecinfo is connected to the build (rev 255180).
1000053September 6, 201310-CURRENT after API and ABI changes to the Capsicum framework (rev 255305).
1000054September 6, 201310-CURRENT after gcc and libstdc++ are no longer built by default (rev 255321).
1000055September 6, 201310-CURRENT after addition of MMAP_32BIT mmap(2) flag (rev 255426).
1000100December 7, 2013releng/10.0 branched from stable/10 (rev 259065).
1000500October 10, 201310-STABLE after branch from head/ (rev 256283).
1000501October 22, 201310-STABLE after addition of first-boot rc(8) support (rev 256916).
1000502November 20, 201310-STABLE after removal of iconv symbols from libc.so.7 (rev 258398).
1000510December 7, 2013releng/10.0 __FreeBSD_version update to prevent the value from going backwards (rev 259067).
1000700December 7, 201310-STABLE after releng/10.0 branch (rev 259069).
1000701December 15, 201310.0-STABLE after Heimdal encoding fix (rev 259447).
1000702December 31, 201310-STABLE after MAP_STACK fixes (rev 260135).
1000703March 5, 201410-STABLE after upgrade of libc++ to 3.4 release (rev 262801).
1000704March 7, 201410-STABLE after MFC of the vt(4) driver (rev 262861).
1000705March 21, 201410-STABLE after upgrade of llvm/clang to 3.4 release (rev 263508).
1000706April 6, 201410-STABLE after GCC support for __block definition (rev 264214).
1000707April 8, 201410-STABLE after FreeBSD-SA-14:06.openssl (rev 264289).
1000708April 30, 201410-STABLE after FreeBSD-SA-14:07.devfs, FreeBSD-SA-14:08.tcp, and FreeBSD-SA-14:09.openssl (rev 265122).
1000709May 13, 201410-STABLE after support for UDP-Lite protocol (RFC 3828) (rev 265946).
1000710June 13, 201410-STABLE after changes to strcasecmp(3), moving strcasecmp_l() and strncasecmp_l() from <string.h> to <strings.h> for POSIX 2008 compliance (rev 267465).
1000711July 8, 201410-STABLE after FreeBSD-SA-14:17.kmem (rev 268432).
1100000October 10, 201311.0-CURRENT (rev 256284).
1100001October 19, 201311.0-CURRENT after addition of support for "first boot" rc.d scripts, so ports can make use of this (rev 256776).
1100002November 5, 201311.0-CURRENT after dropping support for historic ioctls (rev 257696).
1100003November 17, 201311.0-CURRENT after iconv changes (rev 258284).
1100004December 15, 201311.0-CURRENT after the behavior change of gss_pseudo_random introduced in r259286. (rev 259424)
1100005December 28, 201311.0-CURRENT after r259951 - Do not coalesce entries in vm_map_stack() (rev 260010).
1100006January 28, 201411.0-CURRENT after upgrades of libelf and libdwarf (rev 261246).
1100007January 30, 201411.0-CURRENT after upgrade of libc++ to 3.4 release (rev 261283).
1100008February 14, 201411.0-CURRENT after libc++ 3.4 ABI compatibility fix (rev 261801).
1100009February 16, 201411.0-CURRENT after upgrade of llvm/clang to 3.4 release (rev 261991).
1100010February 28, 201411.0-CURRENT after upgrade of ncurses to 5.9 release (rev 262629).
1100011March 13, 201411.0-CURRENT after ABI change in struct if_data (rev 263102).
1100012March 14, 201411.0-CURRENT after removal of Novell IPX protocol support (rev 263140).
1100013March 14, 201411.0-CURRENT after removal of AppleTalk protocol support (rev 263152).
1100014March 16, 201411.0-CURRENT after renaming <sys/capability.h> to <sys/capsicum.h> to avoid a clash with similarly named headers in other operating systems. A compatibility header is left in place to limit build breakage, but will be deprecated in due course. (rev 263235).
1100015March 22, 201411.0-CURRENT after cnt rename to vm_cnt (rev 263620).
1100016March 23, 201411.0-CURRENT after addition of armv6hf TARGET_ARCH (rev 263660).
1100017April 4, 201411.0-CURRENT after GCC support for __block definition (rev 264121).
1100018April 6, 201411.0-CURRENT after support for UDP-Lite protocol (RFC 3828) (rev 264212).
1100019April 8, 201411.0-CURRENT after FreeBSD-SA-14:06.openssl (rev 264265).
1100020May 1, 201411.0-CURRENT after removing lindev in favor of having /dev/full by default (rev 265212).
1100021May 6, 201411.0-CURRENT after src.opts.mk changes, decoupling make.conf(5) from buildworld (rev 265419).
1100022May 30, 201411.0-CURRENT after changes to strcasecmp(3), moving strcasecmp_l() and strncasecmp_l() from <string.h> to <strings.h> for POSIX 2008 compliance (rev 266865).
1100023June 13, 201411.0-CURRENT after the CUSE library and kernel module have been attached to the build by default (rev 267440).
1100026July 1, 201411.0-CURRENT after the internal interface between the NFS modules, including the krpc, was changed by (rev 268115).
1100027July 8, 201411.0-CURRENT after FreeBSD-SA-14:17.kmem (rev 268431).

Note:

Note that 2.2-STABLE sometimes identifies itself as 2.2.5-STABLE after the 2.2.5-RELEASE. The pattern used to be year followed by the month, but we decided to change it to a more straightforward major/minor system starting from 2.2. This is because the parallel development on several branches made it infeasible to classify the releases simply by their real release dates. If you are making a port now, you do not have to worry about old -CURRENTs; they are listed here just for your reference.