1.5. boot1 Stage

So far we have gone through the following sequence:

boot1 is the next step in the boot-loading sequence. It is the first of three boot stages. Note that we have been dealing exclusively with disk sectors. Indeed, the BIOS loads the absolute first sector, while boot0 loads the first sector of the FreeBSD slice. Both loads are to address 0x7c00. We can conceptually think of these disk sectors as containing the files boot0 and boot1, respectively, but in reality this is not entirely true for boot1. Strictly speaking, unlike boot0, boot1 is not part of the boot blocks [3]. Instead, a single, full-blown file, boot (/boot/boot), is what ultimately is written to disk. This file is a combination of boot1, boot2 and the Boot Extender (or BTX). This single file is greater in size than a single sector (greater than 512 bytes). Fortunately, boot1 occupies exactly the first 512 bytes of this single file, so when boot0 loads the first sector of the FreeBSD slice (512 bytes), it is actually loading boot1 and transferring control to it.

The main task of boot1 is to load the next boot stage. This next stage is somewhat more complex. It is composed of a server called the Boot Extender, or BTX, and a client, called boot2. As we will see, the last boot stage, loader, is also a client of the BTX server.

Let us now look in detail at what exactly is done by boot1, starting like we did for boot0, at its entry point:

Figure 1.11. sys/boot/i386/boot2/boot1.S
	jmp main

The entry point at start simply jumps past a special data area to the label main, which in turn looks like this:

Figure 1.12. sys/boot/i386/boot2/boot1.S
      cld			# String ops inc
      xor %cx,%cx		# Zero
      mov %cx,%es		# Address
      mov %cx,%ds		#  data
      mov %cx,%ss		# Set up
      mov $start,%sp		#  stack
      mov %sp,%si		# Source
      mov $0x700,%di		# Destination
      incb %ch			# Word count
      rep			# Copy
      movsw			#  code

Just like boot0, this code relocates boot1, this time to memory address 0x700. However, unlike boot0, it does not jump there. boot1 is linked to execute at address 0x7c00, effectively where it was loaded in the first place. The reason for this relocation will be discussed shortly.

Next comes a loop that looks for the FreeBSD slice. Although boot0 loaded boot1 from the FreeBSD slice, no information was passed to it about this [4], so boot1 must rescan the partition table to find where the FreeBSD slice starts. Therefore it rereads the MBR:

Figure 1.13. sys/boot/i386/boot2/boot1.S
      mov $part4,%si		# Partition
      cmpb $0x80,%dl		# Hard drive?
      jb main.4			# No
      movb $0x1,%dh		# Block count
      callw nread		# Read MBR

In the code above, register %dl maintains information about the boot device. This is passed on by the BIOS and preserved by the MBR. Numbers 0x80 and greater tells us that we are dealing with a hard drive, so a call is made to nread, where the MBR is read. Arguments to nread are passed through %si and %dh. The memory address at label part4 is copied to %si. This memory address holds a fake partition to be used by nread. The following is the data in the fake partition:

Figure 1.14. sys/boot/i386/boot2/Makefile
	.byte 0x80, 0x00, 0x01, 0x00
	.byte 0xa5, 0xfe, 0xff, 0xff
	.byte 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00
	.byte 0x50, 0xc3, 0x00, 0x00

In particular, the LBA for this fake partition is hardcoded to zero. This is used as an argument to the BIOS for reading absolute sector one from the hard drive. Alternatively, CHS addressing could be used. In this case, the fake partition holds cylinder 0, head 0 and sector 1, which is equivalent to absolute sector one.

Let us now proceed to take a look at nread:

Figure 1.15. sys/boot/i386/boot2/boot1.S
      mov $0x8c00,%bx		# Transfer buffer
      mov 0x8(%si),%ax		# Get
      mov 0xa(%si),%cx		#  LBA
      push %cs			# Read from
      callw xread.1		#  disk
      jnc return		# If success, return

Recall that %si points to the fake partition. The word [5] at offset 0x8 is copied to register %ax and word at offset 0xa to %cx. They are interpreted by the BIOS as the lower 4-byte value denoting the LBA to be read (the upper four bytes are assumed to be zero). Register %bx holds the memory address where the MBR will be loaded. The instruction pushing %cs onto the stack is very interesting. In this context, it accomplishes nothing. However, as we will see shortly, boot2, in conjunction with the BTX server, also uses xread.1. This mechanism will be discussed in the next section.

The code at xread.1 further calls the read function, which actually calls the BIOS asking for the disk sector:

Figure 1.16. sys/boot/i386/boot2/boot1.S
	pushl $0x0		#  absolute
	push %cx		#  block
	push %ax		#  number
	push %es		# Address of
	push %bx		#  transfer buffer
	xor %ax,%ax		# Number of
	movb %dh,%al		#  blocks to
	push %ax		#  transfer
	push $0x10		# Size of packet
	mov %sp,%bp		# Packet pointer
	callw read		# Read from disk
	lea 0x10(%bp),%sp	# Clear stack
	lret			# To far caller

Note the long return instruction at the end of this block. This instruction pops out the %cs register pushed by nread, and returns. Finally, nread also returns.

With the MBR loaded to memory, the actual loop for searching the FreeBSD slice begins:

Figure 1.17. sys/boot/i386/boot2/boot1.S
	mov $0x1,%cx		 # Two passes
	mov $0x8dbe,%si # Partition table
	movb $0x1,%dh		 # Partition
	cmpb $0xa5,0x4(%si)	 # Our partition type?
	jne main.3		 # No
	jcxz main.5		 # If second pass
	testb $0x80,(%si)	 # Active?
	jnz main.5		 # Yes
	add $0x10,%si		 # Next entry
	incb %dh		 # Partition
	cmpb $0x5,%dh		 # In table?
	jb main.2		 # Yes
	dec %cx			 # Do two
	jcxz main.1		 #  passes

If a FreeBSD slice is identified, execution continues at main.5. Note that when a FreeBSD slice is found %si points to the appropriate entry in the partition table, and %dh holds the partition number. We assume that a FreeBSD slice is found, so we continue execution at main.5:

Figure 1.18. sys/boot/i386/boot2/boot1.S
	mov %dx,0x900			   # Save args
	movb $0x10,%dh			   # Sector count
	callw nread			   # Read disk
	mov $0x9000,%bx			   # BTX
	mov 0xa(%bx),%si		   # Get BTX length and set
	add %bx,%si			   #  %si to start of boot2.bin
	mov $0xc000,%di			   # Client page 2
	mov $0xa200,%cx			   # Byte
	sub %si,%cx			   #  count
	rep				   # Relocate
	movsb				   #  client

Recall that at this point, register %si points to the FreeBSD slice entry in the MBR partition table, so a call to nread will effectively read sectors at the beginning of this partition. The argument passed on register %dh tells nread to read 16 disk sectors. Recall that the first 512 bytes, or the first sector of the FreeBSD slice, coincides with the boot1 program. Also recall that the file written to the beginning of the FreeBSD slice is not /boot/boot1, but /boot/boot. Let us look at the size of these files in the filesystem:

-r--r--r--  1 root  wheel   512B Jan  8 00:15 /boot/boot0
-r--r--r--  1 root  wheel   512B Jan  8 00:15 /boot/boot1
-r--r--r--  1 root  wheel   7.5K Jan  8 00:15 /boot/boot2
-r--r--r--  1 root  wheel   8.0K Jan  8 00:15 /boot/boot

Both boot0 and boot1 are 512 bytes each, so they fit exactly in one disk sector. boot2 is much bigger, holding both the BTX server and the boot2 client. Finally, a file called simply boot is 512 bytes larger than boot2. This file is a concatenation of boot1 and boot2. As already noted, boot0 is the file written to the absolute first disk sector (the MBR), and boot is the file written to the first sector of the FreeBSD slice; boot1 and boot2 are not written to disk. The command used to concatenate boot1 and boot2 into a single boot is merely cat boot1 boot2 > boot.

So boot1 occupies exactly the first 512 bytes of boot and, because boot is written to the first sector of the FreeBSD slice, boot1 fits exactly in this first sector. Because nread reads the first 16 sectors of the FreeBSD slice, it effectively reads the entire boot file [6]. We will see more details about how boot is formed from boot1 and boot2 in the next section.

Recall that nread uses memory address 0x8c00 as the transfer buffer to hold the sectors read. This address is conveniently chosen. Indeed, because boot1 belongs to the first 512 bytes, it ends up in the address range 0x8c00-0x8dff. The 512 bytes that follows (range 0x8e00-0x8fff) is used to store the bsdlabel [7].

Starting at address 0x9000 is the beginning of the BTX server, and immediately following is the boot2 client. The BTX server acts as a kernel, and executes in protected mode in the most privileged level. In contrast, the BTX clients (boot2, for example), execute in user mode. We will see how this is accomplished in the next section. The code after the call to nread locates the beginning of boot2 in the memory buffer, and copies it to memory address 0xc000. This is because the BTX server arranges boot2 to execute in a segment starting at 0xa000. We explore this in detail in the following section.

The last code block of boot1 enables access to memory above 1MB [8] and concludes with a jump to the starting point of the BTX server:

Figure 1.19. sys/boot/i386/boot2/boot1.S
	cli			# Disable interrupts
	dec %cx			# Timeout?
	jz seta20.3		# Yes

	inb $0x64,%al		# Get status
	testb $0x2,%al		# Busy?
	jnz seta20.1		# Yes
	movb $0xd1,%al		# Command: Write
	outb %al,$0x64		#  output port
	inb $0x64,%al		# Get status
	testb $0x2,%al		# Busy?
	jnz seta20.2		# Yes
	movb $0xdf,%al		# Enable
	outb %al,$0x60		#  A20
	sti			# Enable interrupts
	jmp 0x9010		# Start BTX

Note that right before the jump, interrupts are enabled.

[3] There is a file /boot/boot1, but it is not the written to the beginning of the FreeBSD slice. Instead, it is concatenated with boot2 to form boot, which is written to the beginning of the FreeBSD slice and read at boot time.

[4] Actually we did pass a pointer to the slice entry in register %si. However, boot1 does not assume that it was loaded by boot0 (perhaps some other MBR loaded it, and did not pass this information), so it assumes nothing.

[5] In the context of 16-bit real mode, a word is 2 bytes.

[6] 512*16=8192 bytes, exactly the size of boot

[7] Historically known as disklabel. If you ever wondered where FreeBSD stored this information, it is in this region. See bsdlabel(8)

[8] This is necessary for legacy reasons. Interested readers should see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A20_line.

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