1.4. The Master Boot Record (boot0)

After control is received from the BIOS at memory address 0x7c00, boot0 starts executing. It is the first piece of code under FreeBSD control. The task of boot0 is quite simple: scan the partition table and let the user choose which partition to boot from. The Partition Table is a special, standard data structure embedded in the MBR (hence embedded in boot0) describing the four standard PC partitions [1]. boot0 resides in the filesystem as /boot/boot0. It is a small 512-byte file, and it is exactly what FreeBSD's installation procedure wrote to the hard disk's MBR if you chose the bootmanager option at installation time. Indeed, boot0 is the MBR.

As mentioned previously, the INT 0x19 instruction causes the INT 0x19 handler to load an MBR (boot0) into memory at address 0x7c00. The source file for boot0 can be found in sys/boot/i386/boot0/boot0.S - which is an awesome piece of code written by Robert Nordier.

A special structure starting from offset 0x1be in the MBR is called the partition table. It has four records of 16 bytes each, called partition records, which represent how the hard disk is partitioned, or, in FreeBSD's terminology, sliced. One byte of those 16 says whether a partition (slice) is bootable or not. Exactly one record must have that flag set, otherwise boot0's code will refuse to proceed.

A partition record has the following fields:

A partition record descriptor contains information about where exactly the partition resides on the drive. Both descriptors, LBA and CHS, describe the same information, but in different ways: LBA (Logical Block Addressing) has the starting sector for the partition and the partition's length, while CHS (Cylinder Head Sector) has coordinates for the first and last sectors of the partition. The partition table ends with the special signature 0xaa55.

The MBR must fit into 512 bytes, a single disk sector. This program uses low-level tricks like taking advantage of the side effects of certain instructions and reusing register values from previous operations to make the most out of the fewest possible instructions. Care must also be taken when handling the partition table, which is embedded in the MBR itself. For these reasons, be very careful when modifying boot0.S.

Note that the boot0.S source file is assembled as is: instructions are translated one by one to binary, with no additional information (no ELF file format, for example). This kind of low-level control is achieved at link time through special control flags passed to the linker. For example, the text section of the program is set to be located at address 0x600. In practice this means that boot0 must be loaded to memory address 0x600 in order to function properly.

It is worth looking at the Makefile for boot0 (sys/boot/i386/boot0/Makefile), as it defines some of the run-time behavior of boot0. For instance, if a terminal connected to the serial port (COM1) is used for I/O, the macro SIO must be defined (-DSIO). -DPXE enables boot through PXE by pressing F6. Additionally, the program defines a set of flags that allow further modification of its behavior. All of this is illustrated in the Makefile. For example, look at the linker directives which command the linker to start the text section at address 0x600, and to build the output file as is (strip out any file formatting):

Figure 1.1. sys/boot/i386/boot0/Makefile
      BOOT_BOOT0_ORG?=0x600
      LDFLAGS=-e start -Ttext ${BOOT_BOOT0_ORG} \
      -Wl,-N,-S,--oformat,binary

Let us now start our study of the MBR, or boot0, starting where execution begins.

Note:

Some modifications have been made to some instructions in favor of better exposition. For example, some macros are expanded, and some macro tests are omitted when the result of the test is known. This applies to all of the code examples shown.

Figure 1.2. sys/boot/i386/boot0/boot0.S
start:
      cld			# String ops inc
      xorw %ax,%ax		# Zero
      movw %ax,%es		# Address
      movw %ax,%ds		#  data
      movw %ax,%ss		# Set up
      movw 0x7c00,%sp		#  stack

This first block of code is the entry point of the program. It is where the BIOS transfers control. First, it makes sure that the string operations autoincrement its pointer operands (the cld instruction) [2]. Then, as it makes no assumption about the state of the segment registers, it initializes them. Finally, it sets the stack pointer register (%sp) to address 0x7c00, so we have a working stack.

The next block is responsible for the relocation and subsequent jump to the relocated code.

Figure 1.3. sys/boot/i386/boot0/boot0.S
      movw $0x7c00,%si	# Source
      movw $0x600,%di		# Destination
      movw $512,%cx		# Word count
      rep			# Relocate
      movsb			#  code
      movw %di,%bp		# Address variables
      movb $16,%cl		# Words to clear
      rep			# Zero
      stosb			#  them
      incb -0xe(%di)		# Set the S field to 1
      jmp main-0x7c00+0x600	# Jump to relocated code

Because boot0 is loaded by the BIOS to address 0x7C00, it copies itself to address 0x600 and then transfers control there (recall that it was linked to execute at address 0x600). The source address, 0x7c00, is copied to register %si. The destination address, 0x600, to register %di. The number of bytes to copy, 512 (the program's size), is copied to register %cx. Next, the rep instruction repeats the instruction that follows, that is, movsb, the number of times dictated by the %cx register. The movsb instruction copies the byte pointed to by %si to the address pointed to by %di. This is repeated another 511 times. On each repetition, both the source and destination registers, %si and %di, are incremented by one. Thus, upon completion of the 512-byte copy, %di has the value 0x600+512= 0x800, and %si has the value 0x7c00+512= 0x7e00; we have thus completed the code relocation.

Next, the destination register %di is copied to %bp. %bp gets the value 0x800. The value 16 is copied to %cl in preparation for a new string operation (like our previous movsb). Now, stosb is executed 16 times. This instruction copies a 0 value to the address pointed to by the destination register (%di, which is 0x800), and increments it. This is repeated another 15 times, so %di ends up with value 0x810. Effectively, this clears the address range 0x800-0x80f. This range is used as a (fake) partition table for writing the MBR back to disk. Finally, the sector field for the CHS addressing of this fake partition is given the value 1 and a jump is made to the main function from the relocated code. Note that until this jump to the relocated code, any reference to an absolute address was avoided.

The following code block tests whether the drive number provided by the BIOS should be used, or the one stored in boot0.

Figure 1.4. sys/boot/i386/boot0/boot0.S
main:
      testb $SETDRV,-69(%bp)	# Set drive number?
      jnz disable_update	# Yes
      testb %dl,%dl		# Drive number valid?
      js save_curdrive		# Possibly (0x80 set)

This code tests the SETDRV bit (0x20) in the flags variable. Recall that register %bp points to address location 0x800, so the test is done to the flags variable at address 0x800-69= 0x7bb. This is an example of the type of modifications that can be done to boot0. The SETDRV flag is not set by default, but it can be set in the Makefile. When set, the drive number stored in the MBR is used instead of the one provided by the BIOS. We assume the defaults, and that the BIOS provided a valid drive number, so we jump to save_curdrive.

The next block saves the drive number provided by the BIOS, and calls putn to print a new line on the screen.

Figure 1.5. sys/boot/i386/boot0/boot0.S
save_curdrive:
      movb %dl, (%bp)		# Save drive number
      pushw %dx			# Also in the stack
#ifdef	TEST	/* test code, print internal bios drive */
      rolb $1, %dl
      movw $drive, %si
      call putkey
#endif
      callw putn		# Print a newline

Note that we assume TEST is not defined, so the conditional code in it is not assembled and will not appear in our executable boot0.

Our next block implements the actual scanning of the partition table. It prints to the screen the partition type for each of the four entries in the partition table. It compares each type with a list of well-known operating system file systems. Examples of recognized partition types are NTFS (Windows®, ID 0x7), ext2fs (Linux®, ID 0x83), and, of course, ffs/ufs2 (FreeBSD, ID 0xa5). The implementation is fairly simple.

Figure 1.6. sys/boot/i386/boot0/boot0.S
      movw $(partbl+0x4),%bx	# Partition table (+4)
      xorw %dx,%dx		# Item number

read_entry:
      movb %ch,-0x4(%bx)	# Zero active flag (ch == 0)
      btw %dx,_FLAGS(%bp)	# Entry enabled?
      jnc next_entry		# No
      movb (%bx),%al		# Load type
      test %al, %al		# skip empty partition
      jz next_entry
      movw $bootable_ids,%di	# Lookup tables
      movb $(TLEN+1),%cl	# Number of entries
      repne			# Locate
      scasb			#  type
      addw $(TLEN-1), %di	# Adjust
      movb (%di),%cl		# Partition
      addw %cx,%di		#  description
      callw putx		# Display it

next_entry:
      incw %dx			# Next item
      addb $0x10,%bl		# Next entry
      jnc read_entry		# Till done

It is important to note that the active flag for each entry is cleared, so after the scanning, no partition entry is active in our memory copy of boot0. Later, the active flag will be set for the selected partition. This ensures that only one active partition exists if the user chooses to write the changes back to disk.

The next block tests for other drives. At startup, the BIOS writes the number of drives present in the computer to address 0x475. If there are any other drives present, boot0 prints the current drive to screen. The user may command boot0 to scan partitions on another drive later.

Figure 1.7. sys/boot/i386/boot0/boot0.S
      popw %ax			# Drive number
      subb $0x79,%al		# Does next
      cmpb 0x475,%al		#  drive exist? (from BIOS?)
      jb print_drive		# Yes
      decw %ax			# Already drive 0?
      jz print_prompt		# Yes

We make the assumption that a single drive is present, so the jump to print_drive is not performed. We also assume nothing strange happened, so we jump to print_prompt.

This next block just prints out a prompt followed by the default option:

Figure 1.8. sys/boot/i386/boot0/boot0.S
print_prompt:
      movw $prompt,%si		# Display
      callw putstr		#  prompt
      movb _OPT(%bp),%dl	# Display
      decw %si			#  default
      callw putkey		#  key
      jmp start_input		# Skip beep

Finally, a jump is performed to start_input, where the BIOS services are used to start a timer and for reading user input from the keyboard; if the timer expires, the default option will be selected:

Figure 1.9. sys/boot/i386/boot0/boot0.S
start_input:
      xorb %ah,%ah		# BIOS: Get
      int $0x1a			#  system time
      movw %dx,%di		# Ticks when
      addw _TICKS(%bp),%di	#  timeout
read_key:
      movb $0x1,%ah		# BIOS: Check
      int $0x16			#  for keypress
      jnz got_key		# Have input
      xorb %ah,%ah		# BIOS: int 0x1a, 00
      int $0x1a			#  get system time
      cmpw %di,%dx		# Timeout?
      jb read_key		# No

An interrupt is requested with number 0x1a and argument 0 in register %ah. The BIOS has a predefined set of services, requested by applications as software-generated interrupts through the int instruction and receiving arguments in registers (in this case, %ah). Here, particularly, we are requesting the number of clock ticks since last midnight; this value is computed by the BIOS through the RTC (Real Time Clock). This clock can be programmed to work at frequencies ranging from 2 Hz to 8192 Hz. The BIOS sets it to 18.2 Hz at startup. When the request is satisfied, a 32-bit result is returned by the BIOS in registers %cx and %dx (lower bytes in %dx). This result (the %dx part) is copied to register %di, and the value of the TICKS variable is added to %di. This variable resides in boot0 at offset _TICKS (a negative value) from register %bp (which, recall, points to 0x800). The default value of this variable is 0xb6 (182 in decimal). Now, the idea is that boot0 constantly requests the time from the BIOS, and when the value returned in register %dx is greater than the value stored in %di, the time is up and the default selection will be made. Since the RTC ticks 18.2 times per second, this condition will be met after 10 seconds (this default behaviour can be changed in the Makefile). Until this time has passed, boot0 continually asks the BIOS for any user input; this is done through int 0x16, argument 1 in %ah.

Whether a key was pressed or the time expired, subsequent code validates the selection. Based on the selection, the register %si is set to point to the appropriate partition entry in the partition table. This new selection overrides the previous default one. Indeed, it becomes the new default. Finally, the ACTIVE flag of the selected partition is set. If it was enabled at compile time, the in-memory version of boot0 with these modified values is written back to the MBR on disk. We leave the details of this implementation to the reader.

We now end our study with the last code block from the boot0 program:

Figure 1.10. sys/boot/i386/boot0/boot0.S
      movw $0x7c00,%bx		# Address for read
      movb $0x2,%ah		# Read sector
      callw intx13		#  from disk
      jc beep			# If error
      cmpw $0xaa55,0x1fe(%bx)	# Bootable?
      jne beep			# No
      pushw %si			# Save ptr to selected part.
      callw putn		# Leave some space
      popw %si			# Restore, next stage uses it
      jmp *%bx			# Invoke bootstrap

Recall that %si points to the selected partition entry. This entry tells us where the partition begins on disk. We assume, of course, that the partition selected is actually a FreeBSD slice.

Note:

From now on, we will favor the use of the technically more accurate term slice rather than partition.

The transfer buffer is set to 0x7c00 (register %bx), and a read for the first sector of the FreeBSD slice is requested by calling intx13. We assume that everything went okay, so a jump to beep is not performed. In particular, the new sector read must end with the magic sequence 0xaa55. Finally, the value at %si (the pointer to the selected partition table) is preserved for use by the next stage, and a jump is performed to address 0x7c00, where execution of our next stage (the just-read block) is started.



[2] When in doubt, we refer the reader to the official Intel manuals, which describe the exact semantics for each instruction: http://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/processors/architectures-software-developer-manuals.html.

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