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ZSH(1)									ZSH(1)

NAME
       zsh - the Z shell

SYNOPSIS
       Because	zsh contains many features, the	zsh manual has been split into
       a number	of sections:

       zsh	    Zsh	overview (this section)
       zshmisc	    Anything not fitting into the other	sections
       zshexpn	    Zsh	command	and parameter expansion
       zshparam	    Zsh	parameters
       zshoptions   Zsh	options
       zshbuiltins  Zsh	built-in functions
       zshzle	    Zsh	command	line editing
       zshcompwid   Zsh	completion widgets
       zshcompsys   Zsh	completion system
       zshcompctl   Zsh	completion control
       zshmodules   Zsh	loadable modules
       zshzftpsys   Zsh	built-in FTP client
       zshall	    Meta-man page containing all of the	above

DESCRIPTION
       Zsh is a	UNIX command interpreter  (shell)  usable  as  an  interactive
       login  shell  and as a shell script command processor.  Of the standard
       shells, zsh most	closely	resembles ksh but includes many	 enhancements.
       Zsh has command line editing, builtin spelling correction, programmable
       command completion, shell functions (with autoloading), a history mech-
       anism, and a host of other features.

AUTHOR
       Zsh  was	 originally  written by	Paul Falstad <pf@zsh.org>.  Zsh	is now
       maintained by the members of the	zsh-workers  mailing  list  <zsh-work-
       ers@sunsite.dk>.	  The  development  is	currently coordinated by Peter
       Stephenson <pws@zsh.org>.  The coordinator can be contacted at <coordi-
       nator@zsh.org>, but matters relating to the code	should generally go to
       the mailing list.

AVAILABILITY
       Zsh is available	from the following anonymous FTP sites.	 These	mirror
       sites are kept frequently up to date.  The sites	marked with (H)	may be
       mirroring ftp.cs.elte.hu	instead	of the primary site.

       Primary site
	      ftp://ftp.zsh.org/pub/zsh/
	      http://www.zsh.org/pub/zsh/

       Australia
	      ftp://ftp.zsh.org/pub/zsh/
	      http://www.zsh.org/pub/zsh/
	      ftp://ftp.ips.gov.au/pub/packages/zsh/  (H)

       Denmark
	      ftp://sunsite.dk/pub/unix/shells/zsh/

       Finland
	      ftp://ftp.funet.fi/pub/unix/shells/zsh/

       France
	      ftp://ftp.cenatls.cena.dgac.fr/shells/zsh/

       Germany
	      ftp://ftp.fu-berlin.de/pub/unix/shells/zsh/  (H)
	      ftp://ftp.gmd.de/packages/zsh/
	      ftp://ftp.uni-trier.de/pub/unix/shell/zsh/

       Hungary
	      ftp://ftp.cs.elte.hu/pub/zsh/
	      http://www.cs.elte.hu/pub/zsh/
	      ftp://ftp.kfki.hu/pub/packages/zsh/

       Israel
	      ftp://ftp.math.technion.ac.il/pub/zsh/
	      http://www.math.technion.ac.il/pub/zsh/

       Italy
	      ftp://ftp.unina.it/pub/Unix/pkgs/shell/zsh/

       Japan
	      ftp://ftp.nisiq.net/pub/shells/zsh/  (H)
	      ftp://ftp.win.ne.jp/pub/shell/zsh/

       Norway
	      ftp://ftp.uit.no/pub/unix/shells/zsh/

       Poland
	      ftp://sunsite.icm.edu.pl/pub/unix/shells/zsh/

       Romania
	      ftp://ftp.roedu.net/pub/mirrors/ftp.zsh.org/pub/zsh/
	      ftp://ftp.kappa.ro/pub/mirrors/ftp.zsh.org/pub/zsh/

       Slovenia
	      ftp://ftp.siol.net/mirrors/zsh/

       Sweden
	      ftp://ftp.lysator.liu.se/pub/unix/zsh/

       UK
	      ftp://ftp.net.lut.ac.uk/zsh/
	      ftp://sunsite.org.uk/packages/zsh/

       USA
	      ftp://uiarchive.uiuc.edu/pub/packages/shells/zsh/
	      ftp://ftp.rge.com/pub/shells/zsh/
	      ftp://foad.org/pub/zsh/
	      http://foad.org/zsh/

MAILING	LISTS
       Zsh has 3 mailing lists:

       <zsh-announce@sunsite.dk>
	      Announcements about releases, major changes in the shell and the
	      monthly posting of the Zsh FAQ.  (moderated)

       <zsh-users@sunsite.dk>
	      User discussions.

       <zsh-workers@sunsite.dk>
	      Hacking, development, bug	reports	and patches.

       To subscribe or unsubscribe, send mail to the associated	administrative
       address for the mailing list.

       <zsh-announce-subscribe@sunsite.dk>
       <zsh-users-subscribe@sunsite.dk>
       <zsh-workers-subscribe@sunsite.dk>
       <zsh-announce-unsubscribe@sunsite.dk>
       <zsh-users-unsubscribe@sunsite.dk>
       <zsh-workers-unsubscribe@sunsite.dk>

       YOU ONLY	NEED TO	JOIN ONE OF THE	MAILING	LISTS AS THEY ARE NESTED.  All
       submissions  to	zsh-announce are automatically forwarded to zsh-users.
       All submissions to zsh-users are	automatically forwarded	 to  zsh-work-
       ers.

       If  you	have  problems subscribing/unsubscribing to any	of the mailing
       lists, send mail	to <listmaster@zsh.org>.  The mailing lists are	 main-
       tained by Karsten Thygesen <karthy@kom.auc.dk>.

       The  mailing  lists  are	archived; the archives can be accessed via the
       administrative addresses	listed above.  There is	also a	hypertext  ar-
       chive,	maintained   by	  Geoff	  Wing	 <gcw@zsh.org>,	 available  at
       http://www.zsh.org/mla/.

THE ZSH	FAQ
       Zsh has a list of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ), maintained by Peter
       Stephenson  <pws@zsh.org>.   It	is  regularly  posted to the newsgroup
       comp.unix.shell and the zsh-announce mailing list.  The latest  version
       can    be    found   at	 any   of   the	  Zsh	FTP   sites,   or   at
       http://www.zsh.org/FAQ/.	 The contact address for  FAQ-related  matters
       is <faqmaster@zsh.org>.

THE ZSH	WEB PAGE
       Zsh  has	 a  web	page which is located at http://www.zsh.org/.  This is
       maintained by Karsten Thygesen <karthy@zsh.org>,	 of  SunSITE  Denmark.
       The contact address for web-related matters is <webmaster@zsh.org>.

THE ZSH	USERGUIDE
       A  userguide is currently in preparation.  It is	intended to complement
       the manual, with	explanations and hints on issues where the manual  can
       be cabbalistic, hierographic, or	downright mystifying (for example, the
       word `hierographic' does	not exist).  It	can be viewed in  its  current
       state  at  http://zsh.sunsite.dk/Guide/.	 At the	time of	writing, chap-
       ters dealing with startup files and their contents and the new  comple-
       tion system were	essentially complete.

INVOCATION OPTIONS
       The following flags are interpreted by the shell	when invoked to	deter-
       mine where the shell will read commands from:

       -c     Take the first argument as a command  to	execute,  rather  than
	      reading  commands	 from a	script or standard input.  If any fur-
	      ther arguments are given,	the  first  one	 is  assigned  to  $0,
	      rather than being	used as	a positional parameter.

       -i     Force shell to be	interactive.

       -s     Force shell to read commands from	the standard input.  If	the -s
	      flag is not present and an argument is given, the	first argument
	      is taken to be the pathname of a script to execute.

       After  the  first  one  or  two	arguments  have	 been  appropriated as
       described above,	the remaining arguments	are assigned to	the positional
       parameters.

       For  further  options,  which  are  common  to  invocation  and the set
       builtin,	see zshoptions(1).

       Options may be specified	by name	using the -o option.  -o acts  like  a
       single-letter  option, but takes	a following string as the option name.
       For example,

	      zsh -x -o	shwordsplit scr

       runs the	script scr, setting the	XTRACE	option	by  the	 corresponding
       letter  `-x'  and  the  SH_WORD_SPLIT  option  by name.	Options	may be
       turned off by name by using +o instead of -o.  -o  can  be  stacked  up
       with  preceding single-letter options, so for example `-xo shwordsplit'
       or `-xoshwordsplit' is equivalent to `-x	-o shwordsplit'.

       Options may also	be  specified  by  name	 in  GNU  long	option	style,
       `--option-name'.	  When this is done, `-' characters in the option name
       are permitted: they are translated into `_', and	thus ignored.  So, for
       example,	 `zsh  --sh-word-split'	 invokes  zsh  with  the SH_WORD_SPLIT
       option turned on.  Like other option syntaxes, options  can  be	turned
       off  by replacing the initial `-' with a	`+'; thus `+-sh-word-split' is
       equivalent to  `--no-sh-word-split'.   Unlike  other  option  syntaxes,
       GNU-style long options cannot be	stacked	with any other options,	so for
       example `-x-shwordsplit'	is an error, rather than  being	 treated  like
       `-x --shwordsplit'.

       The  special GNU-style option `--version' is handled; it	sends to stan-
       dard output the shell's version information, then  exits	 successfully.
       `--help'	is also	handled; it sends to standard output a list of options
       that can	be used	when invoking the shell, then exits successfully.

       Option processing may be	finished, allowing  following  arguments  that
       start  with  `-'	or `+' to be treated as	normal arguments, in two ways.
       Firstly,	a lone `-' (or `+') as an argument by itself ends option  pro-
       cessing.	 Secondly, a special option `--' (or `+-'), which may be spec-
       ified on	its own	(which is the standard POSIX usage) or may be  stacked
       with  preceding	options	 (so `-x-' is equivalent to `-x	--').  Options
       are not permitted to be stacked after `--' (so `-x-f' is	an error), but
       note  the  GNU-style option form	discussed above, where `--shwordsplit'
       is permitted and	does not end option processing.

       Except when the sh/ksh emulation	single-letter options are  in  effect,
       the  option  `-b' (or `+b') ends	option processing.  `-b' is like `--',
       except that further single-letter options can be	stacked	after the `-b'
       and will	take effect as normal.

COMPATIBILITY
       Zsh  tries to emulate sh	or ksh when it is invoked as sh	or ksh respec-
       tively; more precisely, it looks	at the first letter  of	 the  name  by
       which  it  was invoked, excluding any initial `r' (assumed to stand for
       `restricted'), and if that is `s' or `k'	it will	 emulate  sh  or  ksh.
       Furthermore,  if	 invoked  as su	(which happens on certain systems when
       the shell is executed by	the su command), the shell will	try to find an
       alternative name	from the SHELL environment variable and	perform	emula-
       tion based on that.

       In sh and ksh compatibility modes the following parameters are not spe-
       cial  and  not  initialized  by the shell: ARGC,	argv, cdpath, fignore,
       fpath, HISTCHARS, mailpath, MANPATH,  manpath,  path,  prompt,  PROMPT,
       PROMPT2,	PROMPT3, PROMPT4, psvar, status, watch.

       The  usual zsh startup/shutdown scripts are not executed.  Login	shells
       source /etc/profile followed by $HOME/.profile.	If the ENV environment
       variable	 is  set  on  invocation,  $ENV	 is  sourced after the profile
       scripts.	 The value of ENV is subjected to parameter expansion, command
       substitution,  and  arithmetic  expansion before	being interpreted as a
       pathname.  Note that the	PRIVILEGED option also affects	the  execution
       of startup files.

       The  following  options	are  set if the	shell is invoked as sh or ksh:
       NO_BAD_PATTERN,	 NO_BANG_HIST,	 NO_BG_NICE,	NO_EQUALS,    NO_FUNC-
       TION_ARGZERO,  GLOB_SUBST,  NO_GLOBAL_EXPORT,  NO_HUP, INTERACTIVE_COM-
       MENTS, KSH_ARRAYS, NO_MULTIOS, NO_NOMATCH,  NO_NOTIFY,  POSIX_BUILTINS,
       NO_PROMPT_PERCENT,    RM_STAR_SILENT,	SH_FILE_EXPANSION,    SH_GLOB,
       SH_OPTION_LETTERS,  SH_WORD_SPLIT.   Additionally  the	BSD_ECHO   and
       IGNORE_BRACES  options  are  set	 if  zsh  is invoked as	sh.  Also, the
       KSH_OPTION_PRINT, LOCAL_OPTIONS,	 PROMPT_BANG,  PROMPT_SUBST  and  SIN-
       GLE_LINE_ZLE options are	set if zsh is invoked as ksh.

RESTRICTED SHELL
       When  the  basename  of	the command used to invoke zsh starts with the
       letter `r' or the `-r' command line option is supplied  at  invocation,
       the  shell  becomes  restricted.	  Emulation  mode  is determined after
       stripping the letter `r'	from the invocation name.  The	following  are
       disabled	in restricted mode:

       o      changing directories with	the cd builtin

       o      changing	or unsetting the PATH, path, MODULE_PATH, module_path,
	      SHELL, HISTFILE,	HISTSIZE,  GID,	 EGID,	UID,  EUID,  USERNAME,
	      LD_LIBRARY_PATH,	   LD_AOUT_LIBRARY_PATH,     LD_PRELOAD	   and
	      LD_AOUT_PRELOAD parameters

       o      specifying command names containing /

       o      specifying command pathnames using hash

       o      redirecting output to files

       o      using the	exec builtin command to	replace	the shell with another
	      command

       o      using jobs -Z to overwrite the shell process' argument and envi-
	      ronment space

       o      using the	ARGV0 parameter	to override argv[0] for	external  com-
	      mands

       o      turning off restricted mode with set +r or unsetopt RESTRICTED

       These  restrictions  are	 enforced  after processing the	startup	files.
       The startup files should	set up PATH to point to	a  directory  of  com-
       mands  which can	be safely invoked in the restricted environment.  They
       may also	add further restrictions by disabling selected builtins.

       Restricted  mode	 can  also  be	activated  any	time  by  setting  the
       RESTRICTED  option.   This  immediately	enables	 all  the restrictions
       described above even if the shell still has not processed  all  startup
       files.

STARTUP/SHUTDOWN FILES
       Commands	 are  first  read from /etc/zshenv; this cannot	be overridden.
       Subsequent behaviour is modified	by the RCS and GLOBAL_RCS options; the
       former  affects	all startup files, while the second only affects those
       in the /etc directory.  If one of the options is	unset  at  any	point,
       any  subsequent	startup	 file(s) of the	corresponding type will	not be
       read.  It is  also  possible  for  a  file  in  $ZDOTDIR	 to  re-enable
       GLOBAL_RCS. Both	RCS and	GLOBAL_RCS are set by default.

       Commands	 are then read from $ZDOTDIR/.zshenv.  If the shell is a login
       shell, commands are read	from /etc/zprofile  and	 then  $ZDOTDIR/.zpro-
       file.   Then,  if  the  shell  is  interactive,	commands are read from
       /etc/zshrc and then $ZDOTDIR/.zshrc.  Finally, if the shell is a	 login
       shell, /etc/zlogin and $ZDOTDIR/.zlogin are read.

       When  a	login  shell  exits,  the  files  $ZDOTDIR/.zlogout  and  then
       /etc/zlogout are	read.  This happens with either	an explicit  exit  via
       the exit	or logout commands, or an implicit exit	by reading end-of-file
       from the	terminal.  However, if the shell terminates  due  to  exec'ing
       another	process,  the  logout  files  are  not	read.	These are also
       affected	by the RCS and GLOBAL_RCS options.  Note  also	that  the  RCS
       option  affects	the saving of history files, i.e. if RCS is unset when
       the shell exits,	no history file	will be	saved.

       If ZDOTDIR is unset, HOME is used instead.  Those files listed above as
       being  in  /etc may be in another directory, depending on the installa-
       tion.

       As /etc/zshenv is run for all instances of zsh, it is important that it
       be  kept	as small as possible.  In particular, it is a good idea	to put
       code that does not need to be run for every single shell	behind a  test
       of the form `if [[ -o rcs ]]; then ...' so that it will not be executed
       when zsh	is invoked with	the `-f' option.

       Any of these files may be pre-compiled with the zcompile	 builtin  com-
       mand  (see  zshbuiltins(1)).   If a compiled file exists	(named for the
       original	file plus the .zwc extension) and it is	newer than the	origi-
       nal file, the compiled file will	be used	instead.

FILES
       $ZDOTDIR/.zshenv
       $ZDOTDIR/.zprofile
       $ZDOTDIR/.zshrc
       $ZDOTDIR/.zlogin
       $ZDOTDIR/.zlogout
       ${TMPPREFIX}*   (default	is /tmp/zsh*)
       /etc/zshenv
       /etc/zprofile
       /etc/zshrc
       /etc/zlogin
       /etc/zlogout    (installation-specific -	/etc is	the default)

SEE ALSO
       sh(1), csh(1), tcsh(1), rc(1), bash(1), ksh(1), zshbuiltins(1), zshcom-
       pwid(1),	zshcompsys(1), zshcompctl(1), zshexpn(1), zshmisc(1),  zshmod-
       ules(1),	zshoptions(1), zshparam(1), zshzle(1)

       IEEE  Standard  for  information	Technology - Portable Operating	System
       Interface (POSIX) - Part	2: Shell and Utilities,	IEEE Inc,  1993,  ISBN
       1-55937-255-9.

zsh 4.0.6			August 14, 2002				ZSH(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | AUTHOR | AVAILABILITY | MAILING LISTS | THE ZSH FAQ | THE ZSH WEB PAGE | THE ZSH USERGUIDE | INVOCATION OPTIONS | COMPATIBILITY | RESTRICTED SHELL | STARTUP/SHUTDOWN FILES | FILES | SEE ALSO

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