Skip site navigation (1)Skip section navigation (2)

FreeBSD Man Pages

Man Page or Keyword Search:
Man Architecture
Apropos Keyword Search (all sections) Output format
home | help
write(1)			 User Commands			      write(1)

NAME
       write - write to	another	user

SYNOPSIS
       write user [terminal]

DESCRIPTION
       The write utility reads lines from the user's standard input and	writes
       them to the terminal of another user. When first	invoked, it writes the
       message:

       Message from sender-login-id (sending-terminal) [date]...

       to  user.  When	it  has	 successfully  completed  the  connection, the
       sender's	terminal will be alerted  twice	 to  indicate  that  what  the
       sender is typing	is being written to the	recipient's terminal.

       If the recipient	wants to reply,	this can be accomplished by typing

       write sender-login-id [sending-terminal]

       upon receipt of the initial message. Whenever a line of input as	delim-
       ited by a <NL>, <EOF>, or <EOL> special character is accumulated	 while
       in  canonical  input  mode, the accumulated data	will be	written	on the
       other user's terminal. Characters are processed as follows:

	  o  Typing the	alert character	will write the alert character to  the
	     recipient's terminal.

	  o  Typing  the  erase	 and  kill characters will affect the sender's
	     terminal in the manner described by the termios(3C) interface.

	  o  Typing the	interrupt or end-of-file characters will  cause	 write
	     to	 write an appropriate message (EOT\n in	the "C"	locale)	to the
	     recipient's terminal and exit.

	  o  Typing characters from LC_CTYPE classifications  print  or	 space
	     will  cause those characters to be	sent to	the recipient's	termi-
	     nal.

	  o  When and only when	the stty iexten	local mode is  enabled,	 addi-
	     tional  special  control characters and multi-byte	or single-byte
	     characters	are processed as printable characters  if  their  wide
	     character equivalents are printable.

	  o  Typing other non-printable	characters will	cause them to be writ-
	     ten to the	recipient's terminal as	 follows:  control  characters
	     will appear as a `^' followed by the appropriate ASCII character,
	     and characters with the high-order	bit set	will appear in	"meta"
	     notation.	For example, `\003' is displayed as `^C' and `\372' as
	     `M-z'.

       To write	to a user who is logged	in more	than once, the terminal	 argu-
       ment can	be used	to indicate which terminal to write to;	otherwise, the
       recipient's terminal is the first writable instance of the  user	 found
       in  /usr/adm/utmpx,  and	 the  following	 informational message will be
       written to the sender's standard	output,	indicating which terminal  was
       chosen:

       user is logged on more than one place.
       You are connected to terminal.
       Other locations are:terminal

       Permission  to  be  a  recipient	 of  a	write message can be denied or
       granted by use of the mesg utility. However,  a	user's	privilege  may
       further	constrain  the	domain of accessibility	of other users'	termi-
       nals. The write utility will fail when the user lacks  the  appropriate
       privileges to perform the requested action.

       If the character	! is found at the beginning of a line, write calls the
       shell to	execute	the rest of the	line as	a command.

       write runs setgid() (see	setuid(2)) to the group	ID tty,	 in  order  to
       have write permissions on other user's terminals.

       The  following  protocol	 is  suggested for using write:	when you first
       write to	another	user, wait for them to write back before  starting  to
       send.  Each person should end a message with a distinctive signal (that
       is, (o) for ``over'') so	that the other person knows when to reply. The
       signal (oo) (for	``over and out'') is suggested when conversation is to
       be terminated.

OPERANDS
       The following operands are supported:

       user  User (login) name of the person to	whom the message will be writ-
	     ten.  This	 operand  must	be  of the form	returned by the	who(1)
	     utility.

       terminal
	     Terminal identification in	the same format	provided  by  the  who
	     utility.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       See  environ(5) for descriptions	of the following environment variables
       that affect the execution of write: LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, and NLSPATH.

EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values are returned:

       0     Successful	completion.

       >0    The  addressed user is not	logged on or the addressed user	denies
	     permission.

FILES
       /var/adm/utmpx
	     user and accounting information for write

       /usr/bin/sh
	     Bourne shell executable file

ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |      ATTRIBUTE	TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Availability		     |SUNWcsu			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |CSI			     |enabled			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+

SEE ALSO
       mail(1),	 mesg(1),  pr(1),  sh(1),   talk(1),   who(1),	 setuid	  (2),
       termios(3C), attributes(5), environ(5)

DIAGNOSTICS
       user is not logged on
	     The person	you are	trying to write	to is not logged on.

       Permission denied
	     The  person  you  are  trying  to write to	denies that permission
	     (with mesg).

       Warning:	cannot respond,	set mesg -y
	     Your terminal is set to mesg n and	the recipient  cannot  respond
	     to	you.

       Can no longer write to user
	     The  recipient  has  denied  permission  (mesg  n)	 after you had
	     started writing.

SunOS 5.9			  3 Nov	2000			      write(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPERANDS | ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES | EXIT STATUS | FILES | ATTRIBUTES | SEE ALSO | DIAGNOSTICS

Want to link to this manual page? Use this URL:
<http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=write&sektion=1&manpath=SunOS+5.9>

home | help