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WPRINTF(3)	       FreeBSD Library Functions Manual		    WPRINTF(3)

NAME
     wprintf, fwprintf,	swprintf, vwprintf, vfwprintf, vswprintf -- formatted
     wide character output conversion

LIBRARY
     Standard C	Library	(libc, -lc)

SYNOPSIS
     #include <stdio.h>
     #include <wchar.h>

     int
     fwprintf(FILE * restrict stream, const wchar_t * restrict format, ...);

     int
     swprintf(wchar_t *	restrict ws, size_t n,
	 const wchar_t * restrict format, ...);

     int
     wprintf(const wchar_t * restrict format, ...);

     #include <stdarg.h>

     int
     vfwprintf(FILE * restrict stream, const wchar_t * restrict, va_list ap);

     int
     vswprintf(wchar_t * restrict ws, size_t n,
	 const wchar_t *restrict format, va_list ap);

     int
     vwprintf(const wchar_t * restrict format, va_list ap);

DESCRIPTION
     The wprintf() family of functions produces	output according to a format
     as	described below.  The wprintf()	and vwprintf() functions write output
     to	stdout,	the standard output stream; fwprintf() and vfwprintf() write
     output to the given output	stream;	swprintf() and vswprintf() write to
     the wide character	string ws.

     These functions write the output under the	control	of a format string
     that specifies how	subsequent arguments (or arguments accessed via	the
     variable-length argument facilities of stdarg(3)) are converted for out-
     put.

     These functions return the	number of characters printed (not including
     the trailing `\0' used to end output to strings).

     The swprintf() and	vswprintf() functions will fail	if n or	more wide
     characters	were requested to be written,

     The format	string is composed of zero or more directives: ordinary	char-
     acters (not %), which are copied unchanged	to the output stream; and con-
     version specifications, each of which results in fetching zero or more
     subsequent	arguments.  Each conversion specification is introduced	by the
     % character.  The arguments must correspond properly (after type promo-
     tion) with	the conversion specifier.  After the %,	the following appear
     in	sequence:

     +o	 An optional field, consisting of a decimal digit string followed by a
	 $, specifying the next	argument to access.  If	this field is not pro-
	 vided,	the argument following the last	argument accessed will be
	 used.	Arguments are numbered starting	at 1.  If unaccessed arguments
	 in the	format string are interspersed with ones that are accessed the
	 results will be indeterminate.

     +o	 Zero or more of the following flags:

	 `#'	      The value	should be converted to an ``alternate form''.
		      For c, d,	i, n, p, s, and	u conversions, this option has
		      no effect.  For o	conversions, the precision of the num-
		      ber is increased to force	the first character of the
		      output string to a zero (except if a zero	value is
		      printed with an explicit precision of zero).  For	x and
		      X	conversions, a non-zero	result has the string `0x' (or
		      `0X' for X conversions) prepended	to it.	For a, A, e,
		      E, f, F, g, and G	conversions, the result	will always
		      contain a	decimal	point, even if no digits follow	it
		      (normally, a decimal point appears in the	results	of
		      those conversions	only if	a digit	follows).  For g and G
		      conversions, trailing zeros are not removed from the
		      result as	they would otherwise be.

	 `0' (zero)   Zero padding.  For all conversions except	n, the con-
		      verted value is padded on	the left with zeros rather
		      than blanks.  If a precision is given with a numeric
		      conversion (d, i,	o, u, i, x, and	X), the	0 flag is
		      ignored.

	 `-'	      A	negative field width flag; the converted value is to
		      be left adjusted on the field boundary.  Except for n
		      conversions, the converted value is padded on the	right
		      with blanks, rather than on the left with	blanks or
		      zeros.  A	- overrides a 0	if both	are given.

	 ` ' (space)  A	blank should be	left before a positive number produced
		      by a signed conversion (a, A, d, e, E, f,	F, g, G, or
		      i).

	 `+'	      A	sign must always be placed before a number produced by
		      a	signed conversion.  A +	overrides a space if both are
		      used.

	 `''	      Decimal conversions (d, u, or i) or the integral portion
		      of a floating point conversion (f	or F) should be
		      grouped and separated by thousands using the non-mone-
		      tary separator returned by localeconv(3).

     +o	 An optional decimal digit string specifying a minimum field width.
	 If the	converted value	has fewer characters than the field width, it
	 will be padded	with spaces on the left	(or right, if the left-adjust-
	 ment flag has been given) to fill out the field width.

     +o	 An optional precision,	in the form of a period	. followed by an
	 optional digit	string.	 If the	digit string is	omitted, the precision
	 is taken as zero.  This gives the minimum number of digits to appear
	 for d,	i, o, u, x, and	X conversions, the number of digits to appear
	 after the decimal-point for a,	A, e, E, f, and	F conversions, the
	 maximum number	of significant digits for g and	G conversions, or the
	 maximum number	of characters to be printed from a string for s	con-
	 versions.

     +o	 An optional length modifier, that specifies the size of the argument.
	 The following length modifiers	are valid for the d, i,	n, o, u, x, or
	 X conversion:

	 Modifier	   d, i		  o, u,	x, X		n
	 hh		   signed char	  unsigned char		signed char *
	 h		   short	  unsigned short	short *
	 l (ell)	   long		  unsigned long		long *
	 ll (ell ell)	   long	long	  unsigned long	long	long long *
	 j		   intmax_t	  uintmax_t		intmax_t *
	 t		   ptrdiff_t	  (see note)		ptrdiff_t *
	 z		   (see	note)	  size_t		(see note)
	 q (deprecated)	   quad_t	  u_quad_t		quad_t *

	 Note: the t modifier, when applied to a o, u, x, or X conversion,
	 indicates that	the argument is	of an unsigned type equivalent in size
	 to a ptrdiff_t.  The z	modifier, when applied to a d or i conversion,
	 indicates that	the argument is	of a signed type equivalent in size to
	 a size_t.  Similarly, when applied to an n conversion,	it indicates
	 that the argument is a	pointer	to a signed type equivalent in size to
	 a size_t.

	 The following length modifier is valid	for the	a, A, e, E, f, F, g,
	 or G conversion:

	 Modifier    a,	A, e, E, f, F, g, G
	 L	     long double

	 The following length modifier is valid	for the	c or s conversion:

	 Modifier    c	       s
	 l (ell)     wint_t    wchar_t *

     +o	 A character that specifies the	type of	conversion to be applied.

     A field width or precision, or both, may be indicated by an asterisk `*'
     or	an asterisk followed by	one or more decimal digits and a `$' instead
     of	a digit	string.	 In this case, an int argument supplies	the field
     width or precision.  A negative field width is treated as a left adjust-
     ment flag followed	by a positive field width; a negative precision	is
     treated as	though it were missing.	 If a single format directive mixes
     positional	(nn$) and non-positional arguments, the	results	are undefined.

     The conversion specifiers and their meanings are:

     diouxX  The int (or appropriate variant) argument is converted to signed
	     decimal (d	and i),	unsigned octal (o), unsigned decimal (u), or
	     unsigned hexadecimal (x and X) notation.  The letters ``abcdef''
	     are used for x conversions; the letters ``ABCDEF''	are used for X
	     conversions.  The precision, if any, gives	the minimum number of
	     digits that must appear; if the converted value requires fewer
	     digits, it	is padded on the left with zeros.

     DOU     The long int argument is converted	to signed decimal, unsigned
	     octal, or unsigned	decimal, as if the format had been ld, lo, or
	     lu	respectively.  These conversion	characters are deprecated, and
	     will eventually disappear.

     eE	     The double	argument is rounded and	converted in the style
	     [-]d.ddde+-dd where there is one digit before the decimal-point
	     character and the number of digits	after it is equal to the pre-
	     cision; if	the precision is missing, it is	taken as 6; if the
	     precision is zero,	no decimal-point character appears.  An	E con-
	     version uses the letter `E' (rather than `e') to introduce	the
	     exponent.	The exponent always contains at	least two digits; if
	     the value is zero,	the exponent is	00.

	     For a, A, e, E, f,	F, g, and G conversions, positive and negative
	     infinity are represented as inf and -inf respectively when	using
	     the lowercase conversion character, and INF and -INF respectively
	     when using	the uppercase conversion character.  Similarly,	NaN is
	     represented as nan	when using the lowercase conversion, and NAN
	     when using	the uppercase conversion.

     fF	     The double	argument is rounded and	converted to decimal notation
	     in	the style [-]ddd.ddd, where the	number of digits after the
	     decimal-point character is	equal to the precision specification.
	     If	the precision is missing, it is	taken as 6; if the precision
	     is	explicitly zero, no decimal-point character appears.  If a
	     decimal point appears, at least one digit appears before it.

     gG	     The double	argument is converted in style f or e (or F or E for G
	     conversions).  The	precision specifies the	number of significant
	     digits.  If the precision is missing, 6 digits are	given; if the
	     precision is zero,	it is treated as 1.  Style e is	used if	the
	     exponent from its conversion is less than -4 or greater than or
	     equal to the precision.  Trailing zeros are removed from the
	     fractional	part of	the result; a decimal point appears only if it
	     is	followed by at least one digit.

     aA	     The double	argument is converted to hexadecimal notation in the
	     style [-]0xh.hhhp[+-]d, where the number of digits	after the
	     hexadecimal-point character is equal to the precision specifica-
	     tion.  If the precision is	missing, it is taken as	enough to
	     exactly represent the floating-point number; if the precision is
	     explicitly	zero, no hexadecimal-point character appears.  This is
	     an	exact conversion of the	mantissa+exponent internal floating
	     point representation; the [-]0xh.hhh portion represents exactly
	     the mantissa; only	denormalized mantissas have a zero value to
	     the left of the hexadecimal point.	 The p is a literal character
	     `p'; the exponent is preceded by a	positive or negative sign and
	     is	represented in decimal,	using only enough characters to	repre-
	     sent the exponent.	 The A conversion uses the prefix ``0X''
	     (rather than ``0x''), the letters ``ABCDEF'' (rather than
	     ``abcdef'') to represent the hex digits, and the letter `P'
	     (rather than `p') to separate the mantissa	and exponent.

     C	     Treated as	c with the l (ell) modifier.

     c	     The int argument is converted to an unsigned char,	then to	a
	     wchar_t as	if by btowc(3),	and the	resulting character is writ-
	     ten.

	     If	the l (ell) modifier is	used, the wint_t argument is converted
	     to	a wchar_t and written.

     S	     Treated as	s with the l (ell) modifier.

     s	     The char *	argument is expected to	be a pointer to	an array of
	     character type (pointer to	a string) containing a multibyte
	     sequence.	Characters from	the array are converted	to wide	char-
	     acters and	written	up to (but not including) a terminating	NUL
	     character;	if a precision is specified, no	more than the number
	     specified are written.  If	a precision is given, no null charac-
	     ter need be present; if the precision is not specified, or	is
	     greater than the size of the array, the array must	contain	a ter-
	     minating NUL character.

	     If	the l (ell) modifier is	used, the wchar_t * argument is
	     expected to be a pointer to an array of wide characters (pointer
	     to	a wide string).	 Each wide character in	the string is written.
	     Wide characters from the array are	written	up to (but not includ-
	     ing) a terminating	wide NUL character; if a precision is speci-
	     fied, no more than	the number specified are written (including
	     shift sequences).	If a precision is given, no null character
	     need be present; if the precision is not specified, or is greater
	     than the number of	characters in the string, the array must con-
	     tain a terminating	wide NUL character.

     p	     The void *	pointer	argument is printed in hexadecimal (as if by
	     `%#x' or `%#lx').

     n	     The number	of characters written so far is	stored into the	inte-
	     ger indicated by the int *	(or variant) pointer argument.	No
	     argument is converted.

     %	     A `%' is written.	No argument is converted.  The complete	con-
	     version specification is `%%'.

     The decimal point character is defined in the program's locale (category
     LC_NUMERIC).

     In	no case	does a non-existent or small field width cause truncation of a
     numeric field; if the result of a conversion is wider than	the field
     width, the	field is expanded to contain the conversion result.

SEE ALSO
     btowc(3), fputws(3), printf(3), putwc(3), setlocale(3), wcsrtombs(3),
     wscanf(3)

STANDARDS
     Subject to	the caveats noted in the BUGS section of printf(3), the
     wprintf(),	fwprintf(), swprintf(),	vwprintf(), vfwprintf()	and
     vswprintf() functions conform to ISO/IEC 9899:1999	(``ISO C99'').

SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS
     Refer to printf(3).

FreeBSD	9.3			 July 5, 2003			   FreeBSD 9.3

NAME | LIBRARY | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | SEE ALSO | STANDARDS | SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS

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